Amazon.com, Inc. is an American multinational technology company based in Seattle, Washington that focuses in e-commerce, cloud computing, artificial intelligence. Amazon is the largest e-commerce marketplace and cloud computing platform in the world as measured by revenue and market capitalization. Amazon.com was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994, started as an online bookstore but diversified to sell video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, audiobook downloads/streaming, video games, apparel, food and jewelry. The company owns a publishing arm, Amazon Publishing, a film and television studio, Amazon Studios, produces consumer electronics lines including Kindle e-readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV, Echo devices, is the world's largest provider of cloud infrastructure services through its AWS subsidiary. Amazon has separate retail websites for some countries and offers international shipping of some of its products to certain other countries. 100 million people subscribe to Amazon Prime.
Amazon is the largest Internet company by revenue in the world and the second largest employer in the United States. In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the United States by market capitalization. In 2017, Amazon acquired Whole Foods Market for $13.4 billion, which vastly increased Amazon's presence as a brick-and-mortar retailer. The acquisition was interpreted by some as a direct attempt to challenge Walmart's traditional retail stores. In 1994, Jeff Bezos incorporated Amazon. In May 1997, the organization went public; the company began selling music and videos in 1998, at which time it began operations internationally by acquiring online sellers of books in United Kingdom and Germany. The following year, the organization sold video games, consumer electronics, home-improvement items, software and toys in addition to other items. In 2002, the corporation started Amazon Web Services, which provided data on Web site popularity, Internet traffic patterns and other statistics for marketers and developers.
In 2006, the organization grew its AWS portfolio when Elastic Compute Cloud, which rents computer processing power as well as Simple Storage Service, that rents data storage via the Internet, were made available. That same year, the company started Fulfillment by Amazon which managed the inventory of individuals and small companies selling their belongings through the company internet site. In 2012, Amazon bought Kiva Systems to automate its inventory-management business, purchasing Whole Foods Market supermarket chain five years in 2017; as of March 2019, the board of directors is: Jeff Bezos, President, CEO, Chairman Tom Alberg, Managing partner, Madrona Venture Group Rosalind Brewer, Group President, COO, Starbucks Jamie Gorelick, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale, Dorr Daniel P. Huttenlocher and Vice Provost, Cornell University Judy McGrath, former CEO, MTV Networks Indra Nooyi, former CEO, PepsiCo Jon Rubinstein, former Chairman, CEO, Inc. Thomas O. Ryder, former Chairman, CEO, Reader's Digest Association Patty Stonesifer, CEO, Martha's Table Wendell P. Weeks, President, CEO, Corning Inc.
In 2000, U. S. toy retailer Toys "R" Us entered into a 10-year agreement with Amazon, valued at $50 million per year plus a cut of sales, under which Toys "R" Us would be the exclusive supplier of toys and baby products on the service, the chain's website would redirect to Amazon's Toys & Games category. In 2004, Toys "R" Us sued Amazon, claiming that because of a perceived lack of variety in Toys "R" Us stock, Amazon had knowingly allowed third-party sellers to offer items on the service in categories that Toys "R" Us had been granted exclusivity. In 2006, a court ruled in favor of Toys "R" Us, giving it the right to unwind its agreement with Amazon and establish its own independent e-commerce website; the company was awarded $51 million in damages. In 2001, Amazon entered into a similar agreement with Borders Group, under which Amazon would co-manage Borders.com as a co-branded service, Borders pulled out of the arrangement in 2007, with plans to launch its own online store. On October 18, 2011, Amazon.com announced a partnership with DC Comics for the exclusive digital rights to many popular comics, including Superman, Green Lantern, The Sandman, Watchmen.
The partnership has caused well-known bookstores like Barnes & Noble to remove these titles from their shelves. In November 2013, Amazon announced a partnership with the United States Postal Service to begin delivering orders on Sundays; the service, included in Amazon's standard shipping rates, initiated in metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and New York because of the high-volume and inability to deliver in a timely way, with plans to expand into Dallas, New Orleans and Phoenix by 2014. In June 2017, Nike confirmed a "pilot" partnership with Amazon to sell goods directly on the platform; as of October 11, 2017, AmazonFresh sells a range of Booths branded products for home delivery in selected areas. In September 2017, Amazon ventured with one of its sellers JV Appario Retail owned by Patni Group which has recorded a total income of US$ 104.44 million in financial year 2017–18. In November 2018, Amazon reached an agreement with Apple Inc. to sell selected products through the service, via the company and selected Apple Authorized Resellers.
As a result of this partnership, only Apple Authorized Resellers may sell Apple products on Amazon effective January 4, 2019. Amazon.com's product lines available at its website include several media, baby products, consumer electronics, beauty products, gourmet food, groceries and perso
A pallet is a flat transport structure, which supports goods in a stable fashion while being lifted by a forklift, a pallet jack, a front loader, a jacking device, or an erect crane. A pallet is the structural foundation of a unit load which allows storage efficiencies. Goods or shipping containers are placed on a pallet secured with strapping, stretch wrap or shrink wrap and shipped. Since its invention in the twentieth century, its use has supplanted older forms of crating like the wooden box and the wooden barrel, as it works well with modern packaging like corrugated boxes and intermodal containers used for bulk shipping. While most pallets are wooden, pallets can be made of plastic, metal and recycled materials; each material has disadvantages. Containerization for transport has spurred the use of pallets because shipping containers have the smooth, level surfaces needed for easy pallet movement. Many pallets can handle a load of 1,000 kg. Today, about half a billion pallets are made each year and about two billion pallets are in use across the United States alone.
Pallets make it easier to move heavy stacks. Loads with pallets under them can be hauled by forklift trucks of different sizes, or by hand-pumped and hand-drawn pallet jacks. Movement is easy on a wide, flat floor: concrete is excellent; the greatest investment needed for economical pallet use is in the construction of commercial or industrial buildings. Passage through doors and buildings must be possible. To help this issue, some pallet standards are designed to pass through standard doorways. Organizations using standard pallets for loading and unloading can have much lower costs for handling and storage, with faster material movement than businesses that do not; the exceptions are establishments. But they can be improved. For instance, the distributors of costume jewelry use pallets in their warehouses and car manufacturers use pallets to move components and spare parts; the lack of a single international standard for pallets causes substantial continuing expense in international trade. A single standard is difficult because of the wide variety of needs a standard pallet would have to satisfy: passing doorways, fitting in standard containers, bringing low labor costs.
For example, organizations handling large pallets see no reason to pay the higher handling cost of using smaller pallets that can fit through doors. Due to cost and a need to focus on core business, pallet pooling becomes more common; some pallet suppliers supply users with reusable pallets, sometimes with integral tracking devices. A pallet management company can help supply, clean and reuse pallets. Heavy duty pallets are designed to be used multiple times. Light weight pallets are designed for a single use. In the UK, government legislation relating to the Waste Framework Directive requires the reuse of packaging items above recycling and disposal. Wooden pallets consist of three or four stringers that support several deckboards, on top of which goods are placed. In a pallet measurement, the first number is the stringer length and the second is the deckboard length. Square or nearly square pallets help a load resist tipping. Two-way pallets are designed to be lifted by the deckboards; the standard 48x40 North American pallet, or GMA pallet, has stringers of 48 inches and deckboards of 40 inches, was standardized by the Grocery Manufacturers Association.
A standard wooden pallet with a static load bearing capacity of 3 short tons and a 1-short-ton dynamic capacity, will weigh 33 to 48 lb Lightweight plastic pallets can weigh as little as 3 to 15 pounds, while heavier models may weight up to 30 pounds. Standard GMA pallets can hold up to 460 pounds. GMA pallets weighs 37 pounds, are 6 1⁄2 inches tall, their deck boards measure 3 1⁄4 inches wide and are 5⁄16 inch thick each. Other dimensions of pallets have different weight capacities. Heavy duty IPPC two-way entry wooden pallets from Germany are 44 inches wide by 48 inches long, have three wood stringers that are a nominal 4 inches high by 3 inches wide timber, weigh about 80 pounds, their deck is covered by 30 mm plywood, has a heavy metal "Z" clip at the middle edge of each side. Four-way pallets, or pallets for heavy loads are best lifted by their more rigid stringers; these pallets are heavier and more durable than two-way pallets. Pallet users want pallets to pass through buildings, to stack and fit in racks, to be accessible to forklifts and pallet jacks and to function in automated warehouses.
To avoid shipping air, pallets should pack inside intermodal containers and vans. No universally accepted. Companies and organizations utilize hundreds of different pallet sizes around the globe. While no single dimensional standard governs pallet production, a few different sizes are used; the International Organization for Standardization sanctions six pallet dimensions, detailed in ISO Standard 6780: Flat pallets for intercontinental materials handling—Principal dimensions and tolerances: Of the top pallets used in North America, the most commo
Day 1 (building)
Day 1 known as Amazon Tower II and Rufus 2.0 Block 19, is a 521-foot-tall office building in the Denny Triangle neighborhood of Seattle, located at the intersection of Lenora Street and 7th Avenue. It is part of the three-tower complex; the name "Day 1" belonged to two buildings on Amazon's South Lake Union campus, but both structures have since been renamed. The building's east facade features a large sign reading "Hello World"; the construction project was the most expensive in the city to finish in 2016 amidst the recent downtown housing boom. The building houses the prototype Amazon Go location, which opened to a private beta in December 2016 and to the general public on January 22, 2018; the Amazon campus, designed by Seattle architecture firm NBBJ and landscape architecture firm Site Workshop, was approved by the Seattle Department of Planning and Development in late 2012. Excavation on the 37-story Tower II began under the direction of Sellen Construction in 2014, it opened on November 7, 2016.
The project, covering the entire three-block campus, is on track to receive LEED Gold certification. The block features three intersecting 80-to-90-foot-tall glass-and-steel spheres facing Lenora Street that will house five stories of additional work space for 1,800 employees and retail, totaling 65,000 square feet. NBBJ intends the spheres to be the "new visual focus and'heart'" of Amazon’s headquarters; the design was showcased by Amazon in 2013, thereby scrapping an earlier plan intending to construct a six-story rectilinear office building in that same location. The architects behind the organic design of the domes relied on the idea that better productivity can be initiated by introducing more sunlight and plants into the work space according to recent research; when revealed in 2013, the planned design for the spheres, separated from the building by a lawn and dog park, was met with support and earned the project international press coverage. One of the few critics included Seattle city design review board member Mathew Albores, who compared its pedestrian hostility to the EMP Museum, offering no rain protection and little retail.
The spheres opened on January 31, 2018. Doppler List of tallest buildings in Seattle
A database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are developed using formal design and modeling techniques; the database management system is the software that interacts with end users and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses; the sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a "database system". The term "database" is used to loosely refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an application associated with the database. Computer scientists may classify database-management systems according to the database models that they support. Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s; these model data as rows and columns in a series of tables, the vast majority use SQL for writing and querying data. In the 2000s, non-relational databases became popular, referred to as NoSQL because they use different query languages.
Formally, a "database" refers to the way it is organized. Access to this data is provided by a "database management system" consisting of an integrated set of computer software that allows users to interact with one or more databases and provides access to all of the data contained in the database; the DBMS provides various functions that allow entry and retrieval of large quantities of information and provides ways to manage how that information is organized. Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it. Outside the world of professional information technology, the term database is used to refer to any collection of related data as size and usage requirements necessitate use of a database management system. Existing DBMSs provide various functions that allow management of a database and its data which can be classified into four main functional groups: Data definition – Creation and removal of definitions that define the organization of the data.
Update – Insertion and deletion of the actual data. Retrieval – Providing information in a form directly usable or for further processing by other applications; the retrieved data may be made available in a form the same as it is stored in the database or in a new form obtained by altering or combining existing data from the database. Administration – Registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, recovering information, corrupted by some event such as an unexpected system failure. Both a database and its DBMS conform to the principles of a particular database model. "Database system" refers collectively to the database model, database management system, database. Physically, database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Database servers are multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage.
RAID is used for recovery of data. Hardware database accelerators, connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, are used in large volume transaction processing environments. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications. DBMSs may be built around a custom multitasking kernel with built-in networking support, but modern DBMSs rely on a standard operating system to provide these functions. Since DBMSs comprise a significant market and storage vendors take into account DBMS requirements in their own development plans. Databases and DBMSs can be categorized according to the database model that they support, the type of computer they run on, the query language used to access the database, their internal engineering, which affects performance, scalability and security; the sizes and performance of databases and their respective DBMSs have grown in orders of magnitude. These performance increases were enabled by the technology progress in the areas of processors, computer memory, computer storage, computer networks.
The development of database technology can be divided into three eras based on data model or structure: navigational, SQL/relational, post-relational. The two main early navigational data models were the hierarchical model and the CODASYL model The relational model, first proposed in 1970 by Edgar F. Codd, departed from this tradition by insisting that applications should search for data by content, rather than by following links; the relational model employs sets of ledger-style tables, each used for a different type of entity. Only in the mid-1980s did computing hardware become powerful enough to allow the wide deployment of relational systems. By the early 1990s, relational systems dominated in all large-scale data processing applications, as of 2018 they remain dominant: IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server are the most searched DBMS; the dominant database language, standardised SQL for the relational model, has influenced database languages for other data models. Object databases were developed in the 1980s to overcome the inconvenience of object-relational impedance mismatch, which led to the coining of the term "post-relational" and the development of hybrid object-relational databas
Staples, Inc. is an American multinational office supply retailing corporation. It comprises over 1,500 stores in North America. Headquartered in Framingham, Staples does business extensively with enterprises in the United States and Canada, as Staples Business Advantage. Staples sells office supplies, office machines, promotional products and business services both in stores and online; the company opened its first store in Brighton, Massachusetts, on May 1, 1986. Staples was co-founded by Leo Kahn and Thomas G. Stemberg, who were former rivals in the New England retail supermarket industry; the idea for Staples originated in 1985, while Stemberg was working on a proposal for a different business. He needed a ribbon for his printer, but was unable to obtain one because his local dealer was closed for the Independence Day holiday. A frustration with the reliance on small stores for critical supplies combined with Stemberg's background in the grocery business led to a vision for an office supply superstore.
The first store was opened in the Brighton neighborhood of Boston in 1986. Staples started with backing from private equity firms including Bain Capital. In 1991, Staples founded its Canadian subsidiary, The Business Depot, began opening stores under that name, though over a decade all stores were renamed as "Staples"; the first store opened in Vaughan, Canada north of Toronto. The following year, Staples began expanding into Europe, opened its first store in Swansea, United Kingdom. During its tenth anniversary in 1996, Staples became a member of the Fortune 500 companies as sales surpassed $3 billion. On September 4, 1996, Staples and Office Depot announced plans to merge; the Federal Trade Commission decided that the merged company would unfairly increase office supply prices despite competition from OfficeMax, because OfficeMax did not have stores in many of the local markets that the merger would affect. Staples argued that chains such as Walmart and the now-defunct Circuit City represented significant competition, but this argument did little to sway the FTC.
Following the denial of the merger by the FTC, a rivalry has formed between the two companies. Staples acquired the naming rights for the Staples Center in Los Angeles shortly before construction began in 1998. Staples acquired Quill Corporation, an online and catalog retailer of office supplies, for about $685 million in cash and stock and launched Staples.com. Between 1999 and 2001, unsuccessful attempts to enter the telecommunications business were made as Staples created Staples Communications after the purchase of Canada-based company, from an investment group; the company was sold to Platinum Equities and renamed NextiraOne. By 2001, Staples integrated its e-commerce website to all of its subsidiaries across the world. In 2002, Staples launched Staples Foundation for Learning and acquired Medical Arts Press, which became a subsidiary of Quill Corporation. By 2004, Staples expanded to Austria and Denmark and in 2007, Staples opened its first store in India. In March 2005, Staples and Ahold announced a plan to include a Staples branded store-within-store section in all Stop & Shop Supermarkets and Giant Food stores throughout the Northeast.
In August 2006, Ahold announced the addition of the Staples section to all Tops Friendly Markets locations as well. In 2008, Staples acquired Dutch office supplies company Corporate Express, one of the largest office supply wholesalers in the world. Staples launched 11 concept stores in the New England area featuring a large focus on small business and technology related services. On March 6, 2014, Staples announced it would close up to 225 stores in North America by the end of 2015, in order to cut $500 million in costs annually. On February 4, 2015, Staples announced a plan to once again acquire Office Depot, which itself had acquired OfficeMax in a bid to compete against Staples, it was reported that the deal could face antitrust scrutiny for its monopolization of the office supply market, unless growing competition against online retailers is considered a factor as well. On December 7, 2015, the FTC filed a lawsuit to halt the merger, arguing that the merger would harm competition in the commercial office supply market.
Staples intends to challenge the complaint and as of January 2016, the FTC has not changed its stance. On May 10, 2016, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia granted the FTC a preliminary injunction against the merger. After the ruling, Office Depot and Staples announced termination of their proposed merger. In the end of January 2016, it was announced to employees that Staples would be laying off hundreds of workers at their headquarters location; the layoffs are seen by some analysts as a preemptive tactic in case the proposed merger with rival Office Depot did not receive regulatory approval from the Federal Trade Commission. In May 2016, the FTC denied the merger of Office Depot and Staples, sending stocks of both companies tumbling. In November 2016, it was announced that Staples was to sell its United Kingdom operations to Hilco for a “nominal” sum. Hilco said it was planning to phase out Staples branded shops over the coming months, the Staples name was set to disappear from the United Kingdom.
As of March 2018, Hilco had rebranded or closed its 106 Staples UK stores as "Office Outlet", while keeping a red and white colour scheme. Office Outlet was placed into administration in March 2019. In June 2017, Reuters reported that private equity firm Sycamore Partners would buy Staples for $6.9 billion, with Staples saying the purchase was expected to close by December 2017. The deal closed on Se
Brian McBride (director)
Brian James McBride is the chairman of ASOS.com, the online fashion retailer, chairman of Wiggle Ltd, the online cycling and tri-sports business. He is the former managing director of the Slough-based Amazon.co.uk in the UK. He was born in Glasgow in 1955 and educated at Our Lady of Lourdes Secondary School in Cardonald and at the University of Glasgow where he graduated Master of Arts in Economic History and Politics. During his time at university he was president of Glasgow University Union, he joined Xerox in 1977 and subsequently worked for IBM, and, from 2003 to 2005, T-Mobile where he was managing director. He was a non-executive director of the Scottish football club, Celtic F. C. from 2006 to 2010. He is Senior Non-Executive Director at AO.com PLC, senior adviser to Scottish Equity Partners, a member of the UK Government’s Digital Advisory Board and he is a member of the Court of the University of Glasgow. He has served as a Non-Executive Director of the BBC and Computacenter PLC, served on the Advisory Board of Huawei UK.
In 2016 McBride was named as a Senior Adviser to Lazard's Financial Advisory business, with a focus on the technology sector. Think Small - article by Brian McBride on Wired.co.uk
Double Helix Games
Double Helix Games was video game developer based in Irvine, founded in October 2007 through the merger of The Collective and Shiny Entertainment, two studios owned by Foundation 9 Entertainment. Double Helix was acquired by Amazon and integrated iinto Amazon Game Studios in February 2014. Double Helix Games was formed in 2007 via a merger between two Foundation 9 studios, The Collective and Shiny Entertainment. Double Helix Games cites on their website that the combined development experience totals 20+ years and that it is one of the largest and most experienced game developers in the world. Double Helix Games states on their website that they are a developer for all the major home consoles and that they have worked with numerous notable IPs such as Star Wars, The Matrix, Indiana Jones and Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Double Helix Games began using the HEX Engine for their upcoming titles on the Xbox One, PlayStation 4, PC; the third entry in the Killer Instinct series was the first of these titles released that uses their new engine.
In February 2014, the company was acquired by Amazon.com. In a statement released to Polygon, Microsoft stated that they'd be working with a "new development partner" on Double Helix's Killer Instinct title going forward. Harker Official website