Samuel Holten was an American physician and statesman from Danvers, Massachusetts. He represented Massachusetts as a delegate to the Continental Congress and a member of the United States House of Representatives. Holten was born in Danvers, Massachusetts on June 9, 1738, he was studied medicine and established a practice in Gloucester. He soon returned to Danvers. During the American Revolution Holten supported the Patriot cause. Holten served in the militia as a major in the First Essex County Regiment, he was a member of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress from 1774 to 1775 and the Massachusetts Committee of Safety in 1775. He served in the Continental Congress from 1778 to 1780 and the United States in Congress Assembled, 1783 to 1785, again in 1787, he was elected Chairman of the United States in Congress Assembled on August 17, 1785. ″His Excellency the president, being, by indisposition, prevented from attending the House, Congress proceeded to the election of a Chairman, the ballots being taken, the honble.
Samuel Holten was elected.″ Holten was a member of the state constitutional convention in 1779. From 1780 to 1782 Holten served in the Massachusetts Senate, he served again in 1784, 1786, 1789, 1790. In 1787 he was a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. From 1780 to 1782 Holten was a member of the Massachusetts Governor's Council, he served again in 1784, 1786, 1789 to 1792, 1795, 1796. In 1792 Holten was elected as an Anti-Administration candidate to the Third Congress. Holten served as judge of the Essex County Court, he was appointed judge of the Essex County Probate Court in 1796, he served until his resignation in 1815. He died in Danvers on January 2, 1816, was buried at Holten Cemetery in Danvers. United States Congress. "Samuel Holten". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Samuel Dexter was an early American statesman who served both in Congress and in the Presidential Cabinets of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, to the Rev. Samuel Dexter, the 4th minister of Dedham, he graduated from Harvard University in 1781 and studied law at Worcester under Levi Lincoln Sr. the future Attorney General of the United States. After he passed the bar in 1784, he began practicing in Massachusetts, he was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives and served from 1788 to 1790. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives as a Federalist and served in the 3rd Congress, he served in the United States Senate from March 4, 1799, to May 30, 1800. During a House discussion on a Naturalization Bill in 1795, Virginia Representative William Branch Giles controversially suggested that all immigrants be forced to take an oath renouncing any titles of nobility they held. Dexter responded by questioning why Catholics were not required to denounce allegiance to the Pope, because priestcraft had initiated more problems throughout history than aristocracy.
Dexter's points caused an infuriated James Madison to defend American Catholics, many of whom, such as Charles Carroll of Carrollton, had been good citizens during the American Revolution, to point out that hereditary titles were barred under the Constitution in any event. In December 1799, he delivered the Senate eulogy for George Washington. Dexter served in the Senate for less than a year, resigned in order to accept his appointment as United States Secretary of War in the administration of President John Adams. During his time at the War Department he urged congressional action to permit appointment and compensation of field officers for general staff duty; when Secretary of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott Jr. resigned in December 1800, Adams appointed Dexter as interim Secretary, Dexter served from January to May 1801. With incoming President Thomas Jefferson wanting to delay his choice for Secretary of the Treasury, Albert Gallatin, for a recess appointment in May, Dexter agreed to retain his duties as Secretary of the Treasury for the first two months of Jefferson's term.
In a letter to his wife on March 5, 1801, Gallatin said that Dexter had behaved "with great civility." He resumed the practice of law. He left the Federalists and became a Democratic-Republican because he supported the War of 1812, he was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Massachusetts in 1814, 1815 and 1816. Dexter was an ardent supporter of the temperance movement and presided over its first formal organization in Massachusetts, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1800. He died on May 4, 1816, shortly before his 55th birthday and is buried at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Simon Newton Dexter and Andrew Dexter Jr. were his nephews. Samuel W. Dexter, founder of Dexter, was his son. Samuel Dexter is the namesake of Maine; the USRC Dexter was named in his honor. United States Congress. "Samuel Dexter". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-5-20 "Samuel Dexter". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-05-20
Richard Fletcher (American politician)
Richard Fletcher was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts. The brother of Governor Ryland Fletcher, he was born in Cavendish, Vermont on January 8, 1788, he pursued classical studies and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1806. He taught school in Salisbury, New Hampshire, studied law, was admitted to the bar and commenced practice there, he was elected as a Whig to the Twenty-fifth Congress. Fletcher was not a candidate for renomination to the Twenty-sixth Congress, he served as a judge of the Massachusetts Supreme Court 1848–1853, died in Boston on June 21, 1869. His interment was in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge. Fletcher was elected as the first president of the American Statistical Association, although by the ASA's own admission, he was "little more than a figurehead". List of presidents of the American Statistical Association United States Congress. "Richard Fletcher". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Fitchburg is the third largest city in Worcester County, United States. The population was 40,318 at the 2010 census. Fitchburg is home to Fitchburg State University as well as 17 public and private elementary and high schools. Fitchburg was first settled in 1730 as part of Lunenburg, was set apart from that town and incorporated in 1764, it is named for one of the committee that procured the act of incorporation. In July 1748 Fitch and his family, living in this isolated spot, were abducted to Canada by Native Americans, but returned the next year. Fitchburg is situated on both a railroad line; the original Fitchburg Railroad ran through the Hoosac Tunnel, linking New York. The tunnel was built using the Burleigh Rock Drill and built in Fitchburg. Fitchburg was a 19th-century industrial center. Operated by water power, large mills produced machines, clothing and firearms; the city is noted for its architecture in the Victorian style, built at the height of its mill town prosperity. A few examples of these 19th century buildings are the Fay Club, the old North Worcester County Courthouse and the Bullock house.
As the city is one of two shire towns, the Northern Worcester County Registry of Deeds, established in 1903, the county jail on Water Street were two county facilities located in Fitchburg. The 1961 film Return to Peyton Place was filmed in Fitchburg. Fitchburg is located at 42°34′43″N 71°48′12″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 28.1 square miles, of which 27.8 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles, or 1.07%, is water. The city is drained by the Nashua River; the highest point in Fitchburg is the summit of Brown Hill near the northwestern corner of the city, at 1,210 feet above sea level. Fitchburg is bordered by Ashby to the north, Lunenburg to the east, Leominster to the south, Westminster to the west, a small portion of Ashburnham to the northwest. Fitchburg is divided into multiple different neighborhoods/villages, including: Cleghorn Crockerville College Area Downtown Fitchburg East Side Green Acres Village North Fitchburg The Patch Prichard-Pleasant Street South Fitchburg Tar Hill Upper Common Waite's Corner West Fitchburg Fitchburg's climate is humid continental, the predominant climate for Massachusetts and New England.
Summers are warm and humid, while winters are cold and snowy. Spring and fall are mild, but conditions are varied, depending on wind direction and jet stream positioning; the warmest month is July, with an average high temperature of 79 °F and an average low temperature of 56 °F. The coldest month is January, with an average high temperature of 31 °F and an average low temperature of 12 °F; the museum was founded in 1925 through the bequest of artist and Fitchburg native Eleanor Norcross. The museum's four building complex features over 20,000 square feet of gallery and educational workshop space and includes the historic "Cross Barn" built in 1883, the Simond's building completed in 1989. 12 galleries feature American, African, Greek, Roman and Pre-Columbian art. Fitchburg is noted for the "Rollstone Boulder", a 110-ton specimen of porphyritic granite, in a small triangular park adjacent to the city green; the boulder was a feature of the summit of Rollstone Hill. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, this athletic facility was a gift of Alva Crocker, in 1918, to the City Of Fitchburg's school children.
Alvah Crocker hired the famous Olmsted Brothers Landscaping and Design Firm of Brookline, MA to design his "field of dreams." Babe Ruth once visited Crocker field and asked Clarence Amiott the Fitchburg High School Athletic Director, "What professional team plays here?" to which Mr. Amiott answered "The Fitchburg High School teams." This is the first—and only—toy museum in the world that's devoted to aviation-related toys. Included in the museum's collection of over 2000 toys are tin toys from Japan, Hungary and the United States; the Society houses more than 200,000 items related to the history of Fitchburg. Included in the archives are original Sentinel newspapers from 1838 to 1976, city directories, scrapbooks, family genealogies, files on industries in the City, books and pamphlets on Fitchburg's history from the 1700s to the present. In addition there is a collection on the railroad; the Research Library is open to the public. The Society has a remarkable collection of artifacts which tell the story of Fitchburg—early iron hearth cooking tools, the first printing press of the Fitchburg Sentinel, machines illustrating the strong industrial heritage of the City, a stellar collection of early paintings, clothing representing many decades in Fitchburg.
A comprehensive strategic plan completed in 2001 pointed out a need to find a building better suited our needs in order to continue collecting and preserving the history of Fitchburg and conducting programs for students and the general public. The Historical Society is now in the final stages of renovation and upgrading our building located at 781 Main Street; as a result of the renovations to the H. M. Francis Phoenix Building the Society has moved to its new location of 781 Main Street, Fitchburg, MA. Coggshall Park is a Victorian park with miles of wooded trails branching out from around Mirror Lake, encircled by a walking path. Stone steps built into a hillside face a gazebo on the water, making this a popular spot for weddings and photos. A classic stone
The Massachusetts Senate is the upper house of the Massachusetts General Court, the bicameral state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The Senate comprises 40 elected members from 40 single-member senatorial districts in the state. All but one of the districts are named for the counties. Senators serve two-year terms, without term limits; the Senate convenes in Boston. The current session is the 191st General Court, which convened January 2, 2019, it consists of 6 Republicans. The President of the Senate is Karen E. Spilka of Ashland; the Senate Minority Leader, from the Republican Party, is Bruce Tarr of Gloucester. The last state general election was on November 6, 2018. Democrats hold a supermajority in the Senate; the current standing committees of the Massachusetts Senate are as follows: Current members of the Senate, sorted by district name: *Originally elected in a special election Massachusetts Senate Delegations Massachusetts House of Representatives Massachusetts Senate elections, 2004, Massachusetts Senate elections, 2006, Massachusetts Senate elections, 2008, Massachusetts Senate elections, 2010 "Senate of the General Court of Massachusetts".
Public Officers of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 2005. 2007 "House–Senate power struggle brewing", Boston Globe, April 4, 2015 Senate Members of the General Court official government website Official Senate district definitions as of 2011 2002 2010, with names of senators State Senate of Massachusetts at Project Vote Smart Massachusetts Senate at Ballotpedia
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Rindge, New Hampshire
Rindge is a town in Cheshire County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 6,014 at the 2010 census. Rindge is home to Franklin Pierce University, the Cathedral of the Pines, part of Annett State Forest; the land in and around Rindge was inhabited by ancestors of the Abenaki tribe of Native Americans. Archeological evidence from nearby Swanzey indicates that the region was inhabited as much as 11,000 years ago; as much as half of the Western Abenakis were victims of a wave of epidemics that coincided with the arrival of Europeans in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Many of the Western Abenaki present in southwestern New Hampshire chose to relocate to Canada during Colonial times due to their allegiance with the French during the French and Indian Wars. In the eighteenth century, Massachusetts granted unappropriated land to veterans of Sir William Phipps' 1690 expedition against French-held Canada as compensation for services. Whole townships became known as "Canada" townships.
Granted in 1736 by Governor Jonathan Belcher to soldiers from Rowley, Rindge was first known as Rowley-Canada. But the Masonian proprietors were making competing claims to the area, in 1740 commissioners of the Crown decided that the boundary between Massachusetts and New Hampshire lay south of Rowley-Canada, it was re-granted in 1749 by Governor Benning Wentworth as Monadnock No. 1, or South Monadnock. The town would be incorporated in 1768 by Governor John Wentworth as Rindge, in honor of Captain Daniel Rindge of Portsmouth, one of the original grant holders, the one who represented New Hampshire's claim to the land before the king. Captain Abel Platts is credited as being Rindge's first temporary settler, arriving in 1738 to take possession of his family's land grant, but disputes about the grants, combined with the outbreak in 1744 of King George's War, made it untenable to remain in Rindge, so early settlers abandoned it. Platts and others returned in 1752, starting in 1758, settlement increased steadily.
There were 1,274 residents by 1859, when water powered industries included three gristmills, thirteen sawmills, thirteen shingle mills, six stave mills, two planing mills, several clapboard mills. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 40.0 square miles, of which 37.2 sq mi is land and 2.8 sq mi is water, comprising 6.93% of the town. Rindge is located in a hilly upland lake region. Hubbard Pond is in the northeast, Contoocook Lake on the northern boundary, Pearly Lake is in the northwest, Lake Monomonac is on the southern boundary; the town is the headwaters for two river systems. The Contoocook River flows north to the Merrimack River, thence to the Gulf of Maine, the North Branch of the Millers River flows southwest to the Connecticut River, thence to Long Island Sound. Rindge's highest point is on its eastern border, on the lower slopes of Pratt Mountain, where the elevation reaches 1,505 feet above sea level. Rindge is home to the villages of Rindge Center, East Rindge and West Rindge.
The town is crossed by U. S. Route 202 and New Hampshire Route 119; as of the census of 2000, there were 5,451 people, 1,502 households, 1,138 families residing in the town. The population density was 146.6 people per square mile. There were 1,863 housing units at an average density of 50.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.21% White, 1.16% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.88% of the population. 15.1% were of English, 11.2% Finnish, 11.0% Irish, 9.5% French, 9.3% French Canadian, 8.9% American and 7.5% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 1,502 households of which 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.4% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.2% were non-families. 18.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.87 and the average family size was 3.30. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 26.3% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 7.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $50,494, the median income for a family was $52,500. Males had a median income of $36,268 versus $27,204 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,495. About 4.3% of families and 7.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.5% of those under age 18 and 3.3% of those age 65 or over. Rindge belongs to the Jaffrey-Rindge Cooperative School District. Rindge is the home of Franklin Pierce University. Colleges and universitiesFranklin Pierce UniversityPublic high schoolsConant High School Public middle and grade schoolsRindge Memorial School Jaffrey Grade School Jaffrey-Rindge Middle School Private schoolsHampshire Country School Annett Wayside Park, part of Annett State Forest, includes picnic tables, a hiking trail to Black Reservoir.
Cathedral of the Pines, a national memorial for all American war dead. The location had been selected by Lieutenant Sanderson Sloane and his wife as the place to build their home when he returned from World War II. A cath