Bilecik Province is a province in midwest Turkey, neighboring Bursa to the west and Sakarya to the north, Bolu to the east, Eskişehir to the southeast and Kütahya to the south, spanning an area of 4,307 km2. Population is 225,381. Most of the province laid down in Marmara Region but eastern parts of Gölpazarı and Söğüt district and districts of İnhisar and Yenipazar remained in Black Sea Region, smaller southeastern parts of Bozüyük and Söğüt remained in Central Anatolia Region and smaller southwestern part of Bozüyük remained in Aegean Region. Bilecik province is divided into 8 districts: Bilecik Bozüyük Gölpazarı İnhisar Osmaneli Pazaryeri Söğüt Yenipazar The region was inhabited as early as 3000 BC, was part of the territory controlled by such notable civilizations as the Hittites, the Phrygians, Persians and Byzantians; the region contains Söğüt, the small town where the Ottoman Empire was founded in 1299, is the source of important archeological as well as cultural artifacts. In Söğüt a site of interest is the Ethnographical Museum.
The town Bilecik is famous for its numerous restored Turkish houses. Some other sites of interest in the province are: Osman Gazi and Orhan Gazi mosques, Seyh Edebali and Mal Hatun mausoleums, Köprülü Mehmet Pasha mosque, Köprülü Caravanserai, Kaplikaya tombs, Rüstem Pasha mosque, Gülalan Pavilion. List of populated places in Bilecik Province Bilecik governor's official website Bilecik municipality's official website Bilecik weather forecast information Yerel Yöneylem Kalkınma Derneği - Gölpazarı Bayırköy's local website Virtual platform of Bilecik www.bilecikhayat.com/ Bilecik hayat platform]
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between the Balkans, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Southern Bug, Dniester and the Rioni. Many countries drain into the Black Sea, including Austria, Belarus and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Ukraine; the Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a maximum depth of 2,212 m, a volume of 547,000 km3. It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, features a wide shelf to the northwest; the longest east–west extent is about 1,175 km. Important cities along the coast include Batumi, Constanța, Istanbul, Novorossiysk, Ordu, Rize, Sevastopol, Sukhumi, Varna and Zonguldak; the Black Sea has a positive water balance. There is a two-way hydrological exchange: the more saline and therefore denser, but warmer, Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea under its less saline outflow.
This creates a significant anoxic layer well below the surface waters. The Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea, via the Aegean Sea and various straits, is navigable to the Atlantic Ocean; the Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, the Strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate the Caucasus and Western Asia; the Black Sea is connected, to the North, to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. The water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established, it is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is an endorheic basin, operating independently of the global ocean system, like the Caspian Sea for example.
The Black Sea water level is high. The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea, comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows: On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara. In the Kertch Strait. A line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia. Current names of the sea are equivalents of the English name "Black Sea", including these given in the countries bordering the sea: Abkhazian: Амшын Еиқәа, IPA: Adyghe: Хы шӏуцӏэ, IPA: Bulgarian: Черно море, IPA: Crimean Tatar: Къара денъиз, Qara deñiz IPA: Georgian: შავი ზღვა, translit.: shavi zghva, IPA: Laz and Mingrelian: უჩა ზუღა, IPA:, or ზუღა, IPA:, "Sea" Romanian: Marea Neagră, pronounced Russian: Чёрное мо́рe, IPA: Turkish: Karadeniz, IPA: Ukrainian: Чорне море, IPA: Such names have not yet been shown conclusively to predate the 13th century, but there are indications that they may be older. In Greece, the historical name "Euxine Sea", which holds a different meaning, is still used: Greek: Éfxeinos Póntos.
The principal Greek name "Póntos Áxeinos" is accepted to be a rendering of Iranian word *axšaina-, compare Avestan axšaēna-, Old Persian axšaina-, Middle Persian axšēn/xašēn, New Persian xašīn, as well as Ossetic œxsīn. The ancient Greeks, most those living to the north of the Black Sea, subsequently adopted the name and altered it to á-xenos. Thereafter, Greek tradition refers to the Black Sea as the "Inhospitable Sea", Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos, first attested in Pindar; the name was considered to be "ominous" and was changed into the euphemistic name "Hospitable sea", Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos, for the first time attested in Pindar. This became the used designation for the sea in Greek. In contexts related to mythology, the older form Póntos Áxeinos remained favored, it has been erroneously suggested that the name was derived from the color of the water, or was at least related to climatic conditions. Black or dark in this context, referred to a system in which colors represent the cardinal points of the known world.
Black or dark represented the north. The symbolism based on cardinal points was used in multiple occasions and is therefore attested. For example, the "Red Sea", a body of water reported since the time of Herodotus in fact designated the Indian Ocean, together with bodies of water now known as the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. According to the same explanation and reasoning, it is therefore considered to be impossible
Amasya is a city in northern Turkey and is the capital of Amasya Province, in the Black Sea Region. Tokat from east and Yozgat from south, Çorum from west, Samsun from north; the city of Amasya, the Amaseia or Amasia of antiquity, stands in the mountains above the Black Sea coast, set apart from the rest of Anatolia in a narrow valley along the banks of the Yeşilırmak River. Although near the Black Sea, this area is high above the coast and has an inland climate, well-suited to growing apples, for which Amasya province, one of the provinces in north-central Anatolia Turkey, is famed, it was the home of the geographer Strabo and the birthplace of the 15th century scholar and physician Amirdovlat Amasiatsi. Located in a narrow cleft of the Yeşilırmak river, it has a history of 7,500 years which has left many traces still evident today. In antiquity, Amaseia was a fortified city high on the cliffs above the river, it has a long history as a wealthy provincial capital, producing kings and princes, scientists and thinkers, from the kings of Pontus, through Strabo the geographer, to many generations of the Ottoman imperial dynasty.
With its Ottoman-period wooden houses and the tombs of the Pontus kings carved into the cliffs overhead, Amasya is attractive to visitors. In recent years there has been a lot of investment in tourism and more foreign and Turkish tourists visit the city. During the early Ottoman rule, it was customary for young Ottoman princes to be sent to Amasya to govern and gain experience. Amasya was the birthplace of the Ottoman sultans Murad I and Selim I, it is thus of great importance in terms of Ottoman history. Traditional Ottoman houses near the Yeşilırmak and the other main historical buildings have been restored. Behind the Ottoman wooden houses one can see the rock tombs of the Pontic kings. According to Strabo the Greek name Ἀμάσεια comes from Amasis, the queen of the Amazons, who were said to have lived here; the name has changed little throughout history: Ἀμάσεια, Amaseia and Amasia are all found on ancient Greek and Roman coinage and continue to be used in modern Greek. Armenian: Ամասիա, Ottoman Turkish أماصيا, modern Turkish Amasya all represent the same pronunciation.
In 2012, the permanent population of the city was 91,874. The birth rate of Amasya is low, so its population has been increasing slowly; the population varies seasonally, most people are here during the summer tourist season. Situated between the Black Sea and inner Anatolia in a region of fertile plains irrigated by the Tersakan, Çekerek and Yeşilırmak rivers, Amasya lies in a beautiful narrow river valley, bounded by vertical cliffs and the high peaks of the Canik and Pontus mountains. Despite the mountainous location, it is not far above sea level; this makes its climate more temperate. Five bridges cross the river, most of the town lies on the southern bank, spread along the river; the climb up to the higher ground is steep, making the valley walls uninhabitable. The town is shaped like the letter ` v'. Aydınca Doğantepe Ezinepazar Uygur Yassıçal Yeşilyenice Ziyaret Archaeological research shows that Amasya was first settled by the Hittites and subsequently by Phrygians, Lydians and Armenians.
An independent Pontic kingdom with its capital at Amaseia was established by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty at the end of the 4th century BC, in the wake of Alexander's conquests. In the 1st century BC, it contested Rome's hegemony in Anatolia. By 183 BC, the city was settled by Hellenistic people becoming the capital of the kings of Pontus from 333 BC to 26 BC. Today, there are prominent ruins including the royal tombs of Pontus in the rocks above the riverbank in the centre of the city. Ancient district in northeastern Anatolia adjoining the Black Sea. Amaseia was captured by the Roman Lucullus in 70 BC from Armenia and was made a free city and administrative center of his new province of Bithynia and Pontus by Pompey. By this time, Amaseia was a thriving city, the home of thinkers and poets, one of them, left a full description of Amaseia as it was between 60 BC and 19 AD. Around 2 or 3 BC, it was incorporated into the Roman province of Galatia, in the district of Pontus Galaticus. Around the year 112, the emperor Trajan designated it a part of the province of Cappadocia.
In the 2nd century it gained the titles'metropolis' and'first city'. After the division of the Roman Empire by emperor Diocletian the city became part of the East Roman Empire. At this time it had a predominantly Greek-speaking population. Saints Theodore of Amasea, a warrior saint, the local bishop Asterius of Amasea, some of whose polished sermons survive, are notable Christian figures from the period. In 1075, ending 700 years of Byzantine rule, Amasya was conquered by the Turkmen Danishmend emirs, it served as their capital until the annexation of the Danishmendid dominions by the Seljuk ruler Kilij Arslan II. When he died, his realm was divided among his sons, Amasya passed to Nizam ad-Din Arghun Shah. Hi rule was brief, as he lost it to his brother Rukn ad-Din Suleiman Shah, who subsequently became Sultan. In the 12th century the city passed under the control of the Mongol Ilkhanate, was ruled by Mongol governors, except for a brief rule by Taj ad-Din Altintash, son of the last Seljuk sultan, Mesud II.
Under the Seljuks and the Ilkhan, the city became a centre of Islamic culture and produced some notable individuals such as Yaqut al-Musta'simi calligrapher and secretary of the last Abbasid caliph, a Greek native of Amasya
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Aydın Province is a province of southwestern Turkey, located in the Aegean Region. The provincial capital is the city of Aydın. 150,000. Other towns in the province include the summer seaside resorts of Didim and Kuşadası. Aydın was once known as Tralles; the area is an earthquake zone and the city was built and rebuilt by a succession of Spartans, Ionians, Lydians and Ancient Romans. In 1186 the Seljuk Turks took control of the area, followed by the Anatolian beylik of the Aydinids. During this period the town was named Aydın Güzelhisar, was brought into the Ottoman Empire in 1426. Neighboring provinces are Manisa to the north east, İzmir to the north, Denizli to the east, Muğla to the south; the central and western parts of the province are fertile plains watered by the largest river in the Aegean region the Büyük Menderes River, with the Aydın Mountains to the north and the Menteşe Mountains to the south. The western end of the province is the Aegean coast with Lake Bafa a major feature of the Menderes delta area.
The climate is typical of the Aegean region hot in summer. The Germencik region contains a number of hot springs. Aydın province is divided into 17 districts: Much of the countryside is a mix of fig and citrus trees figs; the major sources of income are tourism. The coastal towns of Didim and Kuşadası in particular are tourist resorts. Kuşadası is near to the Dilek Peninsula - Büyük Menderes Delta National Park, while Didim has a temple of Apollo and the ancient ruins of Miletos nearby; the province contains archeological sites, including the ancient Carian cities of Alinda and Alabanda. Aydın is Turkey's leading producer of figs and exports dried figs worldwide; the name by which the fruit was called in the world markets was "Smyrna figs" until due to the preponderance of figs exported from İzmir over other species of the genus. But İzmir got the name by being the center for the wholesale trade and exports, while in fact the fruit was traditionally cultivated in Aydın; the term used within Turkey is "Aydın figs".
Turkey's yearly production of 50,000 tons of dried figs, is all from Aydın, Within Aydın province, the best figs are reputed to be grown in Germencik. Aydın produces olives from the varieties of Memecik and Gemlik, as well as chestnuts, citrus fruits, water melons and other fruits. Aydın has some light industry Adnan Menderes University was built in the city of Aydın in 1990s and has branches throughout the province; the city of Aydın has a number of Ottoman period mosques. The province's countryside and scenery include a stretch of the Aegean coast and a number of historic sites including: Didim coastal resort wıth large temple of Apollo and nearby Miletus ruins of an Ancient Greek city Ilyas Bey Complex, a cultural heritage of Turkey built in 1403 Kuşadası coastal resort, near to the Dilek Peninsula - Büyük Menderes Delta National Park Kirazli - a traditional Turkish village with old stone houses Alinda - ancient ruins Alabanda - ancient ruins Magnesia ad Maeandrum - ancient ruins, on the Ortaklar-Söke road in Germencik Nysa - another ruined Carian city, in Sultanhisar Aphrodisias - more ancient ruins, including tombs and sculpture, in Karacasu Priene - another ruin, near Söke Mycale Mountains Aydın is the home of the Zeybek folk art.
This involves a special type of war dance, performed in a ring to resemble birds. The Zeybek is performed to sounds of other Turkish folk instruments; the folk songs of Aydın are famously short, indeed a popular saying in the Aegean region to get someone to stop talking, is Keep it short, make it an Aydın tune. The cuisine features the typical Turkish pastries, kebab. Izmir to Aydın motorway is the city's main thoroughfare. Anthemius of Tralles - architect of Haghia Sophia in Istanbul Atçalı Kel Mehmet Efe, folk hero, leader of a public revolt during the decline of the Ottoman Empire Yörük Ali Efe, hero of the Turkish War of Independence Mahmut Esat Bozkurt, architect of the legal system of the Turkish Republic, close friend of Atatürk, born in Kuşadası Adnan Menderes, Turkish Prime Minister Necati Çelim, MP for Aydın, founding Chairman of Aydın Tekstil Fabrikası, born in Köşk İlhan Selçuk, editor of the Cumhuriyet newspaper İsmet Sezgin, former minister Atilla Koç, MP for Aydın, former minister of culture and tourism, born in Köşk Güven Önüt, former Beşiktaş footballer Rıdvan Dilmen, retired footballer, team manager and sports commentator List of populated places in Aydın Province Aydın governor's official website Aydın municipality's official website Aydın weather forecast information Local information Aydın figs information Aydın otelleri
Muğla Province is a province of Turkey, at the country's south-western corner, on the Aegean Sea. Its seat is Muğla, about 20 km inland, while some of Turkey's largest holiday resorts, such as Bodrum, Ölüdeniz and Fethiye, are on the coast in Muğla; the original name of Muğla is open for discussion. Various sources refer to the city as Mobella or Mobolia. At 1,100 km, Muğla's coastline is the longest among the Provinces of Turkey and longer than many countries' coastlines. Important is the Datça Peninsula; as well as the sea, Muğla has Lake Bafa in the district of Milas and Lake Köyceğiz. The landscape consists of pot-shaped small plains surrounded by mountains, formed by depressions in the Neogene; these include the plain of the city of Muğla itself, Yeşilyurt, Ula, Gülağzı, Akkaya, Çamköy and Yenice). Until the recent building of highways, transport from these plains to either the coast or inland was quite arduous, thus each locality remained an isolated culture of its own. Contact with the outside world was through one of the three difficult passes: northwest to Milas, north to the Menderes plain through Gökbel, or northeast to Tavas.
The economy of Muğla relies on tourism, agriculture and marble quarries inland. Agriculture in Muğla is rich and varied; the province is the second center of marble industry in Turkey after Afyonkarahisar in terms of quantity and quality. Other mineral exploitation includes chrome in Fethiye. Other industry in the province includes the SEKA paper mill in Dalaman and the power stations at Yatağan, Yeniköy and Kemerköy; however Muğla is by no means an industrialised province. The following are aspects about transportation in Muğla province: There are two airports in Dalaman and Milas-Bodrum, serving domestic and international flights and catering to the tourism industry. There are yacht marinas in Bodrum, Fethiye and Güllük. There are many run bus connections to İzmir, Ankara and other major cities in Turkey from Muğla and directly from the coastal resorts. In ancient times in Anatolia, the region between the Menderes and Dalaman rivers in the south was called Caria; the inhabitants were Leleges. In his Iliad, Homer describes the Carians as natives of Anatolia, defending their country against Greeks in joint campaigns in collaboration with the Trojans.
A major city of ancient Caria, Muğla is known to have been occupied by raiding parties of Egyptians and Scythians, until the area was settled by Ancient Greek colonists. The Greeks inhabited this coast for a long time building prominent cities, such as Knidos and Bodrum, as well as many smaller towns along the coast, on the Bodrum Peninsula and inland, including in the district of Fethiye the cities of Telmessos, Xanthos and Tlos; the coast was conquered by Persians who were in turn removed by Alexander the Great, bringing an end to the satrapy of Caria. In 1261, Menteshe Bey, founder of the Beylik that carried his name, with its capital in Milas and nearby Beçin, established his rule over the region of Muğla as well; the beys of Menteshe held the city until 1390 and this, the first Turkish state in the region, achieved a high level of cultural development, its buildings remaining to this day. The province became a significant naval power, trading with the Aegean Islands, Crete and as far as Venice and Egypt.
Turkish settlement during the Menteshe period took place through migrations along the Kütahya-Tavas axis. In 1390, Muğla was taken over by the Ottoman Empire. However, just twelve years Tamerlane and his forces defeated the Ottomans in the Battle of Ankara, returned control of the region to its former rulers, the Menteshe Beys, as he did for other Anatolian beyliks. Muğla was brought back under Ottoman control by Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, in 1451. One of the most important events in the area during the Ottoman period was the well-recorded campaign of Süleyman the Magnificent against Rhodes, launched from Marmaris. With this long history Muğla is rich in ancient ruins, with over 100 excavated sites including the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Letoon, near Fethiye; the following are notable residents of Muğla province: Herodotus of Halicarnassos, historian Turgut Reis Seaman Basil Zaharoff, Arms dealer born in Muğla Osman Hamdi Bey Painter had his summer residence in Yatağan Şükrü Kaya, Minister of the Interior under Atatürk, born in İstanköy Mustafa Muğlalı, Turkish War of Independence general Yunus Nadi Abalıoğlu, Founder of Cumhuriyet newspaper and key supporter of Atatürk, from Fethiye Zihni Derin, Agriculturalist responsible for planting tea in the Eastern Black Sea region, from Muğla Necati Çiller, father of Prime Minister Tansu Çiller, governor of Istanbul in the 1950s, from Milas Cevat Şakir Kabaağaçlı, writer of The "Fisherman of Halicarnasoss" and his student Şadan Gökovalı Nail Çakırhan, architect of the Akyaka Çakırhan houses and winner of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture Janet Akyüz Mattei Amateur astronomer and president of the American Association of Variable Star Observers, of Bodrum.
Zeki Müren and fixture of the Bodrum nightclub scene for many years Poet Can Yücel is buried in Datça, his home in his final years Former President Kenan Evren lived in Marmaris after he retired until his death. The Republican People's Party, Turkey's principal center-left party
Denizli Province is a province of Turkey in Western Anatolia, on high ground above the Aegean coast. Neighbouring provinces are Uşak to the north, Isparta, Afyon to the east, Aydın, Manisa to the west and Muğla to the south, it is located between the coordinates 28° 30’ and 29° 30’ E and 37° 12’ and 38° 12’ N. It covers an area of 11,868 km2, the population is 931,823; the population was 750,882 in 1990. The provincial capital is the city of Denizli. 28-30% of the land is plain, 25% is high plateau and tableland, 47% is mountainous. At 2571m Mount Honaz is the highest in the province, indeed in Western Anatolia. Babadag in the Mentes range has a height of 2308 meters; the biggest lake in Denizli is Acıgöl, which means bitter lake and indeed industrial salts are extracted from this lake, alkaline. There is a thermal spring to the west of Sarayköy, at the source of the Great Menderes River, which contains bicarbonates and sulfates. There is another hot spring in Kızıldere which reaches 200˚C. A geothermal steam source was first found in the region in 1965 during drilling work.
Today there is a power plant producing electricity from the geothermal steam. Only 11% of the geothermal energy source is used to produce electricity and 89% of it, which flows into the Great Menderes, is 150˚C at source. In general the Aegean region has a mild climate. However, it becomes harsher at altitude. Temperatures can fall to -5 °C in winter. There are about 80 days with precipitation during winter. There are traces of prehistoric cultures throughout the province, including evidence of pre-Hittite cultures and the Hittites themselves; the Hittites were followed by Phrygians and Persians, cities founded by the ancient Greeks and Alexander the Great. The first real settlement was the city of Laodicea on the Lycus, established by King Antiochus II for his wife Laodice. Laodicea is located 6 km north of the city of Denizli; the city of Hierapolis was established around 190 BC by the Pergamene Kingdom, one of the Hellenistic states of Anatolia. The calcified terraces and pools of Pamukkale now stand below the ruins of Hierapolis.
The two cities and Hierapolis came under Roman rule, with the division of the Empire in 395 were left within the boundaries of the East Roman Empire. The province has strong biblical connections: in the Book of Revelation, John the Evangelist hears a loud voice which sounded like a trumpet when he was on the island of Patmos; the voice says: "Write down what you see and send the book to the Churches in these seven cities: Ephesus, Pergamum, Sardis and Laodicea". The Church of Laodicea was a sacred place in pre-Christian times, is still visited by Christians today, although it lost its importance to a great extent during Byzantine rule. Turks were first seen in Denizli in 1070 when Afşın Bey, under the control of the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan, raided the area; the second and third Crusades fought here against Kazıkbeli, who managed to flee with a small force to Antalya. After the Turks had established control of the ancient cities, they moved south to the site of the present city of Denizli, where drinking water was brought through stone pipes.
The name Laodicea changed into “Ladik” since the 17th century other names were given “Tonguzlu”, ”Tonuzlu”, ”Tenguzlug”, ”Donuzlu” and “Denizli”. After World War I, when the Greek army arrived in İzmir on May 15, 1919, one of the first centres of Turkish resistance formed at an open-air meeting in Denizli. A Turkish militia formed lines on the Menderes organized by Yörük Ali and Demirci Efe, involving large numbers of volunteers from the local peasantry. Stiffened by the Turkish regular army, Greek forces were repelled, Denizli remained in Turkish hands throughout the Greco-Turkish War. See the article on Denizli and other districts for more details.... Near Denizli... Laodicea ad Lycum - Ruins of the ancient city located north of Denizli, about 1km north of the village of Eskihisar. Hierapolis and Pamukkale -20 km north of Denizli; the ruins of the ancient city and the hillside covered in minerals from the thermal waters. The Seljuk caravanserai Akhan, 6 km from Denizli on the Ankara highway.and near the other districts in the province....
Tripolis near the village of Yenicekent in Buldan - ruins of a city dating back to the Hellenistic period. A few remains in Honaz. Beycehöyük in Çivril, where several antiquities of the Copper Age dating back to 3000 BC were found; the Hanabat Caravanserai in Çardak is a typical Seljuk caravaserai. The Ahmetli Bridge over the Great Menderes river, 15 km from Sarayköy dates back to the Roman era. Denizli is renowned in Turkey for having a famous breed of cock, renowned for its appearance and colour, along with its prolonged and melodious crows. Great effort is taken by the state and local farmers to preserve the breed. In appearance the Denizli cock has black eyes, dark grey legs, a long neck, a red crown, it weighs 3-3.5 kg, has a distinctive crow. List of populated places in Denizli Province Media related to Denizli Province at Wikimedia Commons Denizli governor's official website Denizli municipality's official website Map of Denizli Satellite view The Rooster Cock of Denizli Denizli Weather Forecast Information Denizli Telephone Address Book, Guide