Stumped is a method of dismissal in cricket. The action of stumping can only be performed by a wicket-keeper and, according to the Laws of Cricket, a batsman can be given out stumped if: the wicket-keeper puts down the wicket, while the batsman is: out of his ground. Being "out of his ground" is defined as not having any part of the batsman's body or his bat touching the ground behind the crease – i.e. if his bat is elevated from the floor despite being behind the crease, or if his foot is on the crease line itself but not across it and touching the ground behind it he would be considered out. One of the fielding team must appeal for the wicket by asking the umpire; the appeal is directed to the square-leg umpire, who would be in the best position to adjudicate on the appeal. Stumping is the fifth most common form of dismissal after caught, leg before wicket and run out, though it is seen more in Twenty20 cricket because of its more aggressive batting, it is governed by Law 39 of the Laws of Cricket.
It is seen with a medium or slow bowler, as with fast bowlers a wicket-keeper takes the ball too far back from the wicket to attempt a stumping. It includes co-operation between a bowler and wicket-keeper: the bowler draws the batsman out of his ground, the wicket-keeper catches and breaks the wicket before the batsman realises he has missed the ball and makes his ground, i.e. places the bat or part of his body on the ground back behind the popping crease. If the bails are removed before the wicket-keeper has the ball, the batsman can still be stumped if the wicket-keeper removes one of the stumps from the ground, while holding the ball in his hand; the bowler is credited for the batsman's wicket, the wicket-keeper is credited for the dismissal. A batsman may be out stumped off a wide delivery but cannot be stumped off a no-ball as bowler is credited for the wicket. Notes: The popping crease is defined as the back edge of the crease marking (i.e. the edge closer to the wicket. Therefore, a batsman whose bat or foot is on the crease marking, but does not touch the ground behind the crease marking, can be stumped.
This is quite common. The wicket must be properly put down in accordance with Law 28 of the Laws of cricket: using either the ball itself or a hand or arm, in possession of the ball. Note that since the ball itself can put down the wicket, a stumping is still valid if the ball rebounds from the'keeper and breaks the wicket though never controlled by him; the wicket-keeper must allow the ball to pass the stumps before taking it, unless it has touched either the batsman or his bat first. If the wicket-keeper fails to do this, the delivery is a "no-ball", the batsman cannot be stumped
Jabalpur is a tier 2 city in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is one of the major cities of Madhya Pradesh. According to the 2011 census, it is the third-largest urban agglomeration in Madhya Pradesh, the country's 37th-largest urban agglomeration, it is known for the white marble rocks at Bhedaghat. Jabalpur is an important administrative and business center of Madhya Pradesh, it is a major education hub in India. The High Court of Madhya Pradesh and several departmental headquarters of the State Government are located in Jabalpur; the city has a major military base and is a major centre for the production of arms and ammunition in India, the city's primary source of employment. It has several other smaller industries; the city is a major trading center and producer of forest products, experiencing fast growth in all sectors. Jabalpur is the administrative headquarters of the Jabalpur division. A center of the Kalachuri and Rajgond dynasties, the city developed a syncretic culture influenced by intermittent Mughal and Maratha reigns.
During the early nineteenth century, it was annexed by British India and renamed as Jubbulpore and incorporated as a cantonment town. Since Indian independence there have been demands for a separate state of Mahakoshal, with Jabalpur its capital; the headquarters of the West Central Railway, Madhya Pradesh Electricity Board, Tropical Forest Research Institute, Army headquarters of five states, viz. Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Jharkhand, are in Jabalpur. Jabalpur is the Army Headquarters for The Grenadiers and Jammu and Kashmir Rifles regiments; the city is the headquarter of 1 Signal Training Centre. The name Jabalpur combines the Sanskrit word pur. Though some mistakenly believe that it was named Jabalipuram after Saint Jabali, there is no historical, mythological or folklore evidence to support this; the city was known as Vansh's Garha-Mandla or Garha-Katanga during Gond dynasty rule. It was named Jubbulgarh, renamed Jubbulpore during British rule. In 2006, the Jabalpur Municipal Corporation renamed the city to Jabalpur.
Mythology describes three asuras in the Jabalpur region, who were defeated by the Hindu god Shiva. Tripurasura being the main asura, gave the city its puranic name Tripur Tirth. Tripuri region corresponds to the ancient Chedi Kingdom of Mahabharata times, to which king Shishupala belongs. Ashokan relics dating to 300 BCE have been found in Rupnath, 84 kilometres north of the city, indicating the presence of the Mauryan Empire in the region; when the empire fell, Jabalpur became a city-state before coming under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty. After their reign, the region was ruled locally by the Bodhis and the Senas, following which it became a vassal state of the Gupta Empire. From 675 to 800, the region was ruled by Bamraj Dev of the Kalachuri Dynasty from Karanbel; the best known Kalachuri ruler was Yuvraj Dev I. One of the Kalachuri ministers, Golok Simha Kayastha, was instrumental in founding the Chausath Yogini Temple near Bhedaghat, his descendants include Bhoj Simha, the Dewan to Sangramsahi.
The Gondwana king, Raje Madan Shah Madawi of Mandla, built a watchtower and a small hilltop fort at Madan Mahal, an area in Jabalpur. In the 1500s, the Gond king, Sangram held Singaurgarh fort in Sangrampur. Rani Durgawati was a warrior of the Gond Dynasty, famous for her prosperous kingdom, she was well aware of the importance of water conservation and hence she built more than 85 ponds in Jabalpur Ranital, Haathital and Hanumantal. In 1564, during the reign of Veer Narayan, Abdul Majeed Harawi conquered Jabalpur and its surrounding areas. However, the Mughal supremacy in Jabalpur was more nominal than real. In 1698, the Gondwana king, Raje Hriday Shah moved his court to the Mandla fort, he built irrigation structures. Gondwana was seized by Nizam. After Nizam, the Gondwana Kingdom was conquered by the Marathas; the Maratha rulers of Sagar, came to power in about 1781. Around 1798, the Maratha Peshwa gave the Nerbuddah valley to the Bhonsle kings of Nagpur, who ruled the area until 1818, when it was seized by the British East India Company after the Battle of Sitabuldi.
Under the British Raj, the name Jabbalgarh became Jubbulpore and the town was made the capital of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. Jabalpur was known for Thuggee murders. 16 June 1857 saw the kindling of a rebellion in the cantonment of Jubbulpore. The 1857 movement was started by the Gondwana king, Raje Shankar Shah Madawi and the prince Kunwar Raghunath Shah Madawi. Both were arrested and imprisoned, executed on 18 September 1857. In 1861, the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories became part of the new Central Provinces and in 1903, the Central Provinces and Berar. In the early 1900s, Jubbulpore became the headquarters of a brigade of the Fifth Division of the South
Sourav Chandidas Ganguly, affectionately known as Dada, is a former Indian cricketer and captain of the Indian national team, Currently, he is appointed as the President of the Cricket Association of Bengal and President of the Editorial Board with Wisden India. During his playing career, Ganguly established himself as one of the world's leading batsmen and one of the greatest captains of the national cricket team. While batting, he was prolific through the off side, earning himself the nickname God of the Off Side for his elegant strokeplay square of the wicket and through the covers. Sourav Ganguly is one of the four members of the Indian Premier League's Governing Council, responsible for all the functions of the tournament, he was appointed by Supreme Court in January 2016. He is a member of Technical Committee, Indian Premier League. Ganguly was introduced into the world of cricket by Snehasish, he is regarded as one of India's most successful captains in modern times, one of the greatest ODI batsmen of all time.
He started his career by playing in school teams. He is the 8th highest run scorer in One Day Internationals and was the 3rd batsman in history to cross the 10,000 run landmark, after Sachin Tendulkar and Inzamam Ul Haq. In 2002, the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack ranked him the sixth greatest ODI batsman of all time, next to Viv Richards, Sachin Tendulkar, Brian Lara, Dean Jones and Michael Bevan. After playing in different Indian domestic tournaments, such as the Ranji and Duleep trophies, Ganguly got his big-break while playing for India on their tour of England, he cemented his place in the Indian team. Ganguly's place in the team was assured after successful performances in series against Sri Lanka and Australia, winning the Man of the Match awards. In the 1999 Cricket World Cup, he was involved in a partnership of 318 runs with Rahul Dravid, which remains the highest overall partnership score in the World Cup tournament history. Due to the match-fixing scandals in 2000 by other players of the team, for his poor health, Indian captain Sachin Tendulkar resigned his position, Ganguly was made the captain of the Indian cricket team.
He was soon the subject of media criticism after an unsuccessful stint for county side Durham and for taking off his shirt in the final of the 2002 NatWest Series. He led India into the 2003 World Cup final. Due to a decrease in individual performance, he was dropped from the team in the following year. Ganguly was awarded the Padma Shri in one of India's highest civilian awards, he returned to the National team in 2006, made successful batting displays. Around this time, he became involved in a dispute with Indian team coach Greg Chappell over several misunderstandings. Ganguly was again dropped from the team, however he was selected to play in the 2007 Cricket World Cup. Ganguly joined the Kolkata Knight Riders team as captain for the Indian Premier League Twenty20 cricket tournament in 2008; the same year, after a home Test series against Australia, he announced his retirement from international cricket. He continued to play for the Bengal team and was appointed the chairman of the Cricket Association of Bengal's Cricket Development Committee.
The left-handed Ganguly was a prolific One Day International batsman, with over 11,000 ODI runs to his credit. He is one of the most successful Indian Test captains to date. Sourav Gangly is the most successful Indian test captain overseas with 11 wins; the Indian team was ranked eighth in the ICC rankings before he became the captain, under his tenure the team rank went up to second. An aggressive captain, Ganguly is credited with having nurtured the careers of many young players who played under him, transforming the Indian team into an aggressive fighting unit. Along with Harshavardhan Neotia, Sanjiv Goenka, Utsav Parekh, Ganguly is the co-owner of Atlético de Kolkata, a franchise of the Indian Super League, which won the inaugural season in 2014. Ganguly was awarded with the Banga Bibhushan Award from the Government of West Bengal on 20 May 2013. Ganguly is a part of the Supreme Court of India appointed Justice Mudgal Committee probe panel for the IPL Spot fixing and betting scandal's investigations.
Sourav Ganguly was born on 8 July 1972 in Calcutta, is the youngest son of Chandidas and Nirupa Ganguly. Chandidas was one of the richest men in the city. Ganguly had a luxurious childhood and was nicknamed the'Maharaja', meaning the'Great King'. Ganguly's father Chandidas Ganguly died at the age of 73 on 21 February 2013 after a long illness. Since the favourite sport for the people of Calcutta was football, Ganguly was attracted to the game. However, academics came in-between his love for sports and Nirupa was not supportive of Ganguly taking up cricket or any other sport as a career. By his elder brother Snehasish was an established cricketer for the Bengal cricket team, he supported Ganguly's dream to be a cricketer and asked their father to get Ganguly enrolled in a cricket coaching camp during his summer holidays. Ganguly was studying in tenth standard at that time. Despite being right-handed, Ganguly learnt to bat left-handed so he could use his brother's sporting equipment. After he showed some promise as a batsman, he was enrolled in a cricket academy.
An indoor multi-gym and concrete wicket was built at their home, so he and Snehasish could practice the game. They used to watch a number of old cricket match videos the games played by David Gower, whom Ganguly admired. After he scored a century against the Orissa Under–15 side, he w
One Day International
A One Day International is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs 50. The Cricket World Cup is played in this format, held every four years. One Day International matches are called Limited Overs Internationals, although this generic term may refer to Twenty20 International matches, they are major considered the highest standard of List A, limited overs competition. The international one-day game is a late-twentieth-century development; the first ODI was played on 5 January 1971 between Australia and England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. When the first three days of the third Test were washed out officials decided to abandon the match and, play a one-off one-day game consisting of 40 eight-ball overs per side. Australia won the game by 5 wickets. ODIs were played in white kits with a red ball. In the late 1970s, Kerry Packer established the rival World Series Cricket competition, it introduced many of the features of One Day International cricket that are now commonplace, including coloured uniforms, matches played at night under floodlights with a white ball and dark sight screens, for television broadcasts, multiple camera angles, effects microphones to capture sounds from the players on the pitch, on-screen graphics.
The first of the matches with coloured uniforms was the WSC Australians in wattle gold versus WSC West Indians in coral pink, played at VFL Park in Melbourne on 17 January 1979. This led not only to Packer's Channel 9 getting the TV rights to cricket in Australia but led to players worldwide being paid to play, becoming international professionals, no longer needing jobs outside cricket. Matches played with coloured kits and a white ball became more commonplace over time, the use of white flannels and a red ball in ODIs ended in 2001. In the main the Laws of cricket apply. However, in ODIs, each team bats for a fixed number of overs. In the early days of ODI cricket, the number of overs was 60 overs per side, matches were played with 40, 45 or 55 overs per side, but now it has been uniformly fixed at 50 overs. Stated, the game works as follows: An ODI is contested by two teams of 11 players each; the Captain of the side winning the toss bowl first. The team batting first sets the target score in a single innings.
The innings lasts until the batting side is "all out" or all of the first side's allotted overs are completed. Each bowler is restricted to bowling a maximum of 10 overs. Therefore, each team must comprise at least five competent bowlers; the team batting second tries to score more. The side bowling second tries to bowl out the second team or make them exhaust their overs before they reach the target score in order to win. If the number of runs scored by both teams is equal when the second team loses all its wickets or exhausts all its overs the game is declared a tie. Where a number of overs are lost, for example, due to inclement weather conditions the total number of overs may be reduced. In the early days of ODI cricket, the team with the better run rate won, but this favoured the second team. For the 1992 World Cup, an alternative method was used of omitting the first team's worst overs, but that favoured the first team. Since the late 1990s, the target or result is determined by the Duckworth-Lewis method, a method with statistical approach.
It takes into consideration the fact that the wickets in hand plays a crucial role in pacing the run-rate. In other words, a team with more wickets in hand can play way more aggressively than the team with fewer wickets in hand; when insufficient overs are played to apply the Duckworth-Lewis method, a match is declared no result. Important one-day matches in the latter stages of major tournaments, may have two days set aside, such that a result can be achieved on the "reserve day" if the first day is washed out—either by playing a new game, or by resuming the match, rain-interrupted; the original DL-method however had a few inherent flaws. For example, Tony Lewis, one of the formulators of this method recognized after the match between India and Kenya during the 1999 World Cup held in Bristol, that the original method gave an unfair advantage to the team chasing scores above 350 runs in a 50 overs match. Hence, the method was revised and a new version was released in 2004. There was one more such change made, first implemented on 2009.
Off late, the Duckworth-Lewis-Stern method is used, a modification of the DL-Method suggested by Prof. Steven Stern, it was first implemented during the 2015 World Cup. One of the major changes made to DLS from DL method was based on a historic analysis by Prof. Stern that a team with higher run rate in their initial stages has a greater chance to get to a high score than a team with slow initial run rate, but more wickets in hand; because the game uses a white ball instead of the red one used in first-class cricket, the ball can become discoloured and hard to see as the innings progresses, so the ICC has used various rules to help keep the ball playable. Most ICC has made the use of two new balls, the same strategy, used in the 1992 and 1996 World Cu
Robin Singh (cricketer)
Rabindra "Robin" Ramnarine Singh is a former Indian cricketer who represented India in one Test and 136 ODI between 1989 and 2001 as an all-rounder. He has coached the Indian Premier League's Mumbai Indians since 2010 and the Caribbean Premier League's Barbados Tridents since 2013, he coached the Deccan Chargers in the IPL's inaugural year. As a player, he was known for his fitness. Born in Trinidad to Indo-Trinidadian parents, Singh moved to India in 1984 and studied at Madras University during which he played club and college-level cricket, he helped Tamil Nadu win the Ranji Trophy in 1988, was one of the season's most consistent players. Tamil Nadu won the trophy after 33 long years and have not won it again since, he gave up his Trinidad and Tobago passport so he could become an Indian citizen and play for India's national cricket team. His real name is Rabindra Ramnarine Singh, he was born in Princes Town and Tobago, to Ramnarine and Savitri Singh on 14 September 1963, is of Indian descent.
His forefathers were from Ajmer. At the age of 19, Singh moved to Madras, where he earned a master's degree in economics at the University of Madras while beginning his cricket career, he resides in Chennai, with his wife Sujata and son Dhananjay, although his parents and siblings still live in Trinidad and Tobago. While in Trinidad, Singh captained the Trinidad youth cricket team in regional tournaments from 1982 to 1983, he represented the senior Trinidad cricket team in two one-day matches in 1983, during which he played alongside Phil Simmons, David Williams, Larry Gomes, Gus Logie, Rangy Nanan, Sheldon Gomes, Richard Gabriel. Singh started his first-class career for Tamil Nadu during the 1985–86 season. During his nearly two decade career, he was a genuine all-rounder for his club, making more than 6,000 runs and taking 172 wickets with his medium-fast bowling. Singh made his debut for the Indian national cricket team in a One Day International against the West Indies cricket team on 11 March 1989.
He played two one-day Internationals. The Indian team dropped Singh after the series, he played in domestic and overseas leagues for the next seven years, after which he secured a regular place on the Indian cricket team. Singh was recalled for the Titan Cup tournament in 1996, he remained a regular player in the One Day Internationals until 2001. Singh was known for his middle-to-lower order batting, medium-pace bowling, his ground fielding skills. Along with Mohammad Azharuddin he was considered as the best fielder in those times, he was known for his batting in closing overs, which made him an integral player during the 1999 Cricket World Cup. Throughout his career, Singh was considered a better fit for One Day matches. Singh began coaching soon after his retirement, his first coaching position was with the Indian under-19 cricket team. In 2004, he began coaching the Hong Kong national cricket team, helping it qualify for the 2004 Asia Cup. In 2006, Singh was appointed coach of the India A cricket team, where he coached cricketers such as Gautam Gambhir and Robin Uthappa.
Several cricketers whom Singh coached went on to play for the Indian national team. Singh was named the Indian national team fielding coach in 2007 and 2008 and was appointed the first head coach of the Deccan Chargers franchise in the Indian Premier League. Singh remained the fielding coach for the Indian national cricket team until October 2009 and is the batting coach of the Mumbai Indians, an Indian Premier League team, he helped the Mumbai Indians occupy the runner-up position during the 2010 IPL season and win the 2013 IPL season, the 2015 IPL season 2017 Indian Premier League, the 2013 Champions League Twenty20, the 2011 Champions League Twenty20. Singh coached the Khulna Division cricket team in the Bangladesh Premier League, where he helped Dwayne Smith and Andre Russell further their cricket skills. In 2012, the Uva cricket team, under Singh's coaching, won the Sri Lanka Premier League tournament, he is the coach of the Barbados Tridents. Since its inception, the Tridents have won once, have played two finals and a semifinal.
Robin Singh is the Head Coach and Mentor of City Kaitak, which finished as the runners-up of the 2017 edition of Hong Kong T20 Blitz. He was the Head Coach of Karaikudi Kaalai, in the Tamil Nadu Premier League, between 2016 and 2017, he coached the Kerala Kings, who were crowned as the Champions of the inaugural edition of the T10 League. He moved teams in 2018 to a new franchise, Northern Warriors for the second edition of the T10 League and took that team to Victory in the tournament, making it back to back titles albeit with 2 different teams!! Singh has helped coach the senior and junior USA cricket teams. In 2011, Singh coached the United States women's cricket team at the World Cup Qualifier Tournament in Bangladesh. Robin Singh launched his academy, Robin Singh Sports Academy in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, which aims at providing state of the art facilities for the youngsters; the mission of his academy is to be a one-stop destination for all sports in the UAE expanding to cover the GCC and to help identify and nurture sportsmen and women to become champions and ambassadors for their country, contribute towards a healthier community.
Robin Singh at ESPNcricinfo Robin Singh at CricketArchive
In cricket, batting is the act or skill of hitting the ball with a bat to score runs or prevent the loss of one's wicket. Any player, batting is denoted as a batsman, batswoman, or batter, regardless of whether batting is their particular area of expertise. Batsmen have to adapt to various conditions when playing on different cricket pitches in different countries - therefore, as well as having outstanding physical batting skills, top-level batsmen will have lightning reflexes, excellent decision-making and be good strategists. During an innings two members of the batting side are on the pitch at any time: the one facing the current delivery from the bowler is denoted the striker, while the other is the non-striker; when a batsman is out, they are replaced by a teammate. This continues until the end of the innings, when 10 of the team members are out, where upon the other team gets a turn to bat. Batting tactics and strategy vary depending on the type of match being played as well as the current state of play.
The main concerns for the batsmen are not to lose their wicket and to score as many runs as as possible. These objectives conflict – to score risky shots must be played, increasing the chance that the batsman will be dismissed, while the batsman's safest choice with a careful wicket-guarding stroke may be not to attempt any runs at all. Depending on the situation, batsmen may forget attempts at run-scoring in an effort to preserve their wicket, or may attempt to score runs as as possible with scant concern for the possibility of being dismissed; as with all other cricket statistics, batting statistics and records are given much attention and provide a measure of a player's effectiveness. The main statistic for batting is a player's batting average; this is calculated by dividing the number of runs he has scored, not by the innings he has played, but by the number of times he has been dismissed. Sir Donald Bradman set many batting records, some as far back as the 1930s and still unbeaten, he is regarded as the greatest batsman of all time.
Any player, regardless of their area of special skill, is referred to as a batsman while they are batting. However, a player, in the team principally because of their batting skill is referred to as a specialist batsman, or batsman, regardless of whether they are batting. In women's cricket, the term bats woman is sometimes encountered, as is batter, but'batsman' is used in both men's and women's cricket; the batsman's act of hitting the ball is called a stroke. Over time a standard batting technique has been developed, used by most batsmen. Technique refers to the batsman's stance before the ball is bowled as well as the movement of the hands, feet and body in the execution of a cricket stroke. Good technique is characterized by getting into the correct position to play the shot getting one's head and body in line with the ball, one's feet placed next to where the ball would bounce and swinging the bat at the ball to make contact at the precise moment required for the particular stroke being played.
The movement of the batsman for a particular delivery depends on the shot being attempted. Front-foot shots are played with the weight on the front foot and are played when the ball is pitched up to the batsman, while back-foot shots are played putting the weight onto the back foot to bowling, pitched short. Shots may be described as vertical bat shots, in which the bat is swung vertically at the ball, or horizontal or cross-bat shots, in which the bat is swung horizontally at the ball. While a batsman is not limited in where or how he may hit the ball, the development of good technique has gone hand in hand with the development of a standard or orthodox cricket shots played to specific types of deliveries; these "textbook" shots are standard material found in many coaching manuals. The advent of limited overs cricket, with its emphasis on rapid run-scoring, has led to increasing use of unorthodox shots to hit the ball into gaps where there are no fielders. Unorthodox shots are typical – but not always – more high-risk than orthodox shots due to some aspects of good batting technique being abandoned.
The stance is the position. An ideal stance is "comfortable and balanced", with the feet 40 centimetres apart and astride the crease. Additionally, the front shoulder should be pointing down the wicket, the head facing the bowler, the weight balanced and the bat near the back toe; as the ball is about to be released, the batsman will lift his bat up behind in anticipation of playing a stroke and will shift his weight onto the balls of his feet. By doing this he is ready to move swiftly into position to address the ball once he sees its path out of the bowler's hand. Although this textbook, the side-on stance is the most common, a few international batsmen, such as Shivnarine Chanderpaul, use an "open" or "square on" stance; the term used to describe. While the bat should be raised as vertically as possible, coaching manuals suggest that correct technique is for the bat to be angled from the perpendicular; some players have employed an exaggerated backlift. Others, who have employed the more unorthodox open stanc
Batting average (cricket)
In cricket, a player's batting average is the total number of runs they have scored divided by the number of times they have been out. Since the number of runs a player scores and how they get out are measures of their own playing ability, independent of their teammates, batting average is a good metric for an individual player's skill as a batter; the number is simple to interpret intuitively. If all the batter's innings were completed, this is the average number of runs they score per innings. If they did not complete all their innings, this number is an estimate of the unknown average number of runs they score per innings; each player has several batting averages, with a different figure calculated for each type of match they play, a player's batting averages may be calculated for individual seasons or series, or at particular grounds, or against particular opponents, or across their whole career. Batting average has been used to gauge cricket players' relative skills since the 18th century.
Most players have career batting averages in the range of 20 to 40. This is the desirable range for wicket-keepers, though some fall short and make up for it with keeping skill; until a substantial increase in scores in the 21st century due to improved bats and smaller grounds among other factors, players who sustained an average above 50 through a career were considered exceptional, before the development of the heavy roller in the 1870s an average of 25 was considered good. All-rounders who are more prominent bowlers than batsmen average something between 20 and 30. 15 and under is typical for specialist bowlers. A small number of players have averaged less than 5 for a complete career, though a player with such an average is a liability unless an exceptional bowler as Alf Valentine, B. S. Chandrasekhar or Glenn McGrath were. Career records for batting average are subject to a minimum qualification of 20 innings played or completed, in order to exclude batsmen who have not played enough games for their skill to be reliably assessed.
Under this qualification, the highest Test batting average belongs to Australia's Sir Donald Bradman, with 99.94. Given that a career batting average over 50 is exceptional, that only five other players have averages over 60, this is an outstanding statistic; the fact that Bradman's average is so far above that of any other cricketer has led several statisticians to argue that, statistically at least, he was the greatest athlete in any sport. Disregarding this 20 innings qualification, the highest career test batting average is 112, by Andy Ganteaume, a Trinidadian Keeper-batsman, dismissed for 112 in his only test innings. Batting averages in One Day International cricket tend to be lower than in Test cricket, because of the need to score runs more and take riskier strokes and the lesser emphasis on building a large innings, it should be remembered in relation to the ODI histogram above, that there were no ODI competitions when Bradman played. If a batter has been dismissed in every single innings this statistic gives the average number of runs they score per innings.
However, for a batter with innings which finished not out, the true average number of runs they score per innings is unknown as it is not known how many runs they would have scored if they could have completed all their not out innings. This statistic is an estimate of the average number of runs. If their scores have a geometric distribution this statistic is the maximum likelihood estimate of their true unknown average. Batting averages can be affected by the number of not outs. For example, Phil Tufnell, noted for his poor batting, has an respectable ODI average of 15, despite a highest score of only 5 not out, as he scored an overall total of 15 runs from 10 innings, but was out only once. A batter who has not been dismissed in any of the innings over which their average is being calculated does not have a batting average, as dividing by zero does not give a result. Highest career batting averages in Test matches. Table shows players with at least 20 innings completed. * denotes not out. Last updated: 14 October 2018.
Highest career batting averages in First-class cricket as follows: Source: Cricinfo Statsguru. Table shows players with at least 50 innings batted, note this table has no requirement for minimum number of runs scored. * denotes not out. Last updated: 10 November 2018. Alternative measures of batting effectiveness have been developed, including: Strike rate measures a different concept to batting average – how the batter scores – so it does not supplant the role of batting average, it is used in limited overs matches, where the speed at which a batter scores is more important than it is in first-class cricket. A system of player rankings was developed to produce a better indication of players' current standings than is provided by comparing their averages. Cricket statistics Batting average Bowling average