The Ayala Museum is a museum in Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines. It is located in Ayala Center adjacent to Greenbelt mall and is run by the Ayala Foundation; this six-storey edifice houses ethnographic and archaeological exhibits on Filipino culture and history. Since its establishment in 1967, the museum has been committed to showcasing overseas collections and situating contemporary Philippine art in the global arena in a two-way highway of mutual cooperation and exchange with local and international associates. Envisioned during the 1950s by Philippine abstract painter Fernando Zóbel de Ayala y Montojo, as a museum of Philippine history and iconography, the Ayala Museum was established in 1967 as a project of the Filipinas Foundation, now known as the Ayala Foundation; the museum was housed at the Insular Life Building and was transferred to the old Makati Stock Exchange Building. The old building was designed by National Artist Leandro Locsin. Plans to transfer the Ayala Museum was made as early as 2002.
The old building that hosted the old Ayala Museum was demolished which met some criticism from heritage conservationists. The museum moved to a new six sy building made from granite and glass, designed by Leandro V. Locsin Partners, led by Leandro Y. Locsin, Jr, it was formally dedicated at the 170th anniversary of the Ayala Corporation on September 28, 2004. The Diorama Experience — Sixty handcrafted dioramas form the core of Ayala Museum's historical collections and chronicle Philippine history; the exhibition highlights major events and themes from prehistoric times to the recognition of Philippine independence by the United States in 1946. The exhibition culminates with People Power, a multimedia presentation that chronicles the events that led to the First EDSA People Power Revolution in 1986, including the tumultuous 1950s, the riotous martial law years, the restoration of Philippine democracy by a new kind of uprising. Maritime Vessels — The museum houses several models of the watercraft that plied the Philippine seas and contributed to the development of Philippine maritime trade and colonial economy.
Pioneers of Philippine Art — Philippine art from the late 19th to the 20th century, in the works of Luna and Zobel. Gold of Ancestors — An exhibition of more than 1,000 gold objects from cultures that existed in the Philippines before colonization in the 16th century. Many of the precious objects were recovered in association with 10th- to 13th-century Chinese export ceramics. Similarities in form and iconography with artifacts of other Southeast Asian cultures affirm regional affinities and interests. Adornments of elite individuals and their deities include an array of golden sashes, necklaces and finger rings and anklets. Embroidered Multiples — The exhibition features selections from the Leiden National Museum of Ethnology's collection of Philippine garments acquired from the French diplomat Bréjard, who served in Manila from 1881 to 1886; the collection includes rare, embroidered silk trousers or sayasaya worn by Philippine elite men known only through 19th-century watercolor images. Multiple examples of delicately embroidered nipis blouses provide a lexicon of decorative techniques including relief embroidery, calado openwork, supplementary weft or suksuk, as well as the changing silhouette of women's fashion.
A Millennium of Contact — A display of more than 500 Chinese and Southeast Asian ceramics found in the Philippines, telling the story of how the country forged social and commercial ties with China and its neighbors. Contemporary exhibitions such as retrospectives of Filipino artists and contemporary international art are housed at the ground floor of the museum. Recent exhibition features the "Beyond Tobacco" exhibit, in time with Ayala Corporation's 180th anniversary. Beyond Tobacco presents the rich economic history of the Philippines and its deep relationship with Spain during and after the Tobacco Monopoly in the 19th century by its large collection of artifacts, memorabilia and photographs of the Compañia General de Tobacos de Filipinas. Artifacts such as tobaccos, cigar holders, other paraphernalia are shown in the exhibit. Maps of huge tobacco plantations chiefly in Luzon are displayed, including photos of the factory before and after being bombed during the Japanese occupation. Furthermore, paintings by Fernando Amorsolo and books written by Jaime Gil de Biedma and other biographers are on display.
The exhibit was curated by Professor Martin Rodrigo of the Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona, Spain. The museum's third floor galleries and the Zobel multipurpose hall are designed to house the changing displays showing Pioneers of Philippine Art, Images of Nation, New Frontiers, Collector Series- from the 18th century to the contemporary period of Philippine art. Pioneers of Philippine Art showcases the 100 years of Philippine art from the late 19th century to the 20th century in the works of three famous Filipino artists namely Juan Luna, Fernando Amorsolo and Fernando Zobel. Paintings of Amorsolo includes Palay Maiden, Maiden with Lanzones, Maiden in a Flower Garden, Portrait of Victoria Zobel de Ayala, Open Market Scene to name a few. All works of Zobel highlights abstract art; some of these include Vasata, Portrait of Ep, El Balcon II, Pausa Clara, Las Soledades de Lope de Vega. Images of Nation shows the works of the national artists for visual arts of the Philippines while, New Frontiers features the work of contemporary artists.
Launched in 2010. In the past years, Images of Nation has featured a collection of works by Vicente Manansala, Jose Joya (Septe
Philippine Daily Inquirer
The Philippine Daily Inquirer, popularly known as the Inquirer, is an English-language newspaper in the Philippines. Founded in 1985, it is regarded as the Philippines' newspaper of record; the Philippine Daily Inquirer was a daily newspaper founded on 9 December 1985 by publisher Eugenia Apóstol, columnist Max Solivén, together with Betty Go-Belmonte during the last days of the regime of the Philippine dictator, Ferdinand Marcos, becoming one of the first private newspapers to be established under the Marcos regime. The Inquirer succeeded the weekly Philippine Inquirer, created in 1985 by Apostol to cover the trial of 25 soldiers accused of complicity in the murder of opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. at the Manila International Airport on 21 August 1983. Apostol published the Mr & Ms Special Edition, a weekly tabloid opposed to the Marcos regime; as the successor to the previous Mr. and Mrs. Special Edition and the weekly Philippine Inquirer, it was founded on a budget of P1 million and enjoyed a daily circulation of 30,000 in its early days.
The new daily was housed in the dilapidated one-story Star Building on 13th and Railroad streets in Port Area, Manila. It was put out by 40 editors, correspondents and other editorial employees working in a 100 square meter newsroom. Columnist Louie Beltran was named its editor-in-chief; the newspaper was instrumental in documenting the campaign of Corazón Aquino during the 1986 presidential elections and, in turn, the 1986 People Power Revolution. Its slogan, Balanced News, Fearless Views, was incorporated to the newspaper in January 1986 after a slogan-making contest held during the first month of the Inquirer's existence. On July 1986, questions about finances and a divergence of priorities caused a rift among the founders which led Belmonte and Art Borjal's split from the Inquirer to establish The Philippine STAR; as Belmonte owned the Star Building where the Inquirer was headquartered, the newspaper amicably transferred to the Soliven-owned BF Condominium in Aduana Street, Intramuros. In February 1987, Federico D. Pascual, former assistant managing editor of the Daily Express, was named executive editor of Inquirer and was appointed editor-in-chief two years later.
It was during his term in 1990 that the Inquirer took the lead from the Manila Bulletin to become the Philippines' largest newspaper in terms of circulation. However, on July 1990, the Inquirer headquarters in Intramuros was damaged by an earthquake. On 5 January 1991, the newspaper transferred to the YIC building along United Nations Avenue and Romualdez Street in Malate. Inquirer's longest-serving and first woman editor-in-chief, the late Letty Jimenez-Magsanoc, was appointed on June 14, 1991, she was a former columnist and editor of the "Panorama" Sunday magazine of Bulletin Today, sacked for writing articles poking fun at Marcos. She edited Ms Special Edition until the fall of the Marcos regime, she is the first editor in chief of Sunday Inquirer Magazine. Under her term, in 1995, the Inquirer moved to its current headquarters in Makati City after transferring headquarters four times. During the administration of president Joseph Estrada, he criticized the Inquirer for "bias and fabrication" against him—this charge to the newspaper was denied.
In 1999, several government organizations, pro-Estrada businesses, movie producers pulled their advertisements from the Inquirer in a boycott that lasted for five months. The presidential palace was implicated in the advertising boycott, denounced by publisher Isagani Yambot as an attack on the freedom of the press. In 2007, according to the survey conducted by AGB Nielsen, the Inquirer is the most read newspaper in the Philippines; the Manila Bulletin and the Philippine Star followed as the second and the third most read papers, respectively. Magsanoc died on December 2015 at the St. Luke's Medical Center in Taguig City. A month after her death, Jimenez-Magsanoc was recognized as the Filipino of the Year 2015 by the Inquirer. In February 2, 2016, the Inquirer appointed its managing editor Jose Ma. Nolasco as the executive editor, the new top position of the newspaper, replacing the traditional "editor in chief" position that used by Inquirer for more than three decades. Nolasco was the managing editor of PDI for 24 years, he is part of the first batch of reporters of Inquirer when the paper started its publication in 1985.
On October 6, 2016, the Inquirer launched a "rethink" of its print and digital presence by overhauling its newspaper design and website, Inquirer.net and the launch of "My Inquirer" which converged the platforms of Inquirer in print, smartphone and smartwatch. The redesign was done in collaboration with Dr. Mario Garcia of Garcia Media; the Philippine Daily Inquirer annually names a Filipino of the Year, honoring a Filipino who has made the most positive impact on the life of the nation. Inquirer Compact Inquirer Libre Isagani Yambot - Publisher of the Philippine Daily Inquirer from 1994 to 2012 Letty Jimenez Magsanoc - longest-serving and first woman editor-in-chief Rina Jimenez-David - columnist Media Ownership Monitor Philippines - Media Companies: A Duopoly Rules by VERA Files and Reporters Without Borders Media Ownership Monitor Philippines - Print by VERA Files and Reporters Without Borders
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat, the tenth President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. A leading member of the far-right New Society Movement, he ruled as a dictator under martial law from 1972 until 1981, his regime was infamous for its corruption and brutality. Marcos claimed an active part in World War II, including fighting alongside the Americans in the Bataan Death March and being the "most decorated war hero in the Philippines". A number of his claims were found to be false and the United States Army documents described Marcos's wartime claims as "fraudulent" and "absurd". Marcos started as an attorney served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965, he was elected President in 1965, presided over a growing economy during the beginning and intermediate portion of his 20-year rule, but ended in loss of livelihood, extreme poverty, a crushing debt crisis. Marcos placed the Philippines under martial law on September 23, 1972, during which he revamped the constitution, silenced the media, used violence and oppression against the political opposition, communist rebels, ordinary citizens.
Martial law was ratified by 90.77% of the voters during the Philippine Martial Law referendum, 1973 though the referendum was marred with controversy. Public outrage led to the snap elections of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil, human rights abuses led to the People Power Revolution in February 1986, which removed him from power. To avoid what could have been a military confrontation in Manila between pro- and anti-Marcos troops, Marcos was advised by US President Ronald Reagan through Senator Paul Laxalt to "cut and cut cleanly", after which Marcos fled to Hawaii. Marcos was succeeded by Corazon "Cory" Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. who had flown back to the Philippines to face Marcos. According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government, the Marcos family stole US$5–10 billion; the PCGG maintained that the Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle, taking away billions of dollars from the Philippines between 1965 and 1986.
His wife Imelda Marcos, whose excesses during the couple's conjugal dictatorship made her infamous in her own right, spawned the term "Imeldific". Two of their children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr. are still active in Philippine politics. Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born on September 11, 1917, in the town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, to Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin, he was baptized into the Philippine Independent Church, but was first baptized in the Roman Catholic Church at the age of three. Marcos studied law at the University of the Philippines, he excelled in both curricular and extra-curricular activities, becoming a valuable member of the university's swimming and wrestling teams. He was an accomplished and prolific orator and writer for the student newspaper. While attending the UP College of Law, he became a member of the Upsilon Sigma Phi, where he met his future colleagues in government and some of his staunchest critics; when he sat for the 1939 Bar Examinations, he received a near-perfect score of 98.8%, but allegations of cheating prompted the Philippine Supreme Court to re-calibrate his score to 92.35%.
He graduated cum laude. He was elected to the Pi Gamma Mu and the Phi Kappa Phi international honor societies, the latter giving him its Most Distinguished Member Award 37 years later. In Seagrave's book The Marcos Dynasty, he mentioned that Marcos possessed a phenomenal memory and exhibited this by memorizing complicated texts and reciting them forward and backward such as the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines. Senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago, in an interview with the Philippine Star on March 25, 2012, shared her experience as a speech writer to President Marcos: "One time, the Secretary of Justice forgot to tell me that the President had requested him to draft a speech that the President was going to deliver before graduates of the law school, and on the day the President was to deliver the speech, he remembered because Malacañang was asking for the speech, so he said,'This is an emergency. You just have to produce something.' And I just dictated the speech. He liked long speeches. I think, 20 or 25 pages.
And in the evening, I was there, of course. President Marcos recited the speech from memory." In December 1938, Ferdinand Marcos was prosecuted for the murder of Julio Nalundasan. He was not the only accused from the Marcos clan. Nalundasan, one of the elder Marcos's political rivals, had been shot and killed in his house in Batac on September 21, 1935 – the day after he had defeated Mariano Marcos a second time for a seat in the National Assembly. According to two witnesses, the four had conspired to assassinate Nalundasan, with Ferdinand Marcos pulling the trigger. In late January 1939, they were denied bail and in the year, they were convicted. Ferdinand and Lizardo received the death penalty for premeditated murder, while Mariano and Pio were found guilty of contempt of court; the Marcos family took their appeal to the Supreme Court of the Philippines, which overturned the lower court's decision on 22 October 1940, acquitting them of all charges except contempt. Marcos' military service during World War II has been the subject of debate and controversy, both in the Philippines and in international military circles.
Marcos, who had received ROTC training, was activate
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Japan–Philippines relations and, span a period from before the 16th century to the present. Relations between Japan and the kingdoms in the Philippines date back to at least the Muromachi period of Japanese history, as Japanese merchants and traders had settled in Luzon at this time. In the area of Dilao, a suburb of Manila, was a Nihonmachi of 3,000 Japanese around the year 1600; the term originated from the Tagalog term'dilaw', meaning'yellow', which describes their general physiognomy. The Japanese had established quite early an enclave at Dilao where they numbered between 300 and 400 in 1593. In 1603, during the Sangley rebellion, they numbered 1,500, 3,000 in 1606. In the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of Japanese people traders migrated to the Philippines and assimilated into the local population. Pp. 52–3 In 1593, Spanish authorities in Manila authorized the dispatch of Franciscan missionaries to Japan. The Franciscan friar Luis Sotelo was involved in the support of the Dilao enclave between 1600 and 1608.
In the first half of the 17th century, intense official trade took place between the two countries, through the Red seal ships system. Thirty official "Red seal ship" passports were issued between Japan and the Philippines between 1604 and 1616; the Japanese led an abortive rebellion in Dilao against the Spanish Empire in 1606-1607, but their numbers rose again until the interdiction of Christianity by Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1614, when 300 Japanese Christian refugees under Takayama Ukon settled in the Philippines. On 8 November 1614, together with 300 Japanese Christians Takayama Ukon left his home country from Nagasaki, he arrived at Manila on 21 December and was greeted warmly by the Spanish Jesuits and the local Filipinos there. The Spanish Philippines offered its assistance in overthrowing the Japanese government by invasion to protect Japanese Catholics. Justo declined to participate, died of illness just 40 days afterwards; these 17th-century immigrants are at the origin of some of today's 200,000-strong Japanese population in the Philippines.
More rebellions such as one known as the Tondo conspiracy had Japanese merchants and Christians involved, but the conspiracy was disbanded. Toyotomi Hideyoshi threatened the Spanish to leave or face full scale Japanese invasion, however this was near his decline and death; the Tokugawa Shogunate rose in power right after. By the mid-17th century, Japan established an isolationist policy, contacts between the two nations were severed until after the opening of Japan in 1854. In the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of Japanese traders migrated to the Philippines and assimilated into the local population. During the 1896 uprising against Spanish colonial rule the 1898 Spanish–American War, Filipino freedom-fighters sought assistance from the Japanese government; the Katipunan sent a delegate to the Emperor of Japan to solicit funds and military arms in May 1896. Although the Meiji government of Japan was unwilling and unable to provide any official support, Japanese supporters of Philippine independence in the Pan-Asian movement raised funds and sent weapons on the charted Nunobiki Maru, which sank before reaching its destination.
However, under the terms of the Taft–Katsura Agreement of 1905, the Japanese government acquiesced to American colonial rule over the Philippines. During the American period, Japanese economic ties to the Philippines expanded tremendously and by 1929 Japan was the largest trading partner to the Philippines after the United States. Economic investment was accompanied by large-scale immigration of Japanese to the Philippines merchants and prostitutes. Davao that time had over 20,000 ethnic Japanese residents. By 1935, it was estimated. Investments included natural resource development. By 1940, some 40% of Philippine exports to Japan were iron, copper and chrome. During World War II after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces invaded and overcame resistance by the United States and Philippine Commonwealth military. Strategically, Japan needed the Philippines to prevent its use by Allied forces as a forward base of operations against the Japanese home islands, against its plans for the further conquest of Southeast Asia.
In 1943, a puppet government, the Second Philippine Republic, was established, but gained little popular support due to the Imperial Japanese Army's brutal conduct towards the Philippine civilian population. During the course of the Japanese occupation, subsequent battles during the American and Filipino re-invasion, an estimated one million Filipinos died, giving rise to lingering anti-Japanese sentiment. Hundreds of heritage cities and towns throughout the country lay in ruins due to intentional fire and kamikaze tactics imposed by the Japanese and bombings imposed by the Americans. Only a single heritage town, survived; the government of the Empire of Japan never gave any compensation for the restoration of Filipino heritage towns and cities. While the United States only gave minimal funding for two cities and Baguio. A decade after the war, the heritage landscape of the Philippines was never restored due to a devastated economy, lack of funding, lack of cultural experts during the time; the heritage zones were replaced by old shanty houses and ugly cement houses with cheap plywood or galvanized iron as roofs.
According to a United States analysis released years after the war, U. S. casualties were 36,550 wounded. Filipino
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Ateneo de Manila University
The Ateneo de Manila University known as Ateneo or The Ateneo, is a private Roman Catholic Jesuit research university in Quezon City, Philippines. Founded in 1859 by the Society of Jesus, Ateneo is the third-oldest university in the Philippines. Ateneo offers elementary and junior high school education to male students, while its senior high school and college are co-educational. In college, both undergraduate and graduate programmes are organised into four schools, collectively known as the Loyola Schools, which are located at its main campus at Loyola Heights along with the Grade School, Junior High School and Senior High School. Four professional schools occupy other campuses throughout Metro Manila. Students of Ateneo are referred to as Ateneans. Ateneo undergraduates follow a Catholic-rooted liberal arts curriculum throughout their programmes in the Humanities, Social Sciences and Engineering, or Business Management; the Commission on Higher Education has recognized its units in biology, chemistry, information technology, entrepreneurship education, English literature, sociology and business administration as Centers of Excellence while the communication, electronics engineering, environmental science, Filipino literature, political science units have been declared Centres of Development.
The Loyola Heights campus hosts two chemistry research centres: Philippine Institute of Pure and Applied Chemistry and National Chemistry Instrumentation Centre. Ateneo offers programmes at the elementary, secondary and graduate levels, its academic offerings include the arts, business, the social sciences, theology and public health, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, environmental science and government, with forty-eight Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees at the undergraduate level. At the postgraduate level there are forty-four Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees, six Master of Business Administration programmes, two Master of Laws concentrations, one Master of Public Management degree, two professional Doctor of Medicine and Juris Doctor programmes, twelve Doctor of Philosophy degrees; as is common in the Philippines, the primary medium of instruction is English, with a few classes taught in Filipino. Aside from teaching and research, the Ateneo de Manila engages in social outreach.
Known for its liberal arts tradition, the humanities are a key feature of Ateneo education at all levels of study. In 2015, QS Top Universities placed the university's undergraduate programmes 461st in the world and 114th in Asia; the Ateneo Professional Schools is the main professional education division of Ateneo de Manila, comprises the following four schools. The Ateneo Graduate School of Business offers a variety of Master of Business Administration concentrations, including a Master in Health Services Administration; the Ateneo Law School confers Master of Laws degrees. The Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health, opened in 2007, offers an integrated Doctor of Medicine and Master of Business Administration programme; the Ateneo School of Government confers the Master in Public Management and Ph. D. in Leadership Studies degrees. The professional schools confer certificates for short courses. Ateneo Law School Ateneo School of Government Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health Ateneo Graduate School of Business Loyola Schools offers undergraduate and graduate degree programs in the arts and sciences.
It confers the Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Fine Arts, Master of Arts, Master of Science, Doctor of Philosophy degrees. It is composed of four schools, the School of Humanities, the John Gokongwei School of Management, the School of Science and Engineering, the School of Social Sciences. A key feature of the Loyola Schools is a liberal arts undergraduate core curriculum, required for all undergraduates, it includes philosophy and Filipino literature, history, various branches of social sciences, a community service component. Ateneo follows the semester hour system common in American universities. Most classes are held below 40 students and student discussion is encouraged; the Loyola Schools' programs are geared toward student-centreedness. Ateneo was one of the first schools in the Philippines to enact a Magna Carta for Undergraduates; the Commission on Higher Education has designated several departments and programmes of the Loyola Schools as centres of excellence and Centers of Development.
Ateneo has Centers of Excellence in: Business Administration, English, Information Technology, Mathematics, Physics and Sociology. It has Centers of Development in Environmental Science and Filipino. Ateneo de Manila Senior High School is a Catholic senior high school for both male and female students; the high school was male-only but due to the K-12 program, Ateneo opened its doors to female students in the senior high school level. It includes the original 3rd year and 4th year level of the old Ateneo High School curriculum. In terms of curriculum options, the ASHS offers all four strands of the K-12 program's Academic Track: 1.) The Accountancy and Management Strand. The General Academic Strand; the Humanities and Social Sci