Dennis Walter Conner is an American yachtsman. He is noted for winning a bronze medal at the 1976 Olympics, two Star World Championships, four wins in the America's Cup. Conner was born September 1942 in San Diego, he competed in the 1976 Olympics together with Conn Findlay and took the bronze medal in the Tempest class. Conner took part in the 1979 Admiral's Cup, as helmsman on the Peterson 45 named Williwaw. Conner has won the America's Cup four times defending the Cup in 1974, 1980, 1988 and winning as the challenger in 1987, he was the skipper of the first defender to be defeated in the 132-year history of the cup ending 132 years of successful defense by the New York Yacht Club with their loss in 1983 to Alan Bond's wing-keeled challenger Australia II 4 races to 3. Following the loss Conner formed his own syndicate, the Sail America Foundation, through which he raised funds to mount a challenge culminating with winning the Cup back from Australia in 1987. After taking The Cup back to American soil, this time for the San Diego Yacht Club in 1987, Conner defeated the controversial "Big Boat Challenge" of New Zealand banker Michael Fay. Fay's team challenged with a 90' super-sloop.
Conner's SDYC responded with a 60' wing-sailed catamaran, designed by Morrelli, Hubbard & MacLane in a surprise defense. Fay's challenge and legal case based on the Deed foreshadowed the controversial 33rd America's Cup, whose legal wrangling resulted in the contest being decided in enormous multihulls in February 2010, while returning to the pre-war style of exclusive, billionaire backed campaigns of Alinghi and BMW Oracle Racing. Before the 1980s, America's Cup competitors were amateurs who took time off to compete. Conner insisted on year round training with a new focus on physical practice; this change in approach led to a return to professional crews in sailing, which had hardly been seen since the 1930s. Due to the bad media attention surrounding the 1988 catamaran defense, Conner had insufficient funding to mount a multiple-boat defense in 1992, which heralded the debut of the IACC yacht, his USA-11 proved no match to Bill Koch's America3 campaign. USA-11 was built as a test-bed for design ideas that were to be incorporated into the "racing" boat, nicknamed TDC-2.
However, TDC-2 was never built. Its ideas were incorporated into his single-boat campaign for 1995, the yacht Stars & Stripes USA-34. After sinking during The Citizen Cup defender trials, USA-34 went on to a come-from-behind win over Mighty Mary, earning the right to defend The Cup against Team New Zealand's Black Magic, NZL-32. Believing Stars & Stripes was no match against the Black Magic, Dennis Conner swapped boats for the Cup matches, pitting Young America against New Zealand's Black Magic NZL–32, but the result was a humiliating defeat for Dennis Conner, losing to Team New Zealand 0–5. Conner again found difficulty securing funding for the 2000 America's Cup in New Zealand; as in 1992 and 1995, he mounted a single-boat campaign centered upon Stars & Stripes USA-55. Conner was eliminated in the quarter final repechage by Craig McCaw's OneWorld Challenge. Conner was a rare non-billionaire fielding a team to compete in the 2003 America's Cup, held in New Zealand, receiving funding of up to US$40 million from his sponsors.
His syndicate, Stars & Stripes, suffered a severe setback before they departed California, as one of the two Stars & Stripes boats sank when its rudder post failed during training. Despite raising the boat from 55 feet of water and repairing it, they were unable to recover the valuable testing time lost and they were defeated in the quarter-finals of the Louis Vuitton Cup. 2003 marked Conner's last participation in the America's Cup. 4-time winner, America's Cup Race, 1974, 1980, 1987 and 1988 Inductee, America's Cup Hall of Fame Captain, two Whitbread Round-the-World races 28 World Championships Three-time winner, U. S. Yachtsman of the Year: 1975, 1980 and 1986 Seven-time winner, San Diego Yachtsman of the Year Olympic Bronze Medal winner, 1976 4 Southern Ocean Racing Cups 2 Congressional Cups 1987 ABC Wide World of Sports Athlete of the Year U. S. Sailing Hall of Fame Maxi yacht racing 1 of only 4 American sailors inducted into the ISAF Hall of Fame America's Greatest Sailor, US Sailing's Greatest American Sailor Tournament Commencement Speaker, United States Naval Academy Cover, Time Magazine, February 9, 1987 Cover Sports Illustrated with President Ronald Reagan, February 1987 Artist, Sales of artwork in the several millions of dollars Motivational Speaker Member of the San Diego Yacht Club, New York Yacht Club, Yacht Club de Monaco in Monaco San Diego Rotary Honorary Doctorate from Green Mountain College, 1987 Honorary Doctorate from the Medical College of the University of South Carolina, 1987 Bachelor's degree from San Diego State University No Excuse to Lose, 1987 Comeback: My Race for the America's Cup, 1987 The Art of Winning, 1990 Sail Like a Champion, 1992 America's Cup Cookbook, 1992 Life's Winning Tips, 1997 The America's Cup: The History of Sailings Greatest Competition in the Twentieth Century, 1998 Learn to Sail: A Beginner's Guide to the Art and Language of Sailing on a Lake or Ocean, 1998 Official website Dennis Conner at World Sailing
Louis Vuitton Malletier referred to as Louis Vuitton, or shortened to LV, is a French fashion house and luxury retail company founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton. The label's LV monogram appears on most of its products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, watches, accessories and books. Louis Vuitton is one of the world's leading international fashion houses. For six consecutive years, Louis Vuitton was named the world's most valuable luxury brand, its 2012 valuation was US$25.9 billion. The 2013 valuation of the brand was US$28.4 billion with revenue of US$9.4 billion. The company operates in 50 countries with more than 460 stores worldwide; the Louis Vuitton label was founded by Vuitton in 1854 on Rue Neuve des Capucines in France. Louis Vuitton had observed that the HJ Cave Osilite trunk could be stacked. In 1858, Vuitton introduced his flat-topped trunks with trianon canvas, making them lightweight and airtight. Before the introduction of Vuitton's trunks, rounded-top trunks were used to promote water runoff, thus could not be stacked.
It was Vuitton's gray Trianon canvas flat trunk that allowed the ability to stack with ease for voyages. Many other luggage makers imitated LV's design; the company participated in the 1867 Universal Exhibition in Paris. In 1871, Ōyama Iwao became the first recorded Japanese customer, ordering a set of luggage while in Paris as a military observer during the Franco-Prussian War. To protect against the duplication of his look, Vuitton changed the Trianon design to a beige and brown stripes design in 1876. By 1885, the company opened its first store in London on Oxford Street. Soon thereafter, due to the continuing imitation of his look, in 1888, Vuitton created the Damier Canvas pattern, which bore a logo that reads "marque L. Vuitton déposée", which translates into "L. Vuitton registered trademark". In 1892, Louis Vuitton died, the company's management passed to his son. After the death of his father, Georges Vuitton began a campaign to build the company into a worldwide corporation, exhibiting the company's products at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893.
In 1896, the company made the worldwide patents on it. Its graphic symbols, including quatrefoils and flowers, were based on the trend of using Japanese Mon designs in the late Victorian era; the patents proved to be successful in stopping counterfeiting. In this same year, Georges traveled to the United States, where he toured cities such as New York and Chicago, selling Vuitton products. In 1901, the Louis Vuitton Company introduced the Steamer Bag, a smaller piece of luggage designed to be kept inside Vuitton luggage trunks. By 1913, the Louis Vuitton Building opened on the Champs-Elysees, it was the largest travel-goods store in the world at the time. Stores opened in New York, Washington, London and Buenos Aires as World War I began. Afterwards, in 1930, the Keepall bag was introduced. During 1932, LV introduced the Noé bag; this bag was made for champagne vintners to transport bottles. Soon thereafter, the Louis Vuitton Speedy bag was introduced. In 1936 Georges Vuitton died, his son, Gaston-Louis Vuitton, assumed control of the company.
During World War II, Louis Vuitton collaborated with the Nazis during the German occupation of France. The French book Louis Vuitton, A French Saga, authored by French journalist Stephanie Bonvicini and published by Paris-based Editions Fayard tells how members of the Vuitton family aided the puppet government led by Marshal Philippe Pétain and increased their wealth from their business affairs with the Germans; the family set up a factory dedicated to producing artifacts glorifying Pétain, including more than 2,500 busts. Caroline Babulle, a spokeswoman for the publisher, said: "They have not contested anything in the book, but they are trying to bury it by pretending it doesn't exist." Responding to the book's release in 2004, a spokesman for LVMH said: "This is ancient history. The book covers a period when it was family-run and long before it became part of LVMH. We are diverse and all the things a modern company should be." An LVMH spokesman told the satirical magazine Le Canard Enchaîné: "We don't deny the facts, but regrettably the author has exaggerated the Vichy episode.
We haven't put any pressure on anyone. If the journalists want to censor themselves that suits us fine." That publication was the only French periodical to mention the book, LVMH is the country's biggest advertiser in the press. During this period, Louis Vuitton began to incorporate leather into most of its products, which ranged from small purses and wallets to larger pieces of luggage. In order to broaden its line, the company revamped its signature Monogram Canvas in 1959 to make it more supple, allowing it to be used for purses and wallets, it is believed that in the 1920s, counterfeiting returned as a greater issue to continue on into the 21st century. In 1966, the Papillon was launched. By 1977 with annual revenue up to 70 million Francs. A year the label opened its first stores in Japan: in Tokyo and Osaka. In 1983, the company joined with America's Cup to form the Louis Vuitton Cup, a preliminary competition for the yacht race. Louis Vuitton expanded its presence in Asia with the opening of a store in Taipei, Taiwan in 1983 and Seoul, South Korea in 1984.
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Charles Francis Adams III
Charles Francis Adams III known as Deacon, was an American politician. He was a member of the prominent American Adams family, was the United States Secretary of the Navy under President Herbert Hoover and a well-known yachtsman. Charles Francis Adams III was born on August 2, 1866 in Quincy, Massachusetts to Frances "Fanny" Cadwalader Crowninshield and John Quincy Adams II. Adams graduated cum laude from Harvard College in 1888, where he was a brother of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, he graduated from Harvard Law School in 1892. A scion of the Adams family that produced two presidents, Charles Francis III, the son of John Quincy Adams II, the oldest son of the Charles Francis Adams, Sr. was the great-grandson of the sixth U. S. President John Quincy Adams, the great-great-grandson of the second U. S. President John Adams, his mother Fanny Crowninshield was the granddaughter of U. S. Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Williams Crowninshield. Adams was the third cousin twice removed of Otis Norcross, the 19th Mayor of Boston.
Both descending from their fourth great grandfather, Joseph Adams. Charles Francis Adams, Jr. was the uncle, not the father of Charles Francis Adams III, an assumption made by virtue of sequential name succession. Charles F. Adams, Jr. had five children, the first three being daughters, which may explain why his brother John Q. Adams II took the prerogative to name his son after their uncle. Charles, Jr.'s only sons were born in 1875. After graduating from Harvard Law and being admitted to the bar in 1893, he was first a lawyer went into business. From 1896 to 1897, Adams served as mayor of Massachusetts. In 1903, while serving as president of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Adams proposed to Congress that the famed frigate USS Constitution be restored and returned to active service; this led to Congress authorizing funds for the restoration of Constitution and opening her to the public in 1907. In 1916, the Massachusetts legislature and electorate approved a calling of a constitutional convention.
Adams was elected as a delegate at large to serve as a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1917. At one time, he was an officer in 43 corporations, including several banks and many of the country's largest corporations such as the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, the Union Pacific Railroad, the Harvard Corporation. From 1929 until his retirement in 1933, Adams served as the Secretary of the Navy under President Herbert Hoover. While Secretary, Adams vigorously promoted public understanding of the Navy's indispensable role in international affairs, worked strenuously to maintain naval strength and efficiency during a period of severe economic depression, he served at the London Naval Treaty in 1930 where he maintained the principle of United States naval parity with Britain. Adams was a supporter of limited presidential terms, well before the 22nd Amendment passed, advocated that the Presidents should be required to renounce political parties and that after they left the presidency, should be made ex-officio members of the United States Senate.
In 1920, Adams skippered the America's Cup defender Resolute and soon became known as the "Dean of American Helmsmen". He was posthumously inducted into the America's Cup Hall of Fame in 1993. In 1939, he won the King's Cup, Astor Cup, Puritan Cup, the three most coveted domestic yachting trophies in a single season. In 1929, he became a member of the District of Columbia Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, his national membership number was 48,952. He was an honorary companion of the Naval Order of the United States. In 1932, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Sciences. On April 3, 1899, Adams married Frances, the daughter of U. S. Representative William C. Lovering, at St. John's Episcopal Church in Washington, D. C. Together, they had two children: Catherine Frances Lovering Adams, who married Henry Sturgis Morgan, son of J. P. Morgan, Jr. and one of the founders of Morgan Stanley, along with Harold Stanley, on June 26, 1923. Together, they had five sons. Charles Francis Adams IV, a prominent businessman and the first president of Raytheon Company, was married firstly to Margaret, had issue: Abigail Adams, Allison Adams, Charles Francis Adams V, Timothy Adams.
He married secondly. Adams died on June 11, 1954, was interred in Mount Wollaston Cemetery in Quincy, Massachusetts, on June 13, 1954, his estate, valued at $192,000 in 1954, was left to his widow. The Charles Francis Adams Memorial Trophy for yacht racing was established in his memory, the Navy destroyer USS Charles F. Adams was dedicated in his honor. "Charles Francis Adams III". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-05-16
Rolex SA is a Swiss luxury watch manufacturer based in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded as Wilsdorf and Davis by Hans Wilsdorf and Alfred Davis in London, England in 1905, the company registered Rolex as the brand name of its watches in 1908 and became Rolex Watch Co. Ltd. in 1915. After World War I, the company moved its base of operations to Geneva, Switzerland in order to avoid heavy taxation from a recovering post-war Britain, in 1920 Hans Wilsdorf registered Montres Rolex SA in Geneva as the new company name which became Rolex SA in years. Since 1960, the company has been owned by a private family trust. Rolex SA and its subsidiary Montres Tudor SA design, manufacture and service wristwatches sold under the Rolex and Tudor brands. In 2018, Forbes ranked Rolex as the world's 71st most valuable brand; as of 2018, among the world's top ten most expensive watches sold at auctions, three are Rolex watches. In particular, Paul Newman's Rolex Daytona holds the title of the most expensive wristwatch and the second most expensive watch sold at auction, fetching 17.75 million US dollars in New York on October 26, 2017.
Alfred Davis and his brother-in-law Hans Wilsdorf founded Wilsdorf and Davis, the company that would become Rolex S. A. in London, England in 1905. Wilsdorf and Davis' main commercial activity at the time involved importing Hermann Aegler's Swiss movements to England and placing them in watch cases made by Dennison and others; these early wristwatches were sold to many jewellers, who put their own names on the dial. The earliest watches from Wilsdorf and Davis were hallmarked "W&D" inside the caseback. In 1908, Wilsdorf registered the trademark "Rolex", which became the brand name of watches from Wilsdorf and Davis, opened an office in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. Wilsdorf wanted his watch brand's name to be pronounceable in any language, he thought that the name "Rolex" was onomatopoeic, sounding like a watch being wound. It is pronounceable in many languages and, as all its upper-case letters have the same size and can be written symmetrically, it was short enough to fit on the face of a watch.
In 1914, Kew Observatory awarded a Rolex watch a Class A precision certificate, a distinction granted to marine chronometers. In November 1915, the company changed its name to Rolex Watch Co. Ltd. After World War I, Hans Wilsdorf left England in 1919 due to heavy post-war taxes levied on luxury imports, as well as to the high cost driven by exporting duties on the silver and gold used for the watch cases; as a result, Wilsdorf moved the company to Geneva, where the company's name was changed to Montres Rolex S. A. in 1920, to Rolex S. A in years. Upon the death of his wife in 1944, Wilsdorf established the Hans Wilsdorf Foundation, a private trust, in which he left all of his Rolex shares, making sure that some of the company's income would go to charity. Wilsdorf passed away in 1960, since the trust has owned and run Rolex SA. In December 2008, following the abrupt departure of Chief Executive Patrick Heiniger for "personal reasons", Rolex SA denied that it had lost 1 billion Swiss francs invested with Bernard Madoff, the American asset manager who pleaded guilty to an £30 billion worldwide Ponzi scheme fraud.
The company announced Heiniger's death on March 5, 2013. Rolex SA is owned by the private Hans Wilsdorf Foundation, registered as a charity and does not pay corporate income taxes. In 2011, a spokesman for Rolex declined to provide evidence regarding the amount of charitable donations made by the Wilsdorf Foundation. In Geneva where the company is based, it is said to have gifted, among many things, two housing buildings to social institutions of Geneva. According to the 2017 Brand Z report, the brand value is estimated $8.053 billion. Rolex watches continue to have a reputation as status symbols, it produces more than 800,000 timepieces each year. Rolex SA offers products under the Tudor brands. Montres Tudor has designed and marketed Tudor watches since 6 March 1946. Rolex founder Hans Wilsdorf conceived of the Tudor Watch Company to create a product for authorized Rolex dealers to sell that offered the reliability and dependability of a Rolex, but at a lower price; the number of Rolex watches was limited by the rate that they could produce in-house Rolex movements, thus Tudor watches were equipped with off-the-shelf movements while using similar quality cases and bracelets.
Tudor watches have been manufactured by Montres Tudor SA using movements supplied by ETA SA. Since 2015, Tudor has begun to manufacture watches with in-house movements; the first model introduced with a in-house movement was the Tudor North Flag. Following this, updated versions of the Tudor Pelagos and Tudor Heritage Black Bay have been fitted with an in-house caliber. Tudor watches are marketed and sold in most countries around the world including the United States, Canada, Mexico, South Africa, some countries in Europe including the UK, South Asia, the Middle East and countries in South America Brazil and Venezuela. Montres Tudor SA discontinued sales of Tudor-branded watches in the United States in 2004, but Tudor returned to the United States market in the summer of 2013 and to the UK in 2014. One of Rolex's company slogans is "A Crown for Every Achievement". Rolex produced mechanical watches, but it has participated in the development of the original quartz watch movements. Although Rolex has made few quartz models for its Oyster line, the company's engineers were instrumental in design and implementation
William Starling Burgess
William Starling Burgess was an American yacht designer, aviation pioneer, naval architect. He was awarded the highest prize in aviation, the Collier Trophy in 1915, just two years after Orville Wright won it. In 1933 he partnered with Buckminster Fuller to build the radical Dymaxion Car. Between 1930 and 1937 he created three America's Cup winning J-Class yachts, Enterprise and Ranger. Burgess was born in Boston, Massachusetts on Christmas Day, the son of yacht designer Edward Burgess and Caroline "Kitty" Sullivant. Both of Burgess' parents died within weeks of each other when he was 12, leaving him and his 3-year-old brother to be raised by relatives. Like his father, Starling had a great mechanical and mathematical ability and a refined sense of line and spatial relationship. From his mother he received a love of literature and poetry, which he regarded as the foundation for all accomplishment. After the death of his parents, Burgess was mentored by many of his father's colleagues, including Nathanael Greene Herreshoff.
This relationship was terminated by Herreshoff when Burgess confided his aspiration to become a yacht designer himself. Starling attended Milton Academy, a progressive boarding school near Boston, where he became interested in aviation, designed his first sailboat, Sally II, patented a sophisticated lightweight machine gun. Burgess graduated from Milton Academy in 1897 and entered Harvard College with the Class of 1901; as Burgess began life at Harvard, tension was building between Spain and the U. S; the sinking of an American battleship, the USS Maine, on February 15, 1898, increased the drumbeat for war, war was declared on April 11, 1898. Starling Burgess was one of a hundred Harvard undergraduates to volunteer for military service, he enlisted in the U. S. Navy, because of his proven expertise in weapons design, was promoted to the rank of Gunner’s Mate, he received credit for the courses he missed during this period by special vote of the Harvard faculty. For reasons not clear, he left Harvard without completing his degree, opened his own yacht design office in Boston.
During the Spring Term of his senior year, in March 1901, The Rudder published the following notice: “We are glad to welcome into our company of advertisers Mr. Starling Burgess, a son of the celebrated designer. Mr. Burgess has opened an office at 15 Exchange Street, is busily engaged in getting out the designs for several boats, among them being a yawl for Mr. Walter Burgess, whose many boats have been among the most interesting exhibits in this magazine. To the designing end Mr. Burgess has added the business of brokerage, our readers will find several craft offered for sale in his advertisement.” A year he partnered with Alpheus Appleton Packard to found Burgess & Packard, Naval Architects and Engineers. In the same year he designed the revolutionary 52 LOA feet scow sloop "Outlook", a radical racing yacht which featured a steel truss along the deck midline allowing the hull to be flat and light by the standards of the day; the design featured a large, club foot, self-tacking jib set on an 8 feet bowsprit supported by a dolphin striker.
It was fast and a winner against the more conventional keel boat designs of the day. In 1905 he established a yacht yard in Marblehead and began designing and building yachts and boats. In the eyes of the rich and famous Starling was part of the "Four Hundred"-the group of long established and rich American who were devoted to sailing as a recreation; however Starling had an awkward relationship with this rich and powerful group due to his relative lack of capital. In 1908 he became interested in aviation and in 1909 joined with airplane designer Augustus Moore Herring who had left Glenn Curtiss to form the Herring-Burgess Company; the Herring-Burgess Co. built the biplane Flying Fish, which flew over Plum Island on April 17, 1910, the second powered and controlled flight in New England. In 1911 Burgess built several planes licensed by the Wright Brothers, he crashed one while demonstrating at College Park Airport in June 1911. Norman Prince and his friends hired Burgess in 1912 to build a plane for them to race in the Gordon Bennett Cup Race.
Herring left in 1910 and Greely S. Curtis and Frank H. Russell joined Burgess to form Burgess Company and Curtis, Inc. In 1914 the renamed Burgess Company built its first hydroplane designed by J. W. Dunne and soon was selling the Burgess-Dunne hydroplanes to the U. S. Army and the U. S. Navy. In addition, the Royal Canadian Air Force purchased a Burgess Dunne hydroplane in 1914. Burgess received the 5th Collier Trophy to be issued, in 1915 for his hydro-aeroplane. With its 800 employees, Burgess Company became the largest employer in Marblehead. At some point in this decade, Burgess designed what was certainly his most popular boat, the 14-foot "Brutal Beast." Simple enough for inexpensive mass-production, the Beasts became the dominant instructional craft of Marblehead—and other communities—into the forties. When the U. S. entered World War I, the Burgess Company was sold to John N. Willys. Burgess became a Lieutenant Commander and designed planes for the Navy. After the war he returned to boat design and construction and designed three successful J-class yacht defenders of the America's Cup: Enterprise in 1930, Rainbow in 1934, Ranger in 1937.
In 1922 he and A. Loring Swasey and Frank C. Paine formed the design firm Swasey & Paine in Boston. Lewis Francis Herreshoff worked with them, they designed several yachts, including the Advace for John S. Lawrence, the Gosson for Charles Francis Adams III
The America's Cup, affectionately known as the Auld Mug, is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match races between two sailing yachts. One yacht, known as the defender, represents the yacht club that holds the America's Cup and the second yacht, known as the challenger, represents the yacht club, challenging for the cup; the timing of each match is determined by an agreement between the challenger. The America's Cup is the oldest international sporting trophy, it will next be raced for in the southern summer, in the early part of 2021. The cup was awarded in 1851 by the Royal Yacht Squadron for a race around the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom, won by the schooner America. Known as the'R. Y. S. £100 Cup', the trophy was renamed the'America's Cup' after the yacht and was donated to the New York Yacht Club under the terms of the Deed of Gift, which made the cup available for perpetual international competition. Any yacht club that meets the requirements specified in the deed of gift has the right to challenge the yacht club that holds the cup.
If the challenging club wins the match, it gains stewardship of the cup. The history and prestige associated with the America's Cup attracts not only the world's top sailors and yacht designers but the involvement of wealthy entrepreneurs and sponsors, it is a test not only of sailing skill and boat and sail design, but of fundraising and management skills. The trophy was held by the NYYC from 1857 until 1983; the NYYC defended the trophy twenty-four times in a row before being defeated by the Royal Perth Yacht Club, represented by the yacht Australia II. The NYYC's reign was the longest winning streak in the history of all sports. From the first defence of the cup in 1870 through the twentieth defence in 1967, there was always only one challenger. In 1970, for the first time, there were multiple challengers, so the NYYC agreed that the challengers could run a selection series with the winner becoming the official challenger and competing against the defender in the America's Cup match. Since 1983, Louis Vuitton has sponsored the Louis Vuitton Cup as a prize for the winner of the challenger selection series.
Early matches for the cup were raced between yachts 65–90 ft on the waterline owned by wealthy sportsmen. This culminated with the J-Class regattas of the 1930s. After World War II and twenty years without a challenge, the NYYC made changes to the deed of gift to allow smaller, less expensive 12-metre class yachts to compete, it was replaced in 1990 by the International America’s Cup Class, used until 2007. After a long legal battle, the 2010 America's Cup was raced in 90 ft waterline multihull yachts in a best of three "deed of gift" match in Valencia, Spain; the victorious Golden Gate Yacht Club elected to race the 2013 America's Cup in AC72 foiling, wing-sail catamarans. Golden Gate Yacht Club defended the cup; the 35th America's Cup match was announced to be sailed in 50 ft foiling catamarans. The history of the America's Cup has included legal battles and disputes over rule changes including most over the rule changes for the 2017 America's Cup; the America's Cup is held by the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron, who will stage the 36th defence of the Cup in 2021.
The Cup is an ornate sterling silver bottomless ewer crafted in 1848 by Garrard & Co. Henry William Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey bought one and donated it for the Royal Yacht Squadron's 1851 Annual Regatta around the Isle of Wight, it was known as the "R. Y. S. £100 Cup", standing for a cup of a hundred GB Pounds or "sovereigns" in value. The cup was subsequently mistakenly engraved as the "100 Guinea Cup" by the America syndicate, but was referred to as the "Queen's Cup". Today, the trophy is known as the "America's Cup" after the 1851 winning yacht, is affectionately called the "Auld Mug" by the sailing community, it is inscribed with names of the yachts that competed for it, has been modified twice by adding matching bases to accommodate more names. In 1851 Commodore John Cox Stevens, a charter member of the fledgling New York Yacht Club, formed a six-person syndicate to build a yacht with intention of taking her to England and making some money competing in yachting regattas and match races.
The syndicate contracted with pilot boat designer George Steers for a 101 ft schooner, christened America and launched on 3 May 1851. On 22 August 1851, America raced against 15 yachts of the Royal Yacht Squadron in the Club's annual 53-nautical-mile regatta around the Isle of Wight. America won. Apocryphally, Queen Victoria, watching at the finish line, was reported to have asked, second, the famous answer being: "Ah, Your Majesty, there is no second."The surviving members of the America syndicate donated the cup via the Deed of Gift of the America's Cup to the NYYC on 8 July 1857, specifying that it be held in trust as a perpetual challenge trophy to promote friendly competition among nations. No challenge to race for the Cup was issued until British railway tycoon James Lloyd Ashbury's topsail schooner Cambria beat the Yankee schooner Sappho in the Solent in 1868; this success encouraged the Royal Thames Yacht Club in believing that the cup could be brought back home, placed the first challenge in 1870.
Ashbury entered Cambria in the NYYC Queen's Cup race in New York City on 8 August against a fleet of seventeen
Harold Stirling Vanderbilt
Harold Stirling Vanderbilt CBE was an American railroad executive, a champion yachtsman, an innovator and champion player of contract bridge, a member of the Vanderbilt family. He was born in Oakdale, New York, the third child of William Kissam Vanderbilt and Alva Erskine Smith. To family and friends he was known as "Mike", his siblings were Consuelo Vanderbilt. As the great-grandson of the shipping and railroad tycoon Cornelius Vanderbilt, he was born to great wealth and privilege: as a child he was raised in Vanderbilt mansions, travelled to Europe, sailed the world on yachts owned by his father, his nephew, Barclay Harding Warburton III, founded the American Sail Training Association. Vanderbilt was educated by tutors and at private schools in Massachusetts, including St. Mark's School, Harvard College, Harvard Law School, where he attended from 1907 to 1910. After Harvard Law, he joined the New York Central Railroad, the centerpiece of his family's vast railway empire, of which his father was president.
On his father's death in 1920, Harold inherited a fortune that included the Idle Hour country estate at Oakdale, New York and equity in several railway companies, including Detroit, Toledo & Milwaukee Railroad, the Genesee Falls Railway, the Kanawha and Michigan Railway, the Kanawha and West Virginia Railroad, the New Jersey Junction Railroad, the New York Central Railroad, the New York and Harlem Railroad, the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad. Following the death of his brother William in 1944, he remained the only active representative of the Vanderbilt family involved with the New York Central Railroad, he served as a director and member of the executive committee until 1954, when the New York Central was subjected to a hostile takeover by business tycoon Robert R. Young. Young committed suicide four years later. Vanderbilt nearly lost the Vagrant, on Britain's entry into the First World War; the British competitor for the 1914 America's Cup, Shamrock IV, was crossing the Atlantic with the steam yacht Erin, destined for Bermuda, when Britain declared war on Germany on August 5, 1914.
The British crews received word of the declaration of war by radio. As the Commodore of the New York Yacht Club, Vanderbilt sent the Vagrant from Rhode Island to Bermuda to meet the Shamrock IV and Erin, to escort them to the US. Meanwhile, among the first things done in Bermuda on the declaration was to remove all maritime navigational aids; the Vagrant arrived on the 8th. Having no radio, the crew were unaware of the declaration of war and finding all of the buoys and other navigational markers missing, they attempted to pick their own way in through the Narrows, the channel that threads through the barrier reef; this took them directly to the fore of St. David's Battery, where the gunners were on a war footing and opened fire; this was just a warning shot. The Shamrock IV and Erin arrived the next day; the America's Cup was cancelled for that year. In March 1917, Vanderbilt was commissioned a lieutenant in the United States Naval Reserve; when the United States entered World War I, he was called to active duty on April 9, 1917 and assigned as commanding officer of the scout patrol boat USS Patrol No.
8, which operated out of Newport, Rhode Island. He was reassigned on July 20 to command the Block Island, Rhode Island, anti-submarine sector and on November 17 the New London, Connecticut sector. Upon his reassignment the officers and men of the Block Island sector presented him with an engraved naval officer's sword as a token of their esteem; the sword is now displayed at the Marble House in Newport. On July 17, 1918, he was reassigned to the US Navy forces in Europe and reported to Submarine Chaser Detachment 3 at Queenstown, Ireland in August, he served with Detachment 3 until the unit was disbanded on November 25, 1918 - shortly after the Armistice was signed. He was placed on inactive duty December 30, 1918 and was promoted to lieutenant on February 26, 1919, retroactive to September 21, 1918, he was discharged from the Naval Reserve on March 26, 1921. As a boy, Harold Vanderbilt spent part of his summers at the Vanderbilt mansions—the Idle Hour estate in Long Island, New York on the banks of the Connetquot River.
As an adult, he pursued his interest in yachting, winning six "King's Cups" and five Astor Cups at regattas between 1922 and 1938. He served as commodore of the New York Yacht Club from 1922 to 1924. In 1925, he built his own luxurious vacation home at Palm Beach, Florida that he called "El Solano." Vanderbilt achieved the pinnacle of yacht racing in 1930 by defending the America's Cup in the J-class yacht Enterprise. His victory put him on the cover of the September 1930, issue of TIME magazine. In 1934 Harold faced a dangerous challenger from the United Kingdom, owned by the aviation pioneer and industrialist Thomas Octave Murdoch Sopwith. Endeavour won the first two races but Vanderbilt's Rainbow won four races in a row and defended the Cup. In 1937 he won again in the last of the J-class yachts to defend the Cup, he was posthumously elected to the America's Cup Hall of Fame in 1993. In the fall of 1935, Harold began a study of the yacht racing rules with three friends: Philip J. Roosevelt, President of the North American Yacht Racing Union.
"The four men began by attempting to take the right-of-way rules as t