Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content, since the 1880s, has been used to generate electricity. Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production. In the United Kingdom and South Africa, a coal mine and its structures are a colliery, a coal mine a pit, the above-ground structures the pit head. In Australia, "colliery" refers to an underground coal mine. In the United States, "colliery" has been used to describe a coal mine operation but nowadays the word is not used. Coal mining has had many developments over the recent years, from the early days of men tunnelling and manually extracting the coal on carts, to large open cut and long wall mines. Mining at this scale requires the use of draglines, conveyors, hydraulic jacks and shearers. Small-scale mining of surface deposits dates back thousands of years. For example, in Roman Britain, the Romans were exploiting most of the major coalfields by the late 2nd century AD.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the 18th century and spread to continental Europe and North America, was based on the availability of coal to power steam engines. International trade expanded when coal-fed steam engines were built for the railways and steamships; until the late nineteenth century coal was mined underground using a pick and shovel, children were employed underground in dangerous conditions. Coal-cutting machines were introduced in the 1880s. By 1912, surface mining was conducted with steam shovels designed for coal mining; the most economical method of coal extraction from coal seams depends on the depth and quality of the seams, the geology and environmental factors. Coal mining processes are differentiated by whether they operate on the underground. Many coals extracted from both surface and underground mines require washing in a coal preparation plant. Technical and economic feasibility are evaluated based on the following: regional geological conditions.
Surface mining and deep underground mining are the two basic methods of mining. The choice of mining method depends on depth, density and thickness of the coal seam. Coal that occurs at depths of 180 to 300 ft are deep mined, but in some cases surface mining techniques can be used. For example, some western U. S. coal that occur at depths in excess of 200 ft are mined by the open pit methods, due to thickness of the seam 60–90 feet. Coals occurring below 300 ft are deep mined. However, there are open pit mining operations working on coal seams up to 1,000–1,500 feet below ground level, for instance Tagebau Hambach in Germany; when coal seams are near the surface, it may be economical to extract the coal using open cut mining methods. Open cast coal mining recovers a greater proportion of the coal deposit than underground methods, as more of the coal seams in the strata may be exploited; this equipment can include the following: Draglines which operate by removing the overburden, power shovels, large trucks in which transport overburden and coal, bucket wheel excavators, conveyors.
In this mining method, explosives are first used in order to break through the surface or overburden, of the mining area. The overburden is removed by draglines or by shovel and truck. Once the coal seam is exposed, it is drilled and mined in strips; the coal is loaded onto large trucks or conveyors for transport to either the coal preparation plant or directly to where it will be used. Most open cast mines in the United States extract bituminous coal. In Canada and South Africa, open cast mining is used for both thermal and metallurgical coals. In New South Wales open casting for steam coal and anthracite is practiced. Surface mining accounts for around 80 percent of production in Australia, while in the US it is used for about 67 percent of production. Globally, about 40 percent of coal production involves surface mining. Strip mining exposes coal by removing earth above each coal seam; this earth is removed in long strips. The overburden from the first strip is deposited in an area outside the planned mining area and referred to as out-of-pit dumping.
Overburden from subsequent strips are deposited in the void left from mining the coal and overburden from the previous strip. This is referred to as in-pit dumping, it is necessary to fragment the overburden by use of explosives. This is accomplished by drilling holes into the overburden, filling the holes with explosives, detonating the explosive; the overburden is removed, using large earth-moving equipment, such as draglines and trucks, excavator and trucks, or bucket-wheels and conveyors. This overburden is put into the mined strip; when all the overburden is removed, the underlying coal seam will be exposed. This block of coal may be drilled and blasted or otherwise loaded onto trucks or conveyors for transport to th
Volosko is a part of the city of Opatija, located in the Kvarner Gulf in western Croatia. It is located on the road towards Kastav and Rijeka; the toponym Volosko drives from the name of the Slavic deity Veles. Until 1918, the town was part of Cisleithania, the Austrian side of Austria-Hungary after 1867, head of the district of the same name, one of the 11 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Austrian Littoral province. Amelia Milka Sablich, born there Andrija Mohorovičić, born there Gyula Andrássy, died there Emil Sax, died there Several scenes of "The Legacy Run" have been shot in Volosko; the movie, in good part shot in the Opatja-Rijeka region, is the conceptual prequel of the international Tv Series "Sport Crime". Volosko is situated on the west side of Preluka Bay, known for good windsurfing and sailing conditions. Daily thermal winds, locally known as Tramuntana, blow from the north each morning, peaking just after sunrise and ending a few hours later. Under prolonged high pressure systems, weather conditions may become stable, creating persistent winds strong enough to ensure adequate windsurfing for hours each morning, making the Volosko and Preluk areas one of the most consistent windsurfing spots on the Adriatic coast.
Launch spots are within the Volosko harbor itself. Each season, the local windsurfing club, DSNM Volosko, organizes one or more windsurfing races, open to both professional and amateur windsurfers. Austrian Littoral Media related to Volosko at Wikimedia Commons
Work People's College
Work People's College was a radical labor college established in a rural area just outside Duluth, Minnesota in 1907 by the Finnish Socialist Federation of the Socialist Party of America. School administrators and faculty were sympathetic to the syndicalist left wing of the Finnish labor movement and the institution came into the orbit of the Industrial Workers of the World during the 1914-1915 factional battle that split the Finnish Federation; the school ceased operation in 1941. In 2012 the Twin Cities branch of the Industrial Workers of the World relaunched Work People's College on a limited basis as a summer training camp for the group's activists and organizers. Finnish immigrants to the United States during the first years of the 20th Century tended to be a literate community, with 97% of those arriving between 1899 ad 1907 knowing how to read and write. Education was a valued part of Finnish immigrant life and the desire for institutions of higher learning in their own language extended across generational and ideological boundaries.
As early as 1900 there were discussions about establishing a school that would provide a liberal alternative to Suomi College and Seminary of Hancock, Michigan. Work People's College was preceded by a "folk" high school of the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, founded in Minneapolis in September 1903; the school was launched with a view to teaching the Finnish language and Lutheran religion to its students. Finnish immigrants in this period constituted nearly 40 percent of the population of Northern Minnesota, with a goodly number of these working in the mining and timber industries or on the docks of Duluth, a major port on the southernmost tip of Lake Superior; the Finnish Lutheran high school moved to Smithville, a rural area just southwest of Duluth, a few months after its establishment. It changed its name to the Finnish People's College and Theological Seminary in January 1904, a name change which reflected the institution's desire to serve both general educational and seminarian needs of the community.
Money was raised to fund the school's purchase of a three story building through the sale of shares of stock. A board of directors controlled the operations of the institution, which included both anti-socialist clerics and pro-socialist lay members of the church. In an intense economic and political environment, marked by labor strikes and the emergence of the Finnish Socialist Federation among the immigrant community, these factions vied for control of the school; the students of the Finnish People's College and Theological Seminary resisted the school's educational regime, which imposed mandatory prayer while forbidding discussion of social issues. This led to a strike of the student body in the Fall of 1904, with all but two students walking out of a mandatory prayer meeting in protest; the director of the school, E. W. Saranen, subsequently resigned his post as a result of the students' action. With enrollment tailing off, the board of directors considered closing the school but found financial rescue through the sale of stock in the institution at the rate of $1.00 per share.
Frustrated by the lack of advanced secular education in their own language, the Finnish Socialist Federation became involved buying stock at the behest of board member Alex Halonen. By the fall of 1907 majority control of the stock of the Finnish People's College was ensconced in Socialist hands; the Socialists made use of their majority ownership to assert control over the composition of the school's board of directors. As a reflection of the institution's shift to secular labor education a new name was chosen for the institution — Työväen Opisto, most albeit clumsily rendered into English as Work People's College. K. L. Haataja served as instructor. Leo Laukki assumed leadership in 1908; the new labor school was launched with just 8 students during the initial year, with the student body growing in the 1910-11 academic year at over 100 students. The class of 1912-13 was 136 students. To this was added another group of students who participated in coursework through postal correspondence; the Finnish Socialist Federation agreed to take on Work People's College as its own institution at the group's 1908 convention.
For the next several years member of the Federation paid an additional tax of $1.00 per year for support of the school in addition to their regular payment of monthly dues. The 1912 convention of the FSF voted to reduce this subsidy to 50 cents per member per year, at the same time adding its opinion that the school's curriculum should be tailored to the needs of future socialist and trade union activists rather than to a general course of study; the school charged a tuition of its students, which included room and board. Students in the 1912-13 academic year paid $20 per month for tuition and board, an amount, hiked to $22 for the 1913-14 term of study. Work People's College taught its students a mandatory preparatory program including economics, history, "socialist program and tactics." Students could continue with more specialized coursework, including courses in bookkeeping, basic mathematics, the Finnish and English languages. Others continued on the academic path to become socialist orators and party functionaries, studying Marxist theoretical works in English and Finnish.
A severe ideological split divided the Finnish Socialist movement during the middle years of the 1910s, with one part of the FSF staying with the Socialist Party of America and another more radical offshoot casting its lot with the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World. Work People's College was retained by the later
Austria-Hungary referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria and Hungary and placed them on an equal footing, it broke apart into several states at the end of World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868, it was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous; the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers; the northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918; the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia, though in the international relations better Austria-Hungary was used; the Austrians used the names k. u. k. Monarchie and Danubian Monarchy or Dual Monarchy and The Double Eagle, but none of these became widepsread neither in Hungary, nor elsewhere.
The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary; each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures; the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.
However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them, it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804; the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government; the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancell
Industrial Workers of the World
The Industrial Workers of the World, members of which are termed "Wobblies", is an international labor union, founded in 1905 in Chicago, Illinois, in the United States. The union combines general unionism with industrial unionism, as it is a general union whose members are further organized within the industry of their employment; the philosophy and tactics of the IWW are described as "revolutionary industrial unionism", with ties to both socialist and anarchist labor movements. In the 1910s and early 1920s, the IWW achieved many of their short-term goals in the American West, cut across traditional guild and union lines to organize workers in a variety of trades and industries. At their peak in August 1917, IWW membership was more than 150,000, with active wings in the U. S. Canada and Australia; the high rate of IWW membership turnover during this era makes it difficult for historians to state membership totals with any certainty, as workers tended to join the IWW in large numbers for short periods.
Due to several factors, membership declined in the late 1910s and 1920s. There were conflicts with other labor groups the American Federation of Labor, which regarded the IWW as too radical, while the IWW regarded the AFL as too conservative and dividing workers by craft. Membership declined due to government crackdowns on radical and socialist groups during the First Red Scare after World War I. In Canada the IWW was outlawed by the federal government; the most decisive factor in the decline in IWW membership and influence, was a 1924 schism in the organization, from which the IWW never recovered. The IWW promotes the concept of "One Big Union", contends that all workers should be united as a social class to supplant capitalism and wage labor with industrial democracy, they are known for the Wobbly Shop model of workplace democracy, in which workers elect their managers and other forms of grassroots democracy are implemented. IWW membership does not require that one work in a represented workplace, nor does it exclude membership in another labor union.
In 2012, the IWW moved its General Headquarters offices to Chicago. The origin of the nickname "Wobblies" is uncertain; the IWW was founded in Chicago, Illinois in the United States in June 1905. A convention was held of 200 socialists, Marxists radical trade unionists from all over the United States who opposed the policies of the American Federation of Labor; the IWW opposed the American Federation of Labor's acceptance of capitalism and its refusal to include unskilled workers in craft unions. The convention had taken place on June 24, 1905, was referred to as the "Industrial Congress" or the "Industrial Union Convention", it would be known as the First Annual Convention of the IWW. It became considered one of the most important events in the history of industrial unionism; the IWW's founders included William D. Haywood, James Connolly, Daniel De Leon, Eugene V. Debs, Thomas Hagerty, Lucy Parsons, Mary Harris "Mother" Jones, Frank Bohn, William Trautmann, Vincent Saint John, Ralph Chaplin, many others.
Regardless of gender roles and women came together to create IWW. Post-industrial theorists concentrated on hierarchies of class, rather than those of gender and, like their predecessors, the new theorists of technology fail to consider whether this technological revolution might have a different impact on women and men; the IWW aimed to promote worker solidarity in the revolutionary struggle to overthrow the employing class. In particular, the IWW was organized because of the belief among many unionists, anarchists and radicals that the AFL not only had failed to organize the U. S. working class, but it was causing separation rather than unity within groups of workers by organizing according to narrow craft principles. The Wobblies believed that all workers should organize as a class, a philosophy, still reflected in the Preamble to the current IWW Constitution: The working class and the employing class have nothing in common. There can be no peace so long as hunger and want are found among millions of the working people and the few, who make up the employing class, have all the good things of life.
Between these two classes a struggle must go on until the workers of the world organize as a class, take possession of the means of production, abolish the wage system, live in harmony with the Earth. We find that the centering of the management of industries into fewer and fewer hands makes the trade unions unable to cope with the growing power of the employing class; the trade unions foster a state of affairs which allows one set of workers to be pitted against another set of workers in the same industry, thereby helping defeat one another in wage wars. Moreover, the trade unions aid the employing class to mislead the workers into the belief that the working class have interests in common with their employers; these conditions can be changed and the interest of the working class upheld only by an organization formed in such a way that all its members in any one industry, or in all industries if necessary, cease work whenever a strike or lockout is on in any department thereof, thus making an injury to one an injury to all.
Instead of the conser
Helper is a city in Carbon County, United States, about 110 miles southeast of Salt Lake City and 7 miles northwest of the city of Price. It is known as the "Hub of Carbon County"; the population was 2,201 at the 2010 census. The city is located along U. S. Route 6/U. S. Route 191, a shortcut between Provo and Interstate 70, on the way from Salt Lake City to Grand Junction, Colorado, it is the location of the Western Mining and Railroad Museum, a tourist attraction that contains household and commercial artifacts illustrating late 19th and early 20th-century living conditions. With the arrival of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad in 1881-82, Helper began to develop as a population center. By 1887 the D&RGW had erected some twenty-seven frame residences, with more built in the year; the railroad planned to make Helper a freight terminal after the rail lines were changed from narrow to standard gauge. The changeover process began in 1889 and was completed in 1891. In 1892, Helper was designated the division point between the eastern and western D&RGW terminals in Grand Junction and Ogden, Utah and a new depot and other buildings were constructed.
On April 21, 1897, Butch Cassidy and Elzy Lay robbed the Pleasant Valley Coal Company in nearby Castle Gate. It was said that Butch Cassidy came back to Helper for occasional visits. Adjacent to Helper is Spring Glen, it was first established with Teancum Pratt being one of the first settlers. A Branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized there in 1885 with Francis Marion Ewell as president, it was made a ward in 1889. As of 1930 less than 20% of the population in Spring Glen were members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Helper's growth proceeded in a slow but deliberate fashion bearing little resemblance to booming metal-mining towns; the first amenities offered the few settlers and numerous railroad workers included three saloons, one grocery store, one clothing establishment. A school was built in 1891. By 1895 the D&RGW buildings and shops at Helper were lighted by electricity, two reservoirs for water had been constructed. Ethnic diversity was destined to become a chief characteristic of Helper.
Industrial expansion, coal mining, railroading required a great amount of unskilled labor. In 1894 the railroad's passenger department established an immigration bureau to advertise Utah Territory; this move coincided with the influx of the numerous immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and from Asia. Chinese laborers were brought in at an early date to work the Carbon County railroads. By the late 1890s, Italians and Austrians began to arrive. In 1900 Helper's population was listed at 385 people. Sixteen different nationality groups were represented. "Merchant" and "laborer" comprised most of the occupations for these early immigrants. After the unsuccessful coal miners' strike of 1903-04, blacklisted from the mines at nearby Castle Gate, ventured into Helper to establish businesses and farms along the Price River; the influx of strikers into Helper accelerated its growth, with the newly established farms offering needed agricultural products. The twentieth century was launched in Carbon County in a shroud of uncertainty due to the strike situation.
Greek and Japanese immigrants were brought in to break the strike, thus new ethnic groups came onto the scene. Helper, along with Price, was fast becoming the center of the Carbon County coalfields, providing service functions to the outlying camps. A 1903-04 business directory listed sixteen separate businesses in Helper. Helper townsite was organized and incorporated in 1907 with a president of the town board and members of the board serving the community. By 1914-15 there were 71 businesses listed for Helper, with 84 in 1918-19, 157 for the years 1924-25. Many of Helper's business enterprises were associated with specific ethnic groups, but this fact illustrated the business opportunities available in the town, enabling immigrants to "break the ranks of labor." Italian and Chinese-owned businesses were joined in the 1910s and 1920s by Slavic and Japanese establishments. Specialty shops, coffeehouses, theaters, general mercantiles, various service-oriented businesses formed Helper's commercial district.
Some ventures, such as the Mutual Mercantile Company, were joint operations between different ethnic groups. Ethnic identities, the existence of both inter- and intra-group rivalries, new waves of immigration, Helper's position as a neutral ground for labor influenced the town's social landscape. Helper became known as the area "hub" because it was nestled among various mining camps, it served as a city of refuge where strikers and union organizers as well as national guardsmen could congregate during tense times. Customs and lifestyles associated with various ethnic groups continued. While the Great Depression hit the entire county, Helper's position as a railroad center provided some stability. Helper's city hall had been built in 1927, a civic auditorium was constructed in 1936; the D&RGW developed "bridge traffic," acquiring trade from other major roads that wanted transcontinental connections. Coal production increased during World War II and continued strong through the 1960s, although with significant periods of uncertainty and temporary decline.
Not all of the communities surrounding Helper were able to weather these difficult periods of
Anti-union violence is physical force intended to harm union officials, union organizers, union members, union sympathizers, or their families. It is most used either during union organizing efforts, or during strikes; the aim most is to prevent a union from forming, to destroy an existing union, or to reduce the effectiveness of a union or a particular strike action. If strikers prevent people or goods to enter or leave a workplace, violence may be used to allow people and goods to pass the picket line. Violence against unions may be isolated, or may occur as part of a campaign that includes spying, impersonation and sabotage. Violence in labor disputes may be the result of miscalculation, it may be senseless and tragic. On some occasions, violence in labor disputes may be purposeful and calculated, for example the hiring and deployment of goon squads to assault strikers. Incidents of violence during periods of labor unrest are sometimes perceived differently by different parties, it is sometimes a challenge to ascertain the truth about labor-related violence, incidents of violence committed by, or in the name of, unions or union workers have occurred as well.
The practice of workers organizing, meeting resistance for organizing, dates to antiquity. The first known individual killed by authorities for labor activities is Cinto Brandini, executed with nine others in 1345 Florence for attempting to organize woolcombers. According to a study in 1969, the United States has had the bloodiest and most violent labor history of any industrial nation in the world. Mass labor violence in the U. S. peaked in the early 20th century and has subsided since the 1940s. But the deadly suppression of labor unions on a large scale persists into the new century, in the 2012 Marikana killings in South Africa, in the ongoing assassinations of trade union members in Colombia, the South Korean government's response to Korean Confederation of Trade Unions protests. Since unions are organized to achieve collective bargaining power to begin with, most union conflicts have been motivated by economic issues, have engaged antagonists with economic goals in mind. In some instances, other causes emerge.
The 1887 Thibodaux massacre in Louisiana, the 1899 Pana riot in southern Illinois, the 1911 Queen & Crescent killings in Kentucky and Tennessee are three examples of deliberate campaigns of murder against organized black workers in the American south, the first committed by landowners, the other two by white competitors. In South Africa the 1922 Rand Rebellion had underlying racial causes, taking on the slogan "Workers of the world and fight for a white South Africa!", before their strike grew to a small-scale rebellion at the cost of 200 lives. The behavior of South African police in the 1946 African Mine Workers' Union strike is said to have led to the formation of the Northern Rhodesian African Mineworkers' Union in 1949 as a cornerstone of the anti-apartheid movement; as with race, for some incidents there is no clear distinction between anti-union violence and political suppression. Polish labor unions were centrally involved in workers’ uprisings and/or general strikes that challenged the sitting governments in 1905, 1923, 1937.
In a similar way the strike of Asturian miners in 1934, put down by right-wing Spanish government forces with great loss of life, amounted to an insurrection through work stoppage, not an economic labor action. Unions continued to play a military role in the subsequent Spanish Civil War. Along with Franco in Spain, other totalitarian regimes in Europe brought their labor unions under government control, violently when necessary. After coming to power as chancellor in January 1933, Adolf Hitler declared May Day a national holiday on May 2, 1933 unexpectedly moved to outlaw labor unions as part of the Nazi "synchronization" process. Major unions such as the Allgemeiner Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund were raided that day, their accounts seized, their leaders arrested and sent to concentration camps; every worker in the nation was compelled to join the single party-controlled union, the German Labour Front. Similar coercive violence was exercised against labor unions in conquered nations, as in the Netherlands in 1941.
Some anti-union violence appears to be random, such as an incident during the 1912 textile strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts, in which a police officer fired into a crowd of strikers, killing Anna LoPizzo. Anti-union violence may be used as a means to intimidate others, as in the hanging of union organizer Frank Little from a railroad trestle in Butte, Montana. A note was pinned to his body which said, "Others Take Notice! First And Last Warning!" The initial of the last names of seven well-known union activists in the Butte area were on the note, with the "L" for Frank Little circled. Anti-union violence may be unanticipated. Three years after Frank Little was lynched, a strike by Butte miners was suppressed with gunfire when deputized mine guards fired upon unarmed picketers in the Anaconda Road Massacre. Seventeen were shot in the back as they tried to flee, one man died. Other anti-union violence may seem orchestrated, as in 1914 when mine guards and the state militia fired into a tent colony of striking miners in Colorado, an incident that came to be known as the Ludlow Massacre.
During that strike, the company hired the Baldwin Felts agency, which built