A guild /ɡɪld/ is an association of artisans or merchants who control the practice of their craft in a particular town. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of tradesmen and they were organized in a manner something between a professional association, trade union, a cartel, and a secret society. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as meeting places, an important result of the guild framework was the emergence of universities at Bologna and Paris, they originated as guilds of students as at Bologna, or of masters as at Paris. Usually the founders were free independent master craftsmen who hired apprentices, there were several types of guilds, including the two main categories of merchant guilds and craft guilds but the frith guild and religious guild. In many cases became the governing body of a town. The Freedom of the City, effective from the Middle Ages until 1835, gave the right to trade, Trade guilds arose in the 14th century as craftsmen united to protect their common interest.
The occasion for these oaths were drunken banquets held on December 26, gregory of Tours tells a miraculous tale of a builder whose art and techniques suddenly left him, but were restored by an apparition of the Virgin Mary in a dream. Michel Rouche remarks that the story speaks for the importance of practically transmitted journeymanship, in France, guilds were called corps de métiers. According to Viktor Ivanovich Rutenburg, Within the guild itself there was little division of labour. Thus, according to Étienne Boileaus Book of Handicrafts, by the century there were no less than 100 guilds in Paris. In Catalan towns, specially at Barcelona, guilds or gremis were a basic agent in the society, a shoemakers guild is recorded in 1208. In England, specifically in the City of London Corporation, more than 110 guilds, referred to as companies, survive today. Other groups, such as the Worshipful Company of Tax Advisers, have been formed far more recently, membership in a livery company is expected for individuals participating in the governance of The City, as the Lord Mayor and the Remembrancer.
The guild system reached a state in Germany circa 1300 and held on in German cities into the 19th century. In the 15th century, Hamburg had 100 guilds, Cologne 80, the latest guilds to develop in Western Europe were the gremios of Spain, e. g. Valencia or Toledo. Not all city economies were controlled by guilds, some cities were free, in order to become a Master, a Journeyman would have to go on a three-year voyage called Journeyman years. The practice of the Journeyman years still exists in Germany and France, in Ghent, as in Florence, the woolen textile industry developed as a congeries of specialized guilds. The appearance of the European guilds was tied to the emergent money economy, before this time it was not possible to run a money-driven organization, as commodity money was the normal way of doing business
Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country. The area of the whole city amounts to more than 13,840 hectares, including 1,075 hectares off the coast, the historic city centre is a prominent World Heritage Site of UNESCO. It is oval and about 430 hectares in size, the citys total population is 117,073, of whom around 20,000 live in the city centre. The metropolitan area, including the commuter zone, covers an area of 616 km2 and has a total of 255,844 inhabitants as of 1 January 2008. Along with a few other canal-based northern cities, such as Amsterdam and Stockholm, Bruges has a significant economic importance thanks to its port and was once one of the worlds chief commercial cities. Bruges is well known as the seat of the College of Europe, the name probably derives from the Old Dutch for bridge, brugga. Also compare Middle Dutch brucge and modern Dutch bruggehoofd, the form brugghe would be a southern Dutch variant.
The Dutch word and the English bridge both derive from Proto-Germanic *brugjō-, Bruges was a location of coastal settlement during prehistory. This Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement is unrelated to medieval city development, in the Bruges area, the first fortifications were built after Julius Caesars conquest of the Menapii in the first century BC, to protect the coastal area against pirates. The Franks took over the region from the Gallo-Romans around the 4th century. The Viking incursions of the century prompted Count Baldwin I of Flanders to reinforce the Roman fortifications, trade soon resumed with England. Bruges received its city charter on 27 July 1128, and new walls and canals were built, in 1089 Bruges became the capital of the County of Flanders. Since about 1050, gradual silting had caused the city to lose its access to the sea. A storm in 1134, however, re-established this access, through the creation of a channel at the Zwin. The new sea arm stretched all the way to Damme, a city became the commercial outpost for Bruges.
Bruges had a location at the crossroads of the northern Hanseatic League trade. They developed, or borrowed from Italy, new forms of merchant capitalism, whereby several merchants would share the risks and profits and they employed new forms of economic exchange, including bills of exchange and letters of credit. The city eagerly welcomed foreign traders, most notably the Portuguese traders selling pepper and other spices, the citys entrepreneurs reached out to make economic colonies of England and Scotlands wool-producing districts
A journeyman is a skilled worker who has successfully completed an official apprenticeship qualification in a building trade or craft. They are considered competent and authorized to work in that field as a qualified employee. A journeyman earns their license through education, supervised experience, although a journeyman has completed a trade certificate and is able to work as an employee, they are not yet able to work as a self-employed master craftsman. The term journeyman was originally used in the trade guilds. Journeymen were paid each day, and this is where the word ‘journey’ derived from- journée meaning ‘a day’ in French, each individual guild generally recognized three ranks of workers, apprentices and masters. A journeyman, as a qualified tradesman could become a master, guidelines were put in place to promote responsible tradesmen who were held accountable for their own work, and to protect the individual trade and the general public from unskilled workers. To become a master, a journeyman has to submit a master piece of work to a guild for an evaluation, only after evaluation can a journeyman be admitted to the guild as a master.
Sometimes, a journeyman is required to accomplish a three-year working trip, the word journeyman comes from the French word journée, which means a days work or a days travel, journée in turn comes from Vulgar Latin, diurnum meaning day. The title refers to the right to charge a fee for each days work. A journeyman has completed an apprenticeship but is employed by such as a master craftsman. A journeyman could not employ others, carpenters in Germany have retained the tradition of traveling journeymen even today, although only a few still practice it. In France, wandering journeymen were known as compagnons, in modern apprenticeship systems, a journeyman is a person who has a trades certificate that shows the required completion of an apprenticeship. In many countries this is the highest formal rank and allows them to all the tasks of the trade within the area where they are certified, to supervise apprentices. The modern apprenticeship system aims to build skills through on the job training, an apprentice is able to earn a living while learning these new skills.
The working environment is linked to the employer giving the individual company the opportunity to shape the apprentice, within the guidelines. Quite often a working relationship is built between employee and employer. A person who has completed the traditional live-in apprenticeship could be considered a journeyman, the journeyman license certifies that the craftsman has met the requirements of time in the field and time in an approved classroom setting. A journeyman has the responsibility of supervising workers of lesser experience and training as them, a journeyman is commonly expected to have a wide range of experience, covering most fields of his trade
A pastiche is a work of visual art, theatre, or music that imitates the style or character of the work of one or more other artists. Unlike parody, pastiche celebrates, rather than mocks, the work it imitates, the word pastiche is a French cognate of the Italian noun pasticcio, which is a pâté or pie-filling mixed from diverse ingredients. Metaphorically and pasticcio describe works that are composed by several authors. Pastiche is an example of eclecticism in art, a literary allusion may refer to another work, but it does not reiterate it. Moreover, allusion requires the audience to share in the cultural knowledge. Both allusion and pastiche are mechanisms of intertextuality, in literature usage, the term denotes a literary technique employing a generally light-hearted tongue-in-cheek imitation of anothers style, although jocular, it is usually respectful. For example, many stories featuring Sherlock Holmes, originally penned by Arthur Conan Doyle, have written as pastiches since the authors time.
Ellery Queen and Nero Wolfe are other subjects of mystery parodies and pastiches. A similar example of pastiche is the posthumous continuations of the Robert E. Howard stories and this includes the Conan stories of L. Sprague de Camp and Lin Carter. David Lodges novel The British Museum Is Falling Down is a pastiche of works by Joyce, Kafka, in 1991 Alexandra Ripley wrote the novel Scarlett, a pastiche of Gone with the Wind, in an unsuccessful attempt to have it recognized as a canonical sequel. Charles Rosen has characterized Mozarts various works in imitation of Baroque style as pastiche, some of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovskys works, such as his Variations on a Rococo Theme and Serenade for Strings, employ a poised classical form reminiscent of 18th-century composers such as Mozart. Perhaps one of the best examples of pastiche in modern music is that of George Rochberg, Rochberg turned to pastiche from serialism after the death of his son in 1963. Bohemian Rhapsody by Queen is unusual as it is a pastiche in both senses of the word, as there are distinct styles imitated in the song.
A similar earlier example is Happiness is a Warm Gun by The Beatles, one can find musical pastiches throughout the work of the American composer Frank Zappa. A pastiche Mass is a musical Mass where the constituent movements come from different Mass settings, most often this convention has been chosen for concert performances, particularly by early-music ensembles. Masses are composed of movements, Gloria, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, for example, the Missa Solemnis by Beethoven and the Messe de Nostre Dame by Guillaume de Machaut. In a pastiche Mass, the performers may choose a Kyrie from one composer, and a Gloria from another, or choose a Kyrie from one setting of a composer. In musical theater pastiche is often a tool for evoking the sounds of a particular era for which a show is set
Lucretia or Lucrece was an ancient Roman woman whose fate played a vital role in the transition of Roman government from the Roman Kingdom to the Roman Republic. The incident kindled the flames of dissatisfaction over the methods of the last king of Rome. As a result of its impact, the rape itself became a major theme in European art. One of the first two consuls of the Roman Republic, Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus was Lucretias husband, all the numerous sources on the establishment of the republic reiterate the basic events of Lucretias story, though accounts vary slightly. Lucretias story is not considered a myth by most historians, the evidence points to the historical existence of a woman named Lucretia and an historical incident that played a critical part in the real downfall of a real monarchy. Many of the details, are debatable. Post-Roman uses of the legend typically became mythical in portrayal, being of artistic rather than historical merit, as the events of the story move rapidly, the date of the incident is probably the same year as the first of the fasti.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a source, sets this year at the beginning of the sixty-eighth Olympiad. Isagoras being the annual archon at Athens, that is, 508/507 BC, Lucretia therefore died in 508 BC. The other historical sources tend to support this date, but the year is debatable within a range of five years. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome, being engaged in the siege of Ardea, sent his son, Sextus Tarquinius and she was weaving with her maids. The party awarded her the palm of victory and Collatinus invited them to visit, at night Sextus entered her bedroom by stealth, quietly going around the slaves who were sleeping at her door. In the alternative story, he returned from camp a few with one companion to take Collatinus up on his invitation to visit and was lodged in a guest bedroom. He entered Lucretias room while she lay naked in her bed and started to wash her belly with water, the next day Lucretia dressed in black and went to her fathers house in Rome and cast herself down in the supplicants position, weeping.
While they were debating, she drew a dagger and stabbed herself in the heart. She died in her fathers arms, with the women present keening and lamenting, in the alternative version, she did not go to Rome, but sent for her father and her husband asking them to bring one friend each. Those selected were Publius Valerius Publicola from Rome and Lucius Junius Brutus from the camp at Ardea and they found Lucretia in her room. In another version Collatinus and Brutus were encountered returning to Rome unaware, were briefed, Brutus happened to be a politically motivated participant
Gerard David was an Early Netherlandish painter and manuscript illuminator known for his brilliant use of color. Only a bare outline of his survives, although some facts are known. He may have been the Meester gheraet van brugghe who became a master of the Antwerp guild in 1515 and he was very successful in his lifetime and probably ran two workshops, in Antwerp and Bruges. His reputation diminished in the 17th century until he was rediscovered in the 19th century and he was born in Oudewater, now located in the province of Utrecht. His year of birth is approximated as c.1460 on the basis that he looks to be around 50 years in the 1509 self-portrait found in his Virgin among the Virgins and he spent his mature career in Bruges, where he was a member of the painters guild. Upon the death of Hans Memling in 1494, David became Bruges leading painter and he moved to Bruges in 1483, presumably from Haarlem, where he had formed his early style under Albert van Oudewater, and joined the Guild of Saint Luke at Bruges in 1484.
He became dean of the guild in 1501, and in 1496 married Cornelia Cnoop, David was one of the towns leading citizens. Ambrosius Benson served his apprenticeship with David, but they came into dispute around 1519 over a number of paintings and drawings Benson had collected from other artists, because of a large debt owed to him by Benson, David had refused to return the material. Benson pursued the matter legally and won, leading to David serving time in prison and he died on 13 August 1523 and was buried in the Church of Our Lady at Bruges. Davids surviving work consists of religious scenes. They are characterised by an atmospheric and almost dream like serenity, achieved through soft and subtle colourisation and he is innovative in his recasting of traditional themes and in his approach to landscape, which was only an emerging genre in northern European painting. His ability with landscape can be seen in the foliage of his Triptych of the Baptism. In his early work David followed Haarlem artists such as Dirk Bouts, Albert van Oudewater and Geertgen tot Sint Jans, to this early period belong the St John of the Richard von Kaufmann collection in Berlin and the Saltings St Jerome.
In Bruges came directly under the influence of Memling, the master whom he followed most closely and it was from him that David acquired a solemnity of treatment, greater realism in the rendering of human form, and an orderly arrangement of figures. He visited Antwerp in 1515 and was impressed with the work of Quentin Matsys, who had introduced a greater vitality and intimacy in the conception of sacred themes. Only a few of his works have remained in Bruges, The Judgment of Cambyses, The Flaying of Sisamnes and the Baptism of Christ in the Groeningemuseum, even in his best work he had only given newer variations of the art of his predecessors and contemporaries. His rank among the masters was renewed, when a number of his paintings were assembled at the seminal 1902 Gruuthusemuseum, several of his drawings survive, and elements from these appear in the works of other painters and illuminators for several decades after his death. At the time of Davids death, the glory of Bruges and its painters was on the wane, of Davids pupils in Bruges, only Isenbrant, Albert Cornelis and Ambrosius Benson achieved importance
The Persian Sibyl - known as the Babylonian, Hebrew or Egyptian Sibyl - was the prophetic priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle. The word Sibyl comes from the ancient Greek word sibulla, meaning prophetess, there were many Sibyls in the ancient world, but the Persian Sibyl allegedly foretold the exploits of Alexander of Macedon. Nicanor, who wrote a life of Alexander, mentions her, the Persian Sibyl has had at least three names, Sambethe and Sabbe. Sambethe was said to be of the family of Noah, a painting of Sibilla Persica by Guercino hangs in the Capitoline Museum in Rome. Some say she was a Babylonian, while others call her an Egyptian Sibyl. The medieval Byzantine encyclopedia, the Suda, credits the Hebrew Sibyl as author of the Sibylline oracles, Sibylline oracles Wives aboard the Ark Jewish Encyclopedia Media related to Sibyl of Persia at Wikimedia Commons
Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language and history. It is one of the communities and language areas of Belgium, the demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish. The official capital of Flanders is Brussels, although Brussels itself has an independent regional government, in historical contexts, Flanders originally refers to the County of Flanders, which around AD1000 stretched from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt estuary. In accordance with late 20th century Belgian state reforms the area was made two political entities, the Flemish Community and the Flemish Region. These entities were merged, although geographically the Flemish Community, which has a cultural mandate, covers Brussels. Flanders has figured prominently in European history, as a consequence, a very sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of northern Italy.
Belgium was one of the centres of the 19th century industrial revolution, Flanders is generally flat, and has a small section of coast on the North Sea. Much of Flanders is agriculturally fertile and densely populated, with a density of almost 500 people per square kilometer. It touches France to the west near the coast, and borders the Netherlands to the north and east, the Brussels Capital Region is an enclave within the Flemish Region. Flanders has exclaves of its own, Voeren in the east is between Wallonia and the Netherlands and Baarle-Hertog in the consists of 22 exclaves surrounded by the Netherlands. It comprises 6.5 million Belgians who consider Dutch to be their mother tongue, the political subdivisions of Belgium, the Flemish Region and the Flemish Community. The first does not comprise Brussels, whereas the latter does comprise the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Brussels, the political institutions that govern both subdivisions, the operative body Flemish Government and the legislative organ Flemish Parliament.
The two westernmost provinces of the Flemish Region, West Flanders and East Flanders, forming the central portion of the historic County of Flanders, a feudal territory that existed from the 8th century until its absorption by the French First Republic. Until the 1600s, this county extended over parts of France, one of the regions conquered by the French in Flanders, namely French Flanders in the Nord department. French Flanders can be divided into two regions, Walloon Flanders and Maritime Flanders. The first region was predominantly French-speaking already in the 1600s, the latter became so in the 20th century, the city of Lille identifies itself as Flemish, and this is reflected, for instance, in the name of its local railway station TGV Lille Flandres. The region conquered by the Dutch Republic in Flanders, now part of the Dutch province of Zeeland, the significance of the County of Flanders and its counts eroded through time, but the designation remained in a very broad sense. In the Early modern period, the term Flanders was associated with the part of the Low Countries
The Biografisch Portaal is an initiative based at the Huygens Institute for Dutch History in The Hague, with the aim of making biographical texts of the Netherlands more accessible. As of 2011, only information about deceased people is included. The system used is based on the standards of the Text Encoding Initiative, access to the Biografisch Portaal is available free through a web-based interface. The project is an undertaking by ten scientific and cultural bodies in the Netherlands with the Huygens Institute as main contact. In February 2012, a new project was started called BiographyNed to build a tool for use with the Biografisch Portaal that will link biographies to events in time. The main goal of the project is to formulate ‘the boundaries of the Netherlands’. List of Dutch people Official website
Guild of Saint Luke
The Guild of Saint Luke was the most common name for a city guild for painters and other artists in early modern Europe, especially in the Low Countries. They were named in honor of the Evangelist Luke, the saint of artists. One of the most famous such organizations was founded in Antwerp and it continued to function until 1795, although by it had lost its monopoly and therefore most of its power. In most cities, including Antwerp, the government had given the Guild the power to regulate defined types of trade within the city. Guild membership, as a master, was required for an artist to take on apprentices or to sell paintings to the public. Similar rules existed in Delft, where members could sell paintings in the city or have a shop. The guild of Saint Luke not only represented painters and other artists, but also—especially in the seventeenth century—dealers, amateurs. In traditional guild structures, house-painters and decorators were often in the same guild, however, as artists formed under their own specific guild of St.
Luke, particularly in the Netherlands, distinctions were increasingly made. In general, guilds made judgments on disputes between artists and other artists or their clients, in such ways, it controlled the economic career of an artist working in a specific city, while in different cities they were wholly independent and often competitive against each other. Although it did not become an artistic center until the sixteenth century, Antwerp was one of, if not the first. It is first mentioned in 1382, and was given privileges by the city in 1442. The registers, or Liggeren, from the guild exist, cataloging when artists became masters, who the dean for each year was, what their specialities were, and the names of any students. Perhaps because of this link, for a period they had a rule that all miniatures needed a tiny mark to identify the artist, only under special privileges, such as court artist, could an artist effectively practice their craft without holding membership in the guild. Membership allowed members to sell works at the guild-owned showroom, for example, opened a market stall for selling paintings in front of the cathedral in 1460, and Bruges followed in 1482.
Guilds of St. Luke in the Dutch Republic began to reinvent themselves as cities there changed over to Protestant rule, many St. Luke guilds reissued charters to protect the interests of local painters from the influx of southern talent from places like Antwerp and Bruges. Many cities in the republic became more important artistic centres in the late sixteenth. Amsterdam was the first city to reissue a St. Lukes charter after the reformation in 1579, and it included painters, engravers, for example, Gouda and Delft, all founded guilds between 1609 and 1611. On the other hand, these distinctions did not take effect at that time in Amsterdam or Haarlem, in the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke, however, a strict hierarchy was attempted in 1631 with panel painters at the top, though this hierarchy was eventually rejected