The Berlin Philharmonic is a German orchestra based in Berlin. In 2006, ten European media outlets voted the Berlin Philharmonic number three on a list of "top ten European Orchestras", after the Vienna Philharmonic and the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, while in 2008 it was voted the world's number two orchestra in a survey among leading international music critics organized by the British magazine Gramophone; the BPO supports several chamber music ensembles. The Berlin Philharmonic was founded in Berlin in 1882 by 54 musicians under the name Frühere Bilsesche Kapelle; the orchestra was renamed and reorganized under the financial management of Hermann Wolff in 1882. Their new conductor was Ludwig von Brenner; this helped to establish the orchestra's international reputation, guests Hans Richter, Felix von Weingartner, Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler, Johannes Brahms and Edvard Grieg conducted the orchestra over the next few years. In 1887, the pianist and composer Mary Wurm became the first woman to conduct the orchestra.
Programmes of this period show that the orchestra possessed only 46 strings, much less than the Wagnerian ideal of 64. In 1895, Arthur Nikisch became chief conductor, was succeeded in 1923 by Wilhelm Furtwängler. Despite several changes in leadership, the orchestra continued to perform throughout World War II. After Furtwängler fled to Switzerland in 1945, Leo Borchard became chief conductor; this arrangement lasted only a few months, as Borchard was accidentally shot and killed by the American forces occupying Berlin. Sergiu Celibidache took over as chief conductor for seven years, from 1945 to 1952. Furtwängler returned in 1952 and conducted the orchestra until his death in 1954, his successor was Herbert von Karajan, who led the orchestra from 1955 until his resignation in April 1989, only months before his death. Under him, the orchestra made a vast number of recordings and toured growing and gaining fame; the orchestra hired its first female musician, violinist Madeleine Carruzzo, in 1982.
However, Karajan's hiring in September 1982 of Sabine Meyer, the first female wind player to the orchestra, led to controversy when the orchestra voted 73 to 4 not to admit her to the orchestra. Meyer subsequently left the orchestra. After Karajan stood down from the orchestra in 1989, the orchestra offered the chief conductorship to Carlos Kleiber, but he declined. In 1989, the orchestra elected Claudio Abbado as its next principal conductor, it was the first time the Philharmonic resorted to democratic voting after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. He was known to be humorous in his first months at the Philharmonic, he expanded the orchestra's repertoire beyond the core classical and romantic works into more modern 20th-century works. Abbado stepped down from the chief conductorship of the orchestra in 2002. During the post-unification period, the orchestra encountered financial problems resulting from budgetary stress in the city of Berlin. In 2006, the Orchestra Academy of the Berlin Philharmonic established the Claudio Abbado Composition Prize in Abbado's honour.
In June 1999, the musicians elected Sir Simon Rattle as their next chief conductor. Rattle made it a condition of his signing with the Berlin Philharmonic that it be turned into a self-governing public foundation, with the power to make its own artistic and financial decisions; this required a change to state law, approved in 2001, allowing him to join the organization in 2002. Rattle's contract with the orchestra was through 2012. In April 2008, the BPO musicians voted in favour of retaining Rattle as their chief conductor through 2018. From 2006 to 2010, the general manager of the orchestra was Pamela Rosenberg. In September 2010, Martin Hoffmann became the orchestra's new Intendant. Hoffmann stood down as its Intendant after the close of the 2016/2017 season. Andrea Zietzschmann took up the post as his successor. In 2006, the orchestra announced. In 2007, Misha Aster published The Reich's Orchestra, his study of the relationship of the Berlin Philharmonic to the rulers of the Third Reich. In 2007, the documentary film The Reichsorchester by Enrique Sánchez Lansch was released.
UNICEF appointed the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and Rattle as Goodwill Ambassadors in November 2007. On 10 January 2013, the orchestra announced the scheduled end of Rattle's tenure as artistic director and chief conductor in 2018. In 2014, the orchestra founded its own label "Berliner Philharmoniker Recordings". After an abortive first attempt on 11 May 2015, the orchestra on 21 June 2015, elected Kirill Petrenko as its next artistic director and chief conductor. In October 2015, the orchestra announced that Petrenko was to formally commence his contract as chief conductor with the 2019/20 season. A year after this news, in October 2016, the orchestra specified more the start of Petrenko's tenure as 19 August 2019; the orchestra's current Intendant is Andrea Zietzschmann, succeeding Martin Hoffmann, who stood down from the post in 2017. The orchestra's first concert hall, the Philharmonie situated on the Bernburger Straße in Berlin Kreuzberg, was inaugurated in 1882 in a building used as an ice rink and converted by the architect Franz Schwechten.
In 1898, a smaller concert hall, the Beethovensaal on Köthener Straße, was inaugurated for chamber music and chamber ensembles. The first Philharmonie was used until British bombers destroyed it on
Andrés Segovia Torres, 1st Marquis of Salobreña, known as Andrés Segovia, was a virtuoso Spanish classical guitarist from Linares, Spain. Many professional classical guitarists today were students of his students. Segovia's contribution to the modern-romantic repertoire not only included commissions but his own transcriptions of classical or baroque works, he is remembered for his expressive performances: his wide palette of tone, his distinctive musical personality and style. Segovia was born on 21 February 1893 in Jaén, Spain, he was sent at a young age to live with his uncle Eduardo and aunt María. Eduardo arranged for Segovia's first music lessons with a violin teacher after recognizing that Segovia had an aptitude for music; this proved to be an unhappy introduction to music for the young Segovia because of the teacher's strict methods, Eduardo stopped the lessons. His uncle decided to move to Granada to allow Segovia to obtain a better education. Segovia was aware of flamenco during his formative years as a musician but stated that he "did not have a taste" for the form and chose instead the works of Fernando Sor, Francisco Tárrega, other classical composers.
Tárrega agreed to give the self-taught Segovia some lessons but died before they could meet, Segovia states that his early musical education involved the "double function of professor and pupil in the same body". Segovia's first public performance was in Granada at the age of 16 in 1909. A few years he played his first professional concert in Madrid, which included works by Francisco Tárrega and his own guitar transcriptions of Johann Sebastian Bach. Despite the discouragement of his family, who wanted him to become a lawyer, criticism by some of Tárrega's pupils for his idiosyncratic technique, he continued to pursue his studies of the guitar diligently, he played again in Madrid in 1912, at the Paris Conservatory in 1915, in Barcelona in 1916, made a successful tour of South America in 1919. Segovia's arrival on the international stage coincided with a time when the guitar's fortunes as a concert instrument were being revived through the efforts of Miguel Llobet, it was in this changing milieu that Segovia, thanks to his strength of personality and artistry, coupled with developments in recording and broadcasting, succeeded in making the guitar more popular again.
In 1921 in Paris, Segovia met Alexandre Tansman, who wrote a number of guitar works for Segovia, among them Cavatina, which won a prize at the Siena International Composition contest in 1952. At Granada in 1922 he became associated with the Concurso de Cante Jondo promoted by the Spanish composer Manuel de Falla; the aim of the "classicizing" Concurso was to preserve flamenco in its purity from being distorted by modern popular music. Segovia had developed as a fine tocador of flamenco guitar, yet his direction was now classical. Invited to open the Concurso held at the Alhambra, he played Homenaje a Debussy by Falla. In 1923 Segovia visited Mexico for the first time. There Manuel Ponce was so impressed with the concert. Ponce went on to write many works for Segovia, including numerous sonatas. In 1924, Segovia visited the German luthier Hermann Hauser Sr. after hearing some of his instruments played in a concert in Munich. In 1928 Hauser provided Segovia with one of the guitars that he used during his tour of the United States and in other concerts up to 1933.
Segovia ordered a further guitar from Hauser and after receiving it passed on the 1928 model to his US representative and close friend Sophocles Papas, who in his turn gave it to his student, the famous jazz and classical guitarist Charlie Byrd, who used it on several records. Segovia's first American tour was arranged in 1928 when Fritz Kreisler, the Viennese violinist who played the guitar, persuaded Francis Charles Coppicus from the Metropolitan Musical Bureau to present the guitarist in New York. After Segovia's debut tour in the US in 1928 the Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos composed his now well-known Twelve Études and dedicated them to Segovia, their relationship proved to be lasting and Villa-Lobos continued to write for Segovia. He transcribed numerous classical pieces himself and revived the pieces transcribed by predecessors like Tárrega. In 1932, Segovia befriended composer Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco in Venice. Since Castelnuovo-Tedesco did not play the guitar, Segovia provided him with guitar compositions which he could study.
Castelnuovo-Tedesco composed a large number of works for the guitar, many of them dedicated to Segovia. The Concerto Op. 99 of 1939 was the first guitar concerto of the 20th century and Castelnuovo-Tedesco's last work in Italy, before he emigrated to the United States. It was premiered by Segovia in Uruguay in 1939. In 1935, he gave his first public performance of Bach's Chaconne, a difficult piece for any instrument, he moved to Montevideo, performing many concerts in South America in early forties. After World War II, Segovia began to record more and performed regular tours of Europe and the US, a schedule he would maintain for the next thirty years. In 1954, Joaquín Rodrigo dedicated Fantasía para un gentilhombre to Segovia. Segovia won the 1958 Grammy Award for Best Classical Performance, Instrumentalist for his recording Segovia Golden Jubilee. John W. Duarte dedicated his English Suite Op. 31 to Segovia and his wife on the occasion of their marriage in 1962. Segovia told the
Ambassador College was a four-year, liberal arts college run by the Worldwide Church of God. The college was established in 1947 in Pasadena, California by radio evangelist Herbert W. Armstrong, leader of what was the Radio Church of God renamed the Worldwide Church of God; the college was approved by the State of California to grant degrees. In 1960 a second campus was opened at Bricket Wood, England, in 1964 a third campus was opened in Big Sandy, Texas. At the time Ambassador closed for financial reasons in May 1997 it had operated for 50 years and had become regionally accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools; the history of Ambassador College was tied to the development of the Radio/Worldwide Church of God. The name Radio Church of God was selected, in the 1930s, because Herbert Armstrong started the church as a radio program in Eugene, Oregon; the ministry grew to include publishing, congregations were formed, first in the United States and gradually in other countries—hence, the eventual name change to "Worldwide Church of God."
After Armstrong moved his operations to California, he founded Ambassador College in 1947. The college began acquiring lavish mansions on Orange Grove Blvd. in Pasadena, culminating in the acquisition of the Hulett C. Merritt mansion belonging to an iron ore mining magnate, in the late 1950s. Hulett Merritt was the Chairman of US Steel and made his millions on the Mesabi Iron Range in Minnesota. Hulett Merritt's estate "Villa Merritt Ollivier" in Pasadena was built on four acres for $1,100,000 in 1905 – 1908; this area on South Orange Grove Avenue was referred to locally as "Millionaires' Row". Mr. Merritt's mansion was located at 99 Terrace Drive and bounded on the north by Olcott Place and on the west by South Orange Grove Avenue. After Hulett Sr.'s death in January 1956, the property was purchased by Herbert W. Armstrong from Hulett's four surviving grandchildren in October 1956 because it was adjacent to Ambassador College. Villa Merritt Ollivier was renamed "Ambassador Hall" and Ambassador College subsequently obtained permission to close Terrace Drive.
Thereafter, the residence and street address for the former Villa Merritt Ollivier was renamed Ambassador Hall, 100 S. Orange Grove Blvd. Pasadena; this mansion with a sunken Italian garden, a rosewood-paneled room, a basement swimming pool, became the centerpiece of the campus until the Auditorium was built. The College built two modern classroom buildings flanking Ambassador Hall and the formal Italian sunken garden, with a plaza in the center, joined the three buildings and the garden into an academic center. Hulett Sr.'s former mansion was featured as the opening scene in the old TV show "The Millionaire" looking upward from the tree lined steps towards the hill with the mansion and towering palms above. The Pasadena 1997 Architectural Survey stated at Page 2.1–33: "The Hulett C. Merritt' House is significant as the residence of one of Pasadena's most celebrated millionaires and foremost residents of South Orange Grove Blvd." The college was designed to prepare youth for life and service in church.
In the earliest days of Ambassador, male students graduated into the ministry of the church. By the 1970s, that occurred less frequently; as the church grew in membership, in the 1960s and 1970s, a smaller and smaller proportion of applicants could be accepted, some applicants having to wait years for acceptance. The motto of the college was Recapturing True Values. Although most students of the college were associated with the church, it was not a strict requirement. Nonetheless, the students and faculty were those with church affiliation. Throughout most of its history, Ambassador operated under state approval or its international equivalent. Regional accreditation was not sought because it required that the college have a functioning board, separate and distinct from the church's administration. Armstrong resisted this requirement concerned that such a separation would result in the truth of God, as he believed and taught it to be, being watered down at an Ambassador that would become secular.
He held this opinion despite the fact that numerous accredited colleges and universities around the country were operated by the Catholic Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and other Christian denominations, without those organizations being required to alter church teachings. The final phase of Ambassador began in the late 1970s and was characterized by constant uncertainty and indecision; the Ambassador campus at Bricket Wood, England, was closed in 1974, as operating funds were deemed necessary for other functions of the Worldwide Church of God. For similar reasons, the Texas campus was shuttered in 1977, all students who wished to were offered the opportunity to transfer to the original campus in Pasadena, California. In the interim the decision had been made by church leadership to pursue regional accreditation in California. However, in 1978 President Garner Ted Armstrong, son of college founder Herbert Armstrong, announced that everything would be moving back to the Texas campus, with the California facility becoming a graduate school.
Within months, the younger Armstrong was ousted from all positions in the church and college due to an unrelated scandal, Herbert Armstrong, recovered from a heart attack, announced that Ambassador was closing its doors altogether. That stance was softened just as however, the decision was made to continue operating Ambassador as a scaled-down academic institution more in line with a bible college. Beginning in August 1978 new incoming students were offered a one
Carnegie Hall is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, United States, located at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east side of Seventh Avenue between West 56th Street and West 57th Street, two blocks south of Central Park. Designed by architect William Burnet Tuthill and built by philanthropist Andrew Carnegie in 1891, it is one of the most prestigious venues in the world for both classical music and popular music. Carnegie Hall has its own artistic programming and marketing departments, presents about 250 performances each season, it is rented out to performing groups. The hall has not had a resident company since 1962, when the New York Philharmonic moved to Lincoln Center's Philharmonic Hall. Carnegie Hall has 3,671 seats, divided among its three auditoriums. Carnegie Hall contains three separate performance spaces; the Isaac Stern Auditorium seats 2,804 on five levels and was named after violinist Isaac Stern in 1997 to recognize his efforts to save the hall from demolition in the 1960s.
The hall is enormously high, visitors to the top balcony must climb 137 steps. All but the top level can be reached by elevator; the main hall was home to the performances of the New York Philharmonic from 1892 until 1962. Known as the most prestigious concert stage in the U. S. all of the leading classical music and, more popular music performers since 1891 have performed there. After years of heavy wear and tear, the hall was extensively renovated in 1986; the Ronald O. Perelman Stage is 42 feet deep; the five levels of seating in the Stern Auditorium begin with the Parquet level, which has twenty-five full rows of thirty-eight seats and four partial rows at stage level, for a total of 1,021 seats. The First Tier and Second Tier consist of sixty-five boxes. Second from the top is the Dress Circle, seating 444 in six rows. At the top, the balcony seats 837. Although seats with obstructed views exist throughout the auditorium, only the Dress Circle level has structural columns. Zankel Hall, which seats 599, is named after Arthur Zankel.
Called Recital Hall, this was the first auditorium to open to the public in April 1891. Following renovations made in 1896, it was renamed Carnegie Lyceum, it was leased to the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in 1898, converted into a cinema, which opened as the Carnegie Hall Cinema in May 1961 with the film White Nights by Luchino Visconti and was reclaimed for use as an auditorium in 1997. The reconstructed Zankel Hall is flexible in design and can be reconfigured in several different arrangements to suit the needs of the performers, it opened in September 2003. The 599 seats in Zankel Hall are arranged in two levels; the Parterre level seats a total of 463 and the Mezzanine level seats 136. Each level has a number of seats which are situated along the side walls, perpendicular to the stage; these seats are designated as boxes. The boxes on the Parterre level are raised above the level of the stage. Zankel Hall is accessible and its stage is 44 feet wide and 25 feet deep—the stage occupies one fifth of the performance space.
The Joan and Sanford I. Weill Recital Hall seats 268 and is named after Sanford I. Weill, a former chairman of the board, his wife Joan; this auditorium, in use since the hall opened in 1891, was called Chamber Music Hall. The Weill Recital Hall is the smallest of the three performance spaces, with a total of 268 seats; the Orchestra level contains fourteen rows of fourteen seats, a total of 196, the Balcony level contains 72 seats in five rows. The building contains the Carnegie Hall Archives, established in 1986, the Rose Museum, which opened in 1991; until 2009 studios above the Hall contained working spaces for artists in the performing and graphic arts including music, dance, as well as architects, literary agents and painters. The spaces were unusual in being purpose-designed for artistic work, with high ceilings and large windows for natural light. In 2007 the Carnegie Hall Corporation announced plans to evict the 33 remaining studio residents, some of whom had been in the building since the 1950s, including celebrity portrait photographer Editta Sherman and fashion photographer Bill Cunningham.
The organization's research showed that Andrew Carnegie had always considered the spaces as a source of income to support the hall and its activities. The space has been re-purposed for corporate offices. Carnegie Hall is one of the last large buildings in New York built of masonry, without a steel frame; the exterior is rendered in narrow Roman bricks of a mellow ochre hue, with details in terracotta and brownstone. The foyer avoids typical 19th century Baroque theatrical style with the Florentine Renaissance manner of Filippo Brunelleschi's Pazzi Chapel: white plaster and gray stone form a harmonious system of round-headed arched openings and Corinthian pilasters that support an unbroken cornice, with round-headed lunettes above it, under a vaulted ceiling; the famous white and gold auditorium interio
Julian Alexander Bream, CBE, is an English virtuoso classical guitarist and lutenist. One of the most distinguished classical guitarists of the 20th century, he played a significant role in improving the public perception of the classical guitar as a respectable instrument. Bream was born in Battersea and brought up in a musical environment in Hampton. Bream described his parents as both "conventional suburban", but in another way "very unusual", his father was a commercial artist, with an "extraordinary talent for drawing" and a "natural musician" according to Bream. Bream would lie under the piano in "ecstasy", his mother, of Scottish descent, was a beautiful woman, according to Bream, "not always there" mentally and did not like music, but was a warm-hearted person. His grandmother owned a pub in Battersea, Bream spent much time there during his youth, his father played jazz guitar and the young Bream was impressed by hearing the playing of Django Reinhardt. Bream began his lifelong association with the guitar by strumming along on his father′s jazz guitar at an early age to dance music on the radio.
He became frustrated with his lack of knowledge of harmony, so read instruction books by Eddie Lang to teach himself. His father taught him the basics; the president of the Philharmonic Society of Guitars, Dr Boris Perott, gave Bream further lessons, while his father became the society librarian, giving young Bream access to a large collection of rare music. On his 11th birthday, Bream was given a small gut-strung Spanish guitar by his father, he became something of a child prodigy, at 12 winning a junior exhibition award for his piano playing, enabling him to study piano and composition at the Royal College of Music. Aged 13, he made his debut guitar recital at Cheltenham on 17 February 1947. Leaving the RCM in 1952, Bream was called up into the army for national service, he was drafted into the Pay Corps, but managed to sign up for the Royal Artillery Band after six months. This required him to be stationed in Woolwich, which allowed him to moonlight in London with the guitar. After three years in the army, he took any musical jobs that came his way, including background music for radio plays and films.
Commercial film, recording sessions and work for the BBC were important to Bream throughout the 1950s and the early 1960s. He played part of a recital at the Wigmore Hall on the lute in 1952, since has done much to bring music written for the instrument to light. 1960 saw the formation of the Julian Bream Consort, a period-instrument ensemble with Bream as lutenist. The consort led a great revival of interest in the music of the Elizabethan era. Bream pursued a busy career playing around the world, his first European tours took place in 1954 and 1955, followed by extensive touring in the Far East, Australia, the Pacific Islands and many other parts of the world. Bream performed for the Peabody Mason Concert series in Boston, first solo, in 1959, with the US debut of his Consort. In addition to master classes given in North America, Bream has conducted an international summer school in Wiltshire, England. Bream has recorded extensively for RCA EMI Classics; these recordings have won him several awards, including four Grammy Awards, two for Best Chamber Music Performance and two for Best Classical Performance.
RCA released The Ultimate Guitar Collection, a multi-CD set commemorating his birthday in 1993. From the beginning of the 1990s Julian Bream continued his recording career with EMI Classics, featuring music by Johann Sebastian Bach, a Concerto album, discs devoted to contemporary works and guitar sonatas. Despite his importance as a classical guitarist, many of his RCA recordings were out of print for several years. In 2011, RCA released a 10-CD set of albums chosen by Julian Bream himself. In 2013, RCA issued Julian Bream: The Complete RCA Album Collection, a 40-CD set which includes two DVDs with The Lively Arts -- Julian Bream: A Life in the Country, the 1976 BBC film. A successful film, A Life in the Country, was first shown on BBC TV in 1976. In it, the narrator and Bream discuss his life as a concert guitarist. Bream presented a series of four master-classes for guitarists on BBC TV. In 1984 he made eight films on location in Spain for Channel 4, exploring historical perspectives of Spanish guitar music.
In 1991, BBC Radio and TV broadcast Bream's BBC Prom performance of Malcolm Arnold's Guitar Concerto. He participated in a recital and concerto performances of works by Tōru Takemitsu at the Japan Festival in London with the London Symphony Orchestra. During the 1992-93 season he performed on two separate occasions at the Wigmore Hall - at their Gala Re-opening Festival, at a special concert celebrating his 60th birthday. In the same period, he toured the Far East, visiting Hong Kong, Taiwan and Japan, performed the premiere of Leo Brouwer's arrangement for guitar and orchestra of Albéniz's Iberia at the Proms. In 1994 Bream made debuts in both Turkey and Israel to great acclaim, the following year played for the soundtrack to the Hollywood film Don Juan DeMarco. In 1997, in celebration of the 50th anniversary of his debut, he performed a recital at Cheltenham Town Hall. A few weeks the BBC dedicated a special television tribute This Is Your Life
Yo-Yo Ma is a Chinese-American cellist. Born in Paris, he spent his schooling years in New York City and was a child prodigy, performing from the age of four and a half, he graduated from the Juilliard School and Harvard University, has performed as a soloist with orchestras around the world. He received 19 Grammy Awards. In addition to recordings of the standard classical repertoire, he has recorded a wide variety of folk music such as American bluegrass music, traditional Chinese melodies, the tangos of Argentinian composer Ástor Piazzolla, Brazilian music, he has collaborated with artists including jazz singer Bobby McFerrin, guitarist Carlos Santana, Sérgio Assad and his brother and singer-songwriter and guitarist James Taylor. Ma's primary performance instrument is a Montagnana cello crafted in 1733 and valued at US$2.5 million. He has been a United Nations Messenger of Peace since 2006, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 2001, Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2011, Polar Music Prize in 2012.
Yo-Yo Ma had a musical upbringing. His mother, Marina Lu, was a singer and his father, Hiao-Tsiun Ma, was a violinist and professor of music at Nanjing National Central University, his sister, Yeou-Cheng Ma, played the violin before obtaining a medical degree and becoming a pediatrician. The family moved to New York. From the earliest possible age, Ma played the violin and viola, but settled on cello in 1960 at age four. Ma jokes that his first choice was the double bass due to its large size, but he compromised and took up cello instead; the child prodigy began performing before audiences at age five and performed for presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy when he was seven. At age eight, he appeared on American television with his sister in a concert conducted by Leonard Bernstein. In 1964, Isaac Stern introduced them on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, they performed the Sonata of Sammartini, he attended Trinity School in New York but transferred to the Professional Children's School, from which he graduated at age 15.
He appeared as a soloist with the Harvard Radcliffe Orchestra in a performance of the Tchaikovsky Rococo Variations. Ma studied at The Juilliard School at age 19 with Leonard Rose and attended Columbia University but dropped out, he enrolled at Harvard College. Prior to entering Harvard, Ma played in the Marlboro Festival Orchestra under the direction of cellist and conductor Pablo Casals. Ma spent four summers at the Marlboro Music Festival after meeting and falling in love with Mount Holyoke College sophomore and festival administrator Jill Hornor his first summer there in 1972. Before that time, Ma had gained fame, had performed with many of the world's major orchestras, he has played chamber music with pianist Emanuel Ax, with whom he has a close friendship from their days together at the Juilliard School of Music. Ma received his bachelor's degree from Harvard in 1976. In 1991, he received an honorary doctorate from Harvard. In 1997, he was featured on John Williams' soundtrack to the Hollywood film Seven Years in Tibet.
In 2000, he was heard on the soundtrack of Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and, in 2003, on that of Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World. He collaborated with Williams again on the original score for the 2005 film Memoirs of a Geisha. Ma has worked with Italian composer Ennio Morricone and has recorded Morricone's compositions of the Dollars Trilogy including The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, as well as Once Upon a Time in America, The Mission, The Untouchables, he has over 90 albums, 18 of which are Grammy Award winners. Ma is a recipient of the International Center in New York's Award of Excellence. Ma was named Peace Ambassador by then-UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan in January 2006, he is a founding member of the influential Chinese-American Committee of 100, which addresses the concerns of Americans of Chinese heritage. On November 3, 2009, President Obama appointed Ma to serve on the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities, his music was featured in the 2010 documentary Jews and Baseball: An American Love Story, narrated by Academy Award winner Dustin Hoffman.
In 2010, President Obama announced that he would be recognizing Ma with the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In 2010, Ma was named Joyce Green Creative Consultant of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. In partnership with the orchestra's music director, Riccardo Muti, he launched the Citizen Musician initiative. Yo-Yo Ma is represented by the independent artist management firm Opus 3 Artists. In 2010, he appeared on a solo album by guitarist Carlos Santana, Guitar Heaven: The Greatest Guitar Classics of All Time, playing alongside Santana and singer India Arie on a Beatles' classic, While My Guitar Gently Weeps. In 2015, Ma performed alongside singer-songwriter and guitarist James Taylor for two separate tracks on Taylor's chart-topping record Before This World: You And I Again, in addition to the title track. In 2019, Ma will be directing at the 2019 Youth Music Culture Guangdong. Ma formed his own Silk Road Ensemble, following the trade route which for more than 2,000 years had been used for trade across Europe and Asia to China.
His goal was that of bringing together musicians from diverse countries all of which are linked via the Silk Road. His records with them were on the Sony Classical label, he founded the Silk Road Connect, involving children from middle schools in the United States, including New York City. Ma has been referred to as "omnivorous" by critics and possesses