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Hilton Istanbul Bosphorus

The Hilton Istanbul Bosphorus is a five star hotel in Istanbul, Turkey. It is located at Cumhuriyet Cad. in Elmadağ, Şişli. Opened in 1955 as the Istanbul Hilton, the hotel has been a part of the Hilton Hotels conglomerate since, it was the first modern hotel in Europe built from the ground up in the aftermath of World War II. It is titled with Hilton Hotels' longest-serving member outside the United States. On December 19, 1950, Conrad N. Hilton revealed to the New York Times that he had reached an agreement with the Turkish Government to build a new Hilton hotel in Istanbul with 300 rooms costing US$5 million; the U. S. governmental agency Economic Cooperation Administration, which administered the Marshall Plan, the post-war aid program for Europe, was the main financier of an investment project totalling US$50 million in the whole of Europe. Hilton would bring up the operation capital and run the hotels while keeping one third of the profits. At the time, Istanbul was growing in tourism and commerce, but lacked high-class accommodation sites except six luxury hotels as well as six first-class hotels.

The total number of rooms conforming to internationally acceptable comfort standards was 290. The project would more than double the city's accommodation capacity at the international level. John Wilson Houser, vice-president of Hilton International, wrote a letter to Conrad N. Hilton on June 23, 1951 about the Soviet Union's intention to build a 1,000-room hotel in Istanbul similar to the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City, plans of which he had seen. Hilton Istanbul Bosphorus project thus became a factor in the Cold War US–Soviet rivalry; the final contract between the Turkish Government and Hilton Hotels was signed on August 9, 1951. The necessary land and US$3 million of the investment capital were provided by Emekli Sandığı, Turkish Pension Fund, the remaining US$2 million by the ECA. Hilton International secured the operation rights for 20 years; the hotel was designed by the renowned American architectural and engineering firm Skidmore and Merrill, carrying out some other urban planning and building projects in Turkey.

Award-winning Turkish architect Sedat Hakkı Eldem was appointed as an advisor. The Hilton Hotel was built upon the confiscated property of a former Armenian cemetery; the groundbreaking took place in the summer of 1952. German company Dyckerhoff, Widmann & Julius Berger was signed for the construction; the labor at the construction site was carried out by up to around 500 Turkish workers and engineers. Critical construction materials were imported. White Portland cement and structural steel came from Germany and ceramic fittings from Italy, aluminum window castings, air-conditioning units and elevators from the United States; the eleven-story building, in the form of a rectangular prism with dimensions of 21 m × 100 m, represents modern architecture. The building was erected on a green hillside with a panoramic view of the Bosphorus and is close to the busy Taksim Square; the building is a combination of the modern lines of Gordon Bunshaft with the rich artistic and romantic elements of Ottoman and Turkish architecture, implemented by Sedat Hakkı Eldem.

As an example of Orientalism, the roof of the main entrance, designed by Eldem, resembles a flying carpet. The decorative tiles came from Kütahya, the carpets for the rooms covering 12,500 m2 were woven in Konya by hand. After completing the construction work in a record time of 21 months, the hotel became the largest in Eastern Europe and the Middle East; the hotel was temporarily opened on May 20, 1955. The official opening took place in a ceremony on June 10, 1955 in presence of Conrad N. Hilton, Fahrettin Kerim Gökay and Mayor of Istanbul, as well as American guests and celebrities, who came the day before on a chartered flight. Among them were Terry Moore, Olivia de Havilland, Mona Freeman, Irene Dunne, Sonja Henie, Diana Lynn, Merle Oberon, Ann Miller, Lon McCallister, Keefe Brasselle, Leo Carrillo and Elaine Shepard; the Hilton Istanbul Bosphorus contains 499 rooms of 5 m × 6 m with private balcony. In addition, the hotel offers 13 suites. Restaurants at the hotel are "Dubb" which offers Indian cuisine, "Veranda Grill & Bar" for organic food and fish, "Bosphorus Terrace", "Lobby Lounge & Bar", "Pool Café" and "Dragon", which offers classical Chinese cuisine.

Further facilities of the hotel are a Turkish bath, jacuzzi and steam room for relaxing. Hilton Istanbul Bosphorus hosted following important heads of state apart from numerous nobilities, politicians and celebrities: King Faisal II, Iraq King Hussein, Jordan Queen Elizabeth II, United Kingdom Charles de Gaulle, France Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, Pakistan Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, Iran Rainier III, Prince of Monaco George W. Bush, USA The hotel is recognizable in Jules Dassin's 1964 film "Topkapi", in an exterior shot that shows the hotel in which the main characters are staying as they plan their heist

German submarine U-2371

German submarine U-2371 was a Type XXIII U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was ordered on 7 July 1944, was laid down on 19 January 1945 at Deutsche Werft AG, Hamburg, as yard number 525, she was launched on 18 April 1945 and commissioned under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Johannes Kühne on 24 April 1945. Like all Type XXIII U-boats, U-2371 had a displacement of 234 tonnes when at the surface and 258 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 34.68 m, a beam width of 3.02 m, a draught depth of3.66 m. The submarine was powered by one MWM six-cylinder RS134S diesel engine providing 575–630 metric horsepower, one AEG GU4463-8 double-acting electric motor electric motor providing 580 PS, one BBC silent running CCR188 electric motor providing 35 PS; the submarine had a submerged speed of 12.5 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate at 4 knots for 194 nautical miles. U-2371 was fitted with two 53.3 cm torpedo tubes in the bow. She could carry two preloaded torpedoes.

The complement was 14 – 18 men. This class of U-boat did not carry a deck gun. On 3 May 1945, U-2371 was scuttled at Hamburg as part of Operation Regenbogen; the wreck was raised and broken up. Battle of the Atlantic Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-2371". Retrieved 30 April 2016

1993–94 Ukrainian Second League

The 1993–94 Ukrainian Second League was the third season of 3rd level professional football in Ukraine. Ros Bila Tserkva - Shakhtar Pavlohrad - Naftokhimik Kremenchuk - winner of the Third League Dynamo Luhansk - runner-up of the Third League Borysfen Boryspil - fourth in the Third League Metalurh Kerch placed fifth in the Third League Shakhtar Shakhtarsk - sixth in the Third League Prior to the season Nyva-Borysfen Myronivka was renamed into Borysfen Boryspil first and simply Boryspil. Ukrainian First League 1993-94 Ukrainian Third League 1993-94 1993-94 Ukrainian Cup 1993-94 Ukrainian Transitional League 1993-94 Ukrainian Transitional League

One ban

The Romanian one-ban coin is a unit of currency equalling one one-hundredth of a Romanian leu. It is the lowest-denomination coin of the present currency and has been minted every year since the leu was redenominated in 2005; as well as Romania, the coin has been minted in the United Kingdom and Russia. The first one-ban coin was struck in 1867 by two different mints in Birmingham, England: Heaton and Watt & Co; the coin weighed 1g. It was composed of 4 % tin and 1 % zinc; the obverse featured its coat of arms. The reverse featured the denomination within a laurel oak branch; the denomination within the wreath read 1 BANU and 1867. The short'u' sound at the end of Romanian words was common in pronunciation, but was made obsolete in 1904 by the'Regule ortografice', printed by the Romanian Academy; each mint struck 2.5 million of the coin. Watt & Co. used the mintmark WATT & C below the wreath while Heaton used a H. While their other Romanian coins in 1867 used their full name, space was a constraint on the 1 banu.

The coins entered circulation on 1 January 1868. The first one-ban coin to feature the Romanian monarch was minted in 1900 and featured on its obverse King Carol I and the national coat of arms on the reverse, it retained the dimensions and composition of the 1867 coin. The King's inscription read CAROL I REGE AL ROMANIEI. Below his head was the name KULLRICH, the surname of the engraver. On the reverse, the date was split across each side of the coat of arms. Below the coat of arms on the right was an ear of wheat, while on the left was the mintmark B. Although representing the Romanian capital Bucharest, the 20 million of these coins from 1900 were minted in Hamburg, Germany. No 1 ban coins were minted in any other years of the Kingdom of Romania due to inflation; the denomination returned in 1952 under communist rule, after a monetary reform on 28 January of that year. Its dimensions and mass remained the same as in 1867 and 1900, although the composition changed to 95% copper and 5% aluminium.

The coin featured Romania's communist coat of arms on the obverse. The reverse featured the year in plain type; the coin was minted at Moscow Mint in Soviet Russia and 67.4 million were issued. The next year a star was placed above the coat of arms, akin to other communist nations. For 1953, 8 million of the coin were issued from Bucharest, but after 15.3 million in 1954 the denomination was again demonetised. On 1 July 2005 the leu was redenominated, with 10,000 old leu becoming equal to one new leu. Thus, the new 1 ban coin was equivalent to 100 old lei, a denomination, demonetised in 1996; the one-ban coins were sold to large shops in rolls of fifty. Two version of the new 1 ban coin exist; the first issues of all of Romania's new coins were of a different diameter to the present, but none by more than 0.15mm

Donnelly House and Gardens

The historic Donnelly House, an example of Neo-classical architecture, was built in 1905 as the residence of James W. Donnelly. Mr. Donnelly was an industrialist, real-estate developer and civic leader. After retiring from Procter & Gamble in Cincinnati, he moved south to Birmingham, where this magnificent Georgian-colonial mansion had been constructed, featuring over 12,000 square feet of living space and spectacular white marble floors. While the Donnelly House has served as a private residence, it was the home of the Birmingham Civic Ballet during the 1950s; the home was opened as a venue for weddings, business meetings and other activities. The house was purchased by Carl Schoettlin in 2011; the house was renovated by Schoettlin Building Company. The house is an entertainment venue specializing in weddings, parties, etc; the house is managed by Carl Schoettlin. The home was listed on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage on May 20, 1975, it is a contributing property to the Highland Avenue Historic District, a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Alabama Historic Donnelly House