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Amdahl's law

In computer architecture, Amdahl's law is a formula which gives the theoretical speedup in latency of the execution of a task at fixed workload that can be expected of a system whose resources are improved. It is named after computer scientist Gene Amdahl, was presented at the AFIPS Spring Joint Computer Conference in 1967. Amdahl's law is used in parallel computing to predict the theoretical speedup when using multiple processors. For example, if a program needs 20 hours using a single processor core, a particular part of the program which takes one hour to execute cannot be parallelized, while the remaining 19 hours of execution time can be parallelized regardless of how many processors are devoted to a parallelized execution of this program, the minimum execution time cannot be less than that critical one hour. Hence, the theoretical speedup is limited to at most 20 times. For this reason, parallel computing with many processors is useful only for parallelizable programs. Amdahl's law can be formulated in the following way: S latency = 1 + p s where Slatency is the theoretical speedup of the execution of the whole task.

Furthermore, { S latency ≤ 1 1 − p lim s → ∞ S latency = 1 1 − p. shows that the theoretical speedup of the execution of the whole task increases with the improvement of the resources of the system and that regardless of the magnitude of the improvement, the theoretical speedup is always limited by the part of the task that cannot benefit from the improvement. Amdahl's law applies only to the cases. In practice, as more computing resources become available, they tend to get used on larger problems, the time spent in the parallelizable part grows much faster than the inherently serial work. In this case, Gustafson's law gives a less pessimistic and more realistic assessment of the parallel performance. A task executed by a system whose resources are improved compared to an initial similar system can be split up into two parts: a part that does not benefit from the improvement of the resources of the system. An example is a computer program. A part of that program may scan the directory of the disk and create a list of files internally in memory.

After that, another part of the program passes each file to a separate thread for processing. The part that scans the directory and creates the file list cannot be sped up on a parallel computer, but the part that processes the files can; the execution time of the whole task before the improvement of the resources of the system is denoted as T. It includes the execution time of the part that would not benefit from the improvement of the resources and the execution time of the one that would benefit from it; the fraction of the execution time of the task that would benefit from the improvement of the resources is denoted by p. The one concerning the part that would not benefit from it is therefore 1 − p. Then: T = T + p T, it is the execution of the part that benefits from the improvement of the resources, accelerated by the factor s after the improvement of the resources. The execution time of the part that does not benefit from it remains the same, while the part that benefits from it becomes: p s T.

The theoretical execution time T of the whole task after the improvement of the resources is then: T = T + p s T. Amdahl's law gives the theoretical speedup in latency of the execution of the whole task at fixed workload W, which yields S latency = T W T W = T

Sam Houston State University

Sam Houston State University is a public university in Huntsville, Texas. It is the third-oldest public college or university in Texas, it is one of the oldest purpose-built institutions for the instruction of teachers west of the Mississippi River and the first such institution in Texas. It is named for Sam Houston, buried there. SHSU is a member of the Texas State University System and has an enrollment of more than 20,000 students across over 80 undergraduate, 59 master's, 10 doctoral degree programs, its programs are ranked 230-301 by U. S. News & World Report; the university offers more than 20 online bachelor's and graduate degrees. It was the first institution classified as a Doctoral Research University by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education within the Texas State University System; the Sam Houston State University campus was home to Austin College, the Presbyterian institution that relocated to Sherman, Texas, in 1876. Austin Hall was constructed in 1851 and is the oldest university building west of the Mississippi still in operation.

It is used today for special meetings and events. Notably, Sam Houston himself participated in the original dedication of the building. Created by legislation signed by Governor Oran M. Roberts on San Jacinto Day, April 21, 1879, Sam Houston Normal Institute's dedicated goal was to train teachers for the public schools of Texas, it was the first teacher-training school in the southwestern United States. On October 10 of the same year, the first class of 110 students and four faculty commenced instruction; the first President of the school, Bernard Mallon, died eleven days. The one-room Peabody Memorial Library was the first free-standing campus library in Texas. According to the Normal Institute's catalogue, the library was "a handsome structure, designed for the purpose for which it is to be used, it is said that no school of this kind in the South has a Building equal to it." Restored, it is now used as a venue for special university events. When the university first opened, students received a certification to teach in the state's elementary and secondary schools.

After 1919, the university began to award bachelor's degrees. In 1936, the school awarded its first postbaccalaureate degree. SHSU celebrated its 125th year of operation in 2004; the university launched its first capital campaign in March 2006 with a $50 million goal and closed the campaign's books on August 31, 2010, with $61.2 million in commitments. The university has 110,000 living, addressable alumni and an active Alumni Association with 10,000 members, holding 200 meetings and events annually. On 30 May 2012, SHSU-The Woodlands Center opened on the Lone Star College-Montgomery campus; the facility has a five-story parking garage. The university operates SHSU-University Park on the property of Lone Star College-University Park in unincorporated Harris County near Tomball. Throughout the course of its history, Sam has undergone a number of name changes: 1879: founded as Sam Houston Normal Institute 1923: Sam Houston State Teachers College 1965: Sam Houston State College 1967: Sam Houston State UniversityIn April 2007, Texas House Bill 1418 passed without objection in the Texas Legislature, preventing The Texas State University System's Board of Regents from changing the university's name to Texas State-Sam Houston.

The oak-studded rural main campus sits on 316 acres in the central area of Huntsville. Two large agricultural complexes feature a rodeo arena; the campus features a planetarium, an observatory, a body farm, an 18-hole golf course named Raven Nest. The mall area of the main campus includes Clock and a fountain; the campus stood in for the fictional Austin University in the motion picture The Life of David Gale. Sam Houston State's academic departments and programs are organized into eight colleges: College of Business Administration College of Criminal Justice College of Education College of Arts and Media College of Humanities and Social Sciences College of Science & Engineering Technology College of Health Sciences College of Osteopathic MedicineAdditionally, the university enrolls more than 350 high achieving undergraduate students in the selective Elliott T. Bowers Honors College. Programs within the College of Criminal Justice were ranked by the Journal of Criminal Justice in the top five nationally.

The theater and dance programs were ranked by Dance Spectrum Magazine in the top 25 nationally, according to the National Dance Association, SHSU is home to quality athletic dance team. The university offers the only Professional Golf Management program in Texas, one of 20 in the country. SHSU has one of the oldest speech and debate programs in the nation; as of May 2016, the university offers: Eighty-eight undergraduate degree programs Fifty-nine masters' programs Eight doctoral programs Twenty-one certificates SHSU's College of Criminal Justice is the largest and one of the oldest criminal justice programs in the nation. Huntsville has long been associated with criminal justice, being the co-headquarters of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice and the home of several prisons, including the Walls Unit which houses the state's execution chamber, located about two blocks north of the campus. In 1970, the College became one of

Guyanese Creole

Guyanese Creole is an English-based creole language spoken by people in Guyana. Linguistically, it is similar to other English dialects of the Caribbean region, based on 19th-century English, has loan words from African, East Indian and older Dutch languages. There are many sub-dialects of Guyanese Creole based on geographical location, urban - rural location, race of the speakers. For example, along the Rupununi River, where the population is Amerindian, a distinct form of Guyanese Creole exists; the Georgetown urban area has a distinct accent, while within a forty-five-minute drive away from this area the dialect/accent changes again if following the coast where rural villages are located. As with other Caribbean languages and phrases are elastic, new ones can be made up, changed or evolve within a short period, they can be used within a small group, until picked up by a larger community. Ethnic groups are known to alter or include words from their own backgrounds. A stratified creole speech continuum exists between Guyanese English and Standard / British English.

Speech by members of the upper classes is phonetically closest to British and American English, whereas speech by members of the lower classes most resembles other Caribbean English dialects. A phrase such as "I told him" may be pronounced in various parts of the continuum: It is common in Guyanese Creole to repeat adjectives and adverbs for emphasis. For example, "Dis wata de col col" translates into "This water is cold". "Come now now" translates into "Come right now." There is a tendency among older speakers toward replacing "-er" and its corresponding sound with "-a". Various items and actions have been given their own names that either vaguely resemble or reflect corruptions of their names in standard English; the following phrases are written as they are pronounced: ah go do it - Meaning: "I will do it" dem ah waan sting yuh waan bil - Literally: "they want to sting your one bill" - Meaning: "they want to take money from you" evri day me a run a raisfil - Literally: "Every day I run the ricefield" - Meaning: "Every day I take care of the ricefield" ee bin get gun - Literally: "He been get gun" - "he had the gun" ee wuda tek awi lil time but awi bin go come out safe - Literally: "it would have taken us a little time but we would have come out safely" me a wuk abak - Meaning: "I'm working further inland" suurin - a form of courtship Bickerton, Derek, "The nature of a creole continuum", Language, 49: 640–669, doi:10.2307/412355 Edwards, Walter, "Suurin and grannin in Guyana: Masked intentions and communication theory", American Speech, 64: 225–232, doi:10.2307/455590 Escure, Geneviève, "The pragmaticization of past in creoles", American Speech, 74: 165–202, JSTOR 455577 Gibson, Kean, "The ordering of auxiliary notions in Guyanese Creole", Language, 62: 571–586, doi:10.2307/415478 Gibson, Kean, "The habitual category in Guyanese and Jamaican creoles", American Speech, 63: 195–202, doi:10.2307/454817 Phonology and speech examples