Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place, now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes; the history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age. Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power in the New Kingdom, ruling much of Nubia and a sizable portion of the Near East, after which it entered a period of slow decline. During the course of its history Egypt was invaded or conquered by a number of foreign powers, including the Hyksos, the Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians, the Achaemenid Persians, the Macedonians under the command of Alexander the Great; the Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom, formed in the aftermath of Alexander's death, ruled Egypt until 30 BC, under Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.
The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, a military intended to assert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, administrators under the control of a pharaoh, who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs; the many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying and construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids and obelisks.
Ancient Egypt has left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecture were copied, its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world, its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of writers for centuries. A new-found respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern period by Europeans and Egyptians led to the scientific investigation of Egyptian civilization and a greater appreciation of its cultural legacy; the Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history. The fertile floodplain of the Nile gave humans the opportunity to develop a settled agricultural economy and a more sophisticated, centralized society that became a cornerstone in the history of human civilization. Nomadic modern human hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. By the late Paleolithic period, the arid climate of Northern Africa became hot and dry, forcing the populations of the area to concentrate along the river region.
In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid. Large regions of Egypt were traversed by herds of grazing ungulates. Foliage and fauna were far more prolific in all environs and the Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. Hunting would have been common for Egyptians, this is the period when many animals were first domesticated. By about 5500 BC, small tribes living in the Nile valley had developed into a series of cultures demonstrating firm control of agriculture and animal husbandry, identifiable by their pottery and personal items, such as combs and beads; the largest of these early cultures in upper Egypt was the Badari, which originated in the Western Desert. The Badari was followed by the Amratian and Gerzeh cultures, which brought a number of technological improvements; as early as the Naqada I Period, predynastic Egyptians imported obsidian from Ethiopia, used to shape blades and other objects from flakes. In Naqada II times, early evidence exists of contact with the Near East Canaan and the Byblos coast.
Over a period of about 1,000 years, the Naqada culture developed from a few small farming communities into a powerful civilization whose leaders were in complete control of the people and resources of the Nile valley. Establishing a power center at Nekhen, at Abydos, Naqada III leaders expanded their control of Egypt northwards along the Nile, they traded with Nubia to the south, the oases of the western desert to the west, the cultures of the eastern Mediterranean and Near East to the east, initiating a period of Egypt-Mesopotamia relations. The Naqada culture manufactured a diverse selection of material goods, reflective of the increasing power and wealth of the elite, as well as societal personal-use items, which included combs, small statuary, painted pottery, high quality decorative stone vases, cosmetic palettes, jewelry made of gold and ivory, they developed a ceramic glaze known as faience, used well into the Roman Per
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. Hieroglyphs combined logographic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood; the hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing, as was the Proto-Siniatic script that evolved into the Phoenician alphabet. Through the Phoenician alphabet's major child systems, the Greek and Aramaic scripts, the Egyptian hieroglyphic script is ancestral to the majority of scripts in modern use, most prominently the Latin and Cyrillic scripts and the Arabic script and Brahmic family of scripts; the use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC, with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty. Egyptian hieroglyphs developed into a mature writing system used for monumental inscription in the classical language of the Middle Kingdom period.
The use of this writing system continued through the New Kingdom and Late Period, on into the Persian and Ptolemaic periods. Late survivals of hieroglyphic use are found well into the Roman period, extending into the 4th century AD. With the final closing of pagan temples in the 5th century, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was lost. Although attempts were made, the script remained undeciphered throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period; the decipherment of hieroglyphic writing would only be accomplished in the 1820s by Jean-François Champollion, with the help of the Rosetta Stone. The word hieroglyph comes from the Greek adjective ἱερογλυφικός, a compound of ἱερός and γλύφω; the glyphs themselves since the Ptolemaic period were called τὰ ἱερογλυφικὰ "the sacred engraved letters", the Greek counterpart to the Egyptian expression of mdw.w-nṯr "god's words". Greek ἱερογλυφός meant "a carver of hieroglyphs". In English, hieroglyph as a noun is recorded from 1590 short for nominalised hieroglyphic, from adjectival use.
Hieroglyphs may have emerged from the preliterate artistic traditions of Egypt. For example, symbols on Gerzean pottery from c. 4000 BC have been argued to resemble hieroglyphic writing. Proto-hieroglyphic symbol systems develop in the second half of the 4th millennium BC, such as the clay labels of a Predynastic ruler called "Scorpion I" recovered at Abydos in 1998 or the Narmer Palette; the first full sentence written in mature hieroglyphs so far discovered was found on a seal impression found in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen at Umm el-Qa'ab, which dates from the Second Dynasty. There are around 800 hieroglyphs dating back to the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom Eras. By the Greco-Roman period, there are more than 5,000. Geoffrey Sampson stated that Egyptian hieroglyphs "came into existence a little after Sumerian script, invented under the influence of the latter", that it is "probable that the general idea of expressing words of a language in writing was brought to Egypt from Sumerian Mesopotamia".
There are many instances of early Egypt-Mesopotamia relations, but given the lack of direct evidence for the transfer of writing, "no definitive determination has been made as to the origin of hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt". Instead, it is pointed out and held that "the evidence for such direct influence remains flimsy” and that “a credible argument can be made for the independent development of writing in Egypt..." Since the 1990s, the discoveries of glyphs at Abydos, dated to between 3400 and 3200 BCE, may challenge the classical notion according to which the Mesopotamian symbol system predates the Egyptian one, although Egyptian writing does make a sudden apparition at that time, while on the contrary Mesopotamia has an evolutionnary history of sign usage in tokens dating back to circa 8000 BCE. Hieroglyphs consist of three kinds of glyphs: phonetic glyphs, including single-consonant characters that function like an alphabet; as writing developed and became more widespread among the Egyptian people, simplified glyph forms developed, resulting in the hieratic and demotic scripts.
These variants were more suited than hieroglyphs for use on papyrus. Hieroglyphic writing was not, eclipsed, but existed alongside the other forms in monumental and other formal writing; the Rosetta Stone contains three parallel scripts – hieroglyphic and Greek. Hieroglyphs continued to be used under Persian rule, after Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt, during the ensuing Ptolemaic and Roman periods, it appears that the misleading quality of comments from Greek and Roman writers about hieroglyphs came about, at least in part, as a response to the changed political situation. Some believed that hieroglyphs may have functioned as a way to distinguish'true Egyptians' from some of the foreign conquerors. Another reason may be the refusal to tackle a foreign culture on its own terms, which characterized Greco-Roman approaches to Egyptian culture generally. Having learned that hieroglyphs were sacred writing, Greco-Roman authors imagined the complex but rational system as an allegorical magical, system transmitting secre
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV was one of the more powerful Egyptian kings of the 13th Dynasty, who reigned at least eight years. His brothers, Neferhotep I and Sihathor, were his predecessors on the throne, the latter having only ruled as coregent for a few months. Sobekhotep states on a stela found in the Amun temple at Karnak; the king is believed to have reigned for around 10 years. He is known by a high number of monuments, including stelae, many seals and other minor objects. There are attestations for building works at Karnak. Sobekhotep was the son of the ` god's father' of the ` king's mother' Kemi, his grandfather was the soldier of the town's regiment Nehy. His grandmother was called Senebtysy. Sobekhotep might have had several wives, only one of, known for certain, the "king's wife" Tjan. Several children are known; these are Nebetiunet, both with Tjan as mother. There are three further king's sons: Sobekhotep Djadja and Haankhef Iykhernofret, their mother is not recorded in extant sources. The royal court is well known from sources contemporaneous with Neferhotep I, providing evidence that Sobekhotep IV continued the politics of his brother in the administration.
The Vizier was Neferkare Iymeru. The treasurer was the high steward a certain Nebankh. A stela of the king found at Karnak reports donations to the Amun-Ra temple. A pair of door jambs with the name of the king was found at Karnak. There is a restoration inscription on a statue of king Mentuhotep II coming from Karnak. From Abydos are known several inscribed blocks attesting some building activities at the local temple The vizier Neferkare Iymeru reports on one of his statues found at Karnak that he built a canal and a house of millions of years for the king; the statue of the vizier was found at Karnak and might indicate that these buildings were erected there. For year 6 is attested an expedition to the amethyst mines at Wadi el-Hudi in southernmost Egypt; the expedition is attested via four stelae set up at Wadi el-Hudi. From the Wadi Hammamat comes a stela dated to the ninth regnal year of the king, he was buried at Abydos, where a huge tomb naming a pharaoh Sobekhotep was found by Josef W. Wegner of the University of Pennsylvania just next to the funerary complex of Senusret III of the 12th Dynasty.
Although attributed to pharaoh Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I, the style of the burial suggests a date of the tomb under Sobekhotep IV. While Sobekhotep IV was one of the most powerful 13th dynasty rulers and his control over Memphis, Middle Egypt and Thebes is well attested by historical records, it is believed that he did not rule over a united Egypt. According to the egyptologist Kim Ryholt, the 14th Dynasty was in control of the eastern Nile Delta at the time. Alternatively, N. Moeller and G. Marouard argue that the eastern Delta was ruled by the 15th Dynasty Hyksos king Khyan at the time of Sobekhotep IV, their argument, presented in a published article, relies on the discovery of an important early 12th dynasty administrative building in Tell Edfu, Upper Egypt, continuously in use from the early Second Intermediate Period until it fell out of use during the 17th dynasty, when its remains were sealed up by a large silo court. Fieldwork by Egyptologists in 2010 and 2011 into the remains of the former 12th Dynasty building, still in use at the time of the 13th dynasty, led to the discovery of a large adjoining hall which proved to contain 41 sealings showing the cartouche of the Hyksos ruler Khyan together with nine sealings naming the 13th dynasty king Sobekhotep IV.
As Moeller and Ayers write: "These finds come from a secure and sealed archaeological context and open up new questions about the cultural and chronological evolution of the late Middle Kingdom and early Second Intermediate Period." They conclude, that Khyan was one of the earlier Hyksos kings and may not have been succeeded by Apophis—who was the second last king of the Hyksos kingdom—and, that the 15th Dynasty was in existence by the mid-13th Dynasty period since Khyan controlled a part of northern Egypt at the same time as Sobekhotep IV ruled the rest of Egypt as a pharaoh of the 13th dynasty. This analysis and the conclusions drawn from it are questioned by Robert Porter, who argues that Khyan ruled much than Sobekhotep IV. Porter notes that the seals of a pharaoh were used long after his death, but wonders whether Sobekhotep IV reigned much and whether the early Thirteenth Dynasty was much longer than thought. In Ryholt's chronology of the Second Intermediate Period and Sobekhotep IV are separated by c. 100 years.
A similar figure is obtained by Nicolas Grimal. Alexander Ilin-Tomich had a further close look at the pottery associated with the finds of seal impressions and draws parallels to Elephantine where one of the pottery forms of the find appears in a rather late Second Intermediate Period context. Ilin-Tomich concludes that there is no reason to believe that Khyan and Sobekhotep IV reigned at the same time; the level in which the seal impressions were found is than Sobekhotep IV. Regardless of which theory is true, either the 14th dynasty or the 15th dynasty controlled the Delta by the time of Sobekhotep IV. K. S. B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800-1550 BC. Sobekhotep IV
Mummies Alive! is a Canadian-American animated series from DIC Productions L. P. and Northern Lights Entertainment. It aired for one season in 1997. In ancient Egypt, an evil sorcerer named Scarab kills the pharaoh's son, Prince Rapses, to become immortal. Entombed alive for his crime, Scarab revives in the modern world and begins his search for Rapses' reincarnation, a San Francisco-dwelling boy named Presley Carnovan, to retrieve the spirit of Rapses so he can become immortal. Rapses' bodyguards, Ja-Kal, Rath and Nefer-Tina, along with Rapses' cat, awake from the dead to protect him from Scarab, they use the power of Ra to transform into powerful guardians. Each of the mummies is aligned with the power of an Egyptian god. Ja-Kal uses the spirit of falcon, Rath uses the spirit of snake, Armon uses the spirit of ram, Nefer-Tina uses the spirit of cat, they are able to call upon it for magical armor and powers to fight superhuman evildoers. Although, once their strength is exhausted, they must rest in their sarcophagi to regain the ability.
In order to access these powers, the mummies call out the phrase "With the Strength of Ra!", which triggers their transformation. The mummies have the power to make a horrifying face used to scare away nosy bystanders. In addition to Scarab, the mummies had to contend with gods and spirits from Egyptian myth summoned to the modern world, including Anubis, Geb, Bast, Sekhmet and many others as part of one of Scarab's schemes that went out of his control. Mummies Alive was geared towards an older audience, but during production it became predominately a children's show; the series ran for one season of 42 episodes. A second season was planned. Eric and Julia Lewald, writers/producers for Mummies Alive!, were head writers for the third season of the Gargoyles animated series, programs share common plot elements, including a group of warriors from the past that awaken in the present to fight a wealthy, immortality-obsessed enemy. These similarities made Mummies Alive! Vulnerable to criticism describing it as little more than a Gargoyles clone.
After its first and only season, repeats of Mummies Alive! continued to air on local stations across the country. The series aired every Sunday on Cookie Jar Toons on This TV. In India, the show was dubbed into Tamil and Malayalam and aired on Sun TV and Amrita TV in the early 2000s, becoming popular in South India. Presley Carnovan – voiced by Bill Switzer A 12-year-old boy who has the spirit of Prince Rapses XII, based on Ramses, he soon discovers this. He lives in San Francisco with his mother, he is reluctant to accept his role as Rapses, but on at least two occasions where he had the chance to be freed of his role, when Rapses's father came through the Western Gate and when the original Rapses was drawn into the present, he expressed reluctance at losing his status as'pharaoh' because it would have meant him losing the mummies. Prince Rapses – was the heir to the Egyptian throne 3500 years ago, he was killed when he was Presley's age by Scarab. This story is told in Sleep Walk Like an Egyptian.
His spirit now lies within Presley, is drawn out by Scarab in several episodes. Rapses himself comes to the present in The Prince and the Presley, when Scarab steals a time travel scroll to draw him to the present in the hopes that he would be easier to capture than the present Presley. Rapses returns to the past at the end of the episode. Amanda Carnovan – voiced by Louise Vallance Presley's mother, she works at the City Museum. In Ghouls' Gold, Armon refers to her as "the wise Amanda", she has insecure feelings that Presley misses being with his father, away on business, tries to bond with her son often. Ja-Kal – voiced by Dale Wilson The leader of the Mummies. In his transformed state, his armor resembles a falcon and allows him to fly, his weapon is a bow that can shoot out flaming arrows. In ancient Egypt, Ja-Kal was a hunter who had a wife named a small baby son named Padjet, he worries the most of Presley's safety acting as a father-figure to him. He uses hunting terms to talk to others and explain situations.
Ja-Kal cares for other people's needs first and himself second. It was revealed in episode 39 that he had a brother, a notorious bandit. Rath – voiced by Scott McNeil The most intelligent of the Mummies, the only one able to cast spells; when he transforms, a green snake which turns into a golden cobra wraps around him and serves as his armor. His weapon of choice is a sword that can transform into a snake, but he is able to perform magical incantations, he designed and built the Mummies' vehicles. In the past, he served as the young Prince's tutor, he claims to know about science, but his definition is such things as turning a staff into a serpent, although he has learned to adapt some spells to the present. Though they are enemies, Scarab does respect him for his spellcasting skills. Armon – voiced by Graeme Kingston Armon i
Amenhotep (High Priest of Amun)
Amenhotep was the High Priest of Amun towards the end of the Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt, serving under Ramesses IX, Ramesses X and Ramesses XI. He was the son of the previous high priest of Amun, it is not beyond dispute. For a long time it was assumed. However, Karl Jansen-Winkeln has suggested that Amenhotep was instead succeeded by the High Priest Piankh. We know the names of several of his brothers and a sister:-his brother, the prophet of Amun Meribast II -his brother, the Chief Steward Usimarenakth II -his sister Aatmeret I -his brother, the Second Prophet of Amun Nesamun I Unfortunately, there is no hard evidence concerning the identity of his wife, it has been proposed that he may have been married to Hrere, but at the moment this remains speculative. From several references in the Tomb Robbery Papyri it can be deduced that, sometime prior to the start of the era known as the Wehem Mesut, the Viceroy of Kush Pinehesy attacked Thebes and removed the High Priest Amenhotep from office. During the first decades of the 20th century there was much confusion about both the date of what became called "the Suppression" and about the exact role played by Pinehesy.
Whereas an early Egyptologist as Wilhelm Spiegelberg assumed that it was Amenhotep himself who rebelled, Sethe showed that Amenhotep was the victim rather than the oppressor. More than not "the Suppression" was placed in the reign of Ramesses IX or in the early years of Ramesses XI, it is now accepted that the suppression took place only shortly before the Wehem Mesut, which started in year 19 of Ramesses XI. It has been suggested that this "Renaissance" may have been proclaimed to mark the end of a troublesome period of which the removal from office of Amenhotep was a part. In a detailed study, Kim Ridealgh has shown that the traditional translation "suppression" of the Egyptian term "thj" is misleading, since it suggests that Amenhotep was somehow besieged and/or robbed of his freedom; the term rather denotes a more general act of aggression. Therefore, a more neutral translation like "transgression against the High Priest" is to be preferred, it is not known who ended "the transgression". It seems certain, that Pinehasy fled south and managed to maintain a powerbase in Nubia at least until year 10 of the Renaissance, when he is mentioned in a letter by the High Priest of Amun Piankh.
It is not known for certain whether the High Priest, survived Pinehasy's violent action. However, Wente published a damaged inscription from Karnak in which a High Priest looks back at a period when he was ousted from office; the text is suggestive of Amenhotep having been restored to his former position after an appeal to the king. If Amenhotep was succeeded by Herihor, Amenhotep's pontificate must have been over by year 5 of the Renaissance at the latest, since, on that model, this is the year in which the priest Wenamun set out on his journey to Byblos; because the Story of Wenamun mentions Herihor as High Priest, by that time Amenhotep must have been dead. However, it is not certain whether the anonymous "year 5" of the Story of Wenamun belongs to the Renaissance. Piankh, the other candidate for the succession, is first securely attested in year 7 of the Wehem Mesut. If the career of Herihor fell before that of Piankh, this would leave little time for a career of Amenhotep after the transgression.
In 1962 G. Fecht published the theory that Papyrus Moscow 127, popularly known as the "Tale of Woe" or the "Letter of Wermai" was in fact a roman à clef, containing veiled references to the transgression against Amenhotep by the Viceroy Pinehesy, with the name Wermai interpreted as a word play on a similar-sounding pontifical title. If Fecht is right, the Tale of Woe provides additional evidence; the theory of Fecht has been taken up again by Ad Thijs. He suggests that the "Letter of Wermai" may have been "a propagandistic weapon, aimed at discrediting Panehsy, who in the years following the suppression must still have posed a serious threat to Amenhotep." The Second Prophet of Amun Nesamun, a brother of Amenhotep lays claim to the position of High Priest of Amun. He does so in an inscription on the base of a statue of his father Ramessesnakth. However, he can neither have preceded nor succeeded his brother: -during the first phase of the pontificate of Amenhotep it was a certain Tjanefer, attested as Second Prophet of Amun, showing that Nesamun only became prominent later.-in the famous Oracle of year 7 of the Whm Mswt Nesamun is still presented as Second Prophet, together with the High Priest of Amun Piankh.
However, it has been pointed out that Piankh more or less stands aside while Nesamun fulfills the role played by the acting High Priest. It has been postulated that Nesamun may have acted as'temporary' High Priest to replace his brother during the transgression against the latter by the Viceroy of Kush Pinehesy; such a scenario might explain why he was allowed by the High Priest Piankh to perform the role played by the High Priest of Amun. Wilhelm Spiegelberg, Die Empörung des Hohenpriesters Amenhotpe unter Ramses IX, ZÄS 58, 47-48 Kurt Sethe, Die angebliche Rebellion des Hohenpriesters Amenhotp unter Ramses IX, ZÄS 59, 60-61 T. Eric Peet, The Supposed Revolution of the High-Priest Amenhotpe under Ramesses IX, JEA 12, 254-259 G. Fecht, Der Moskauer "literarische Brief" als historisches Dokument, ZÄS 87, 12-31 Ad Thijs, The Troubled Car
Amenhotep called Huy
Amenhotep called Huy was Viceroy of Kush under Tutankhamen. He was the successor of Tuthmosis, he would be succeeded by Paser I. Huy was the son of a lady named Werner, his father is not known. Huy was married of the Harem of Nebkheperure, they had a son named Paser. Titles of Huy: Scribe of the letters of the viceroy, Merymose. King's scribe, Mery-netjer priest, King's messenger to every land. People associated with Huy: Harnufer, "Scribe of the gold-accounts of the king's son" Kna, "Scribe of the king's son" Amenhotep Huy was buried in TT40 located in Qurnet Murai. In the tomb there is reference to a Temple named "Satisfying the Gods" in Nubia. Huy is shown being greeted there by Khay, High Priest of Nebkheperure, Deputy of the fortress of Nebkheperure, the Mayor, Mermose, the second prophet of Nebkheperure. Taemwadjsy was Chief of the Harem of Nebkheperure at this temple. Tomb of Huy on Osirisnet
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions