Harold Stirling Vanderbilt
Harold Stirling Vanderbilt CBE was an American railroad executive, a champion yachtsman, an innovator and champion player of contract bridge, a member of the Vanderbilt family. He was born in Oakdale, New York, the third child of William Kissam Vanderbilt and Alva Erskine Smith. To family and friends he was known as "Mike", his siblings were Consuelo Vanderbilt. As the great-grandson of the shipping and railroad tycoon Cornelius Vanderbilt, he was born to great wealth and privilege: as a child he was raised in Vanderbilt mansions, travelled to Europe, sailed the world on yachts owned by his father, his nephew, Barclay Harding Warburton III, founded the American Sail Training Association. Vanderbilt was educated by tutors and at private schools in Massachusetts, including St. Mark's School, Harvard College, Harvard Law School, where he attended from 1907 to 1910. After Harvard Law, he joined the New York Central Railroad, the centerpiece of his family's vast railway empire, of which his father was president.
On his father's death in 1920, Harold inherited a fortune that included the Idle Hour country estate at Oakdale, New York and equity in several railway companies, including Detroit, Toledo & Milwaukee Railroad, the Genesee Falls Railway, the Kanawha and Michigan Railway, the Kanawha and West Virginia Railroad, the New Jersey Junction Railroad, the New York Central Railroad, the New York and Harlem Railroad, the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad. Following the death of his brother William in 1944, he remained the only active representative of the Vanderbilt family involved with the New York Central Railroad, he served as a director and member of the executive committee until 1954, when the New York Central was subjected to a hostile takeover by business tycoon Robert R. Young. Young committed suicide four years later. Vanderbilt nearly lost the Vagrant, on Britain's entry into the First World War; the British competitor for the 1914 America's Cup, Shamrock IV, was crossing the Atlantic with the steam yacht Erin, destined for Bermuda, when Britain declared war on Germany on August 5, 1914.
The British crews received word of the declaration of war by radio. As the Commodore of the New York Yacht Club, Vanderbilt sent the Vagrant from Rhode Island to Bermuda to meet the Shamrock IV and Erin, to escort them to the US. Meanwhile, among the first things done in Bermuda on the declaration was to remove all maritime navigational aids; the Vagrant arrived on the 8th. Having no radio, the crew were unaware of the declaration of war and finding all of the buoys and other navigational markers missing, they attempted to pick their own way in through the Narrows, the channel that threads through the barrier reef; this took them directly to the fore of St. David's Battery, where the gunners were on a war footing and opened fire; this was just a warning shot. The Shamrock IV and Erin arrived the next day; the America's Cup was cancelled for that year. In March 1917, Vanderbilt was commissioned a lieutenant in the United States Naval Reserve; when the United States entered World War I, he was called to active duty on April 9, 1917 and assigned as commanding officer of the scout patrol boat USS Patrol No.
8, which operated out of Newport, Rhode Island. He was reassigned on July 20 to command the Block Island, Rhode Island, anti-submarine sector and on November 17 the New London, Connecticut sector. Upon his reassignment the officers and men of the Block Island sector presented him with an engraved naval officer's sword as a token of their esteem; the sword is now displayed at the Marble House in Newport. On July 17, 1918, he was reassigned to the US Navy forces in Europe and reported to Submarine Chaser Detachment 3 at Queenstown, Ireland in August, he served with Detachment 3 until the unit was disbanded on November 25, 1918 - shortly after the Armistice was signed. He was placed on inactive duty December 30, 1918 and was promoted to lieutenant on February 26, 1919, retroactive to September 21, 1918, he was discharged from the Naval Reserve on March 26, 1921. As a boy, Harold Vanderbilt spent part of his summers at the Vanderbilt mansions—the Idle Hour estate in Long Island, New York on the banks of the Connetquot River.
As an adult, he pursued his interest in yachting, winning six "King's Cups" and five Astor Cups at regattas between 1922 and 1938. He served as commodore of the New York Yacht Club from 1922 to 1924. In 1925, he built his own luxurious vacation home at Palm Beach, Florida that he called "El Solano." Vanderbilt achieved the pinnacle of yacht racing in 1930 by defending the America's Cup in the J-class yacht Enterprise. His victory put him on the cover of the September 1930, issue of TIME magazine. In 1934 Harold faced a dangerous challenger from the United Kingdom, owned by the aviation pioneer and industrialist Thomas Octave Murdoch Sopwith. Endeavour won the first two races but Vanderbilt's Rainbow won four races in a row and defended the Cup. In 1937 he won again in the last of the J-class yachts to defend the Cup, he was posthumously elected to the America's Cup Hall of Fame in 1993. In the fall of 1935, Harold began a study of the yacht racing rules with three friends: Philip J. Roosevelt, President of the North American Yacht Racing Union.
"The four men began by attempting to take the right-of-way rules as t
William Starling Burgess
William Starling Burgess was an American yacht designer, aviation pioneer, naval architect. He was awarded the highest prize in aviation, the Collier Trophy in 1915, just two years after Orville Wright won it. In 1933 he partnered with Buckminster Fuller to build the radical Dymaxion Car. Between 1930 and 1937 he created three America's Cup winning J-Class yachts, Enterprise and Ranger. Burgess was born in Boston, Massachusetts on Christmas Day, the son of yacht designer Edward Burgess and Caroline "Kitty" Sullivant. Both of Burgess' parents died within weeks of each other when he was 12, leaving him and his 3-year-old brother to be raised by relatives. Like his father, Starling had a great mechanical and mathematical ability and a refined sense of line and spatial relationship. From his mother he received a love of literature and poetry, which he regarded as the foundation for all accomplishment. After the death of his parents, Burgess was mentored by many of his father's colleagues, including Nathanael Greene Herreshoff.
This relationship was terminated by Herreshoff when Burgess confided his aspiration to become a yacht designer himself. Starling attended Milton Academy, a progressive boarding school near Boston, where he became interested in aviation, designed his first sailboat, Sally II, patented a sophisticated lightweight machine gun. Burgess graduated from Milton Academy in 1897 and entered Harvard College with the Class of 1901; as Burgess began life at Harvard, tension was building between Spain and the U. S; the sinking of an American battleship, the USS Maine, on February 15, 1898, increased the drumbeat for war, war was declared on April 11, 1898. Starling Burgess was one of a hundred Harvard undergraduates to volunteer for military service, he enlisted in the U. S. Navy, because of his proven expertise in weapons design, was promoted to the rank of Gunner’s Mate, he received credit for the courses he missed during this period by special vote of the Harvard faculty. For reasons not clear, he left Harvard without completing his degree, opened his own yacht design office in Boston.
During the Spring Term of his senior year, in March 1901, The Rudder published the following notice: “We are glad to welcome into our company of advertisers Mr. Starling Burgess, a son of the celebrated designer. Mr. Burgess has opened an office at 15 Exchange Street, is busily engaged in getting out the designs for several boats, among them being a yawl for Mr. Walter Burgess, whose many boats have been among the most interesting exhibits in this magazine. To the designing end Mr. Burgess has added the business of brokerage, our readers will find several craft offered for sale in his advertisement.” A year he partnered with Alpheus Appleton Packard to found Burgess & Packard, Naval Architects and Engineers. In the same year he designed the revolutionary 52 LOA feet scow sloop "Outlook", a radical racing yacht which featured a steel truss along the deck midline allowing the hull to be flat and light by the standards of the day; the design featured a large, club foot, self-tacking jib set on an 8 feet bowsprit supported by a dolphin striker.
It was fast and a winner against the more conventional keel boat designs of the day. In 1905 he established a yacht yard in Marblehead and began designing and building yachts and boats. In the eyes of the rich and famous Starling was part of the "Four Hundred"-the group of long established and rich American who were devoted to sailing as a recreation; however Starling had an awkward relationship with this rich and powerful group due to his relative lack of capital. In 1908 he became interested in aviation and in 1909 joined with airplane designer Augustus Moore Herring who had left Glenn Curtiss to form the Herring-Burgess Company; the Herring-Burgess Co. built the biplane Flying Fish, which flew over Plum Island on April 17, 1910, the second powered and controlled flight in New England. In 1911 Burgess built several planes licensed by the Wright Brothers, he crashed one while demonstrating at College Park Airport in June 1911. Norman Prince and his friends hired Burgess in 1912 to build a plane for them to race in the Gordon Bennett Cup Race.
Herring left in 1910 and Greely S. Curtis and Frank H. Russell joined Burgess to form Burgess Company and Curtis, Inc. In 1914 the renamed Burgess Company built its first hydroplane designed by J. W. Dunne and soon was selling the Burgess-Dunne hydroplanes to the U. S. Army and the U. S. Navy. In addition, the Royal Canadian Air Force purchased a Burgess Dunne hydroplane in 1914. Burgess received the 5th Collier Trophy to be issued, in 1915 for his hydro-aeroplane. With its 800 employees, Burgess Company became the largest employer in Marblehead. At some point in this decade, Burgess designed what was certainly his most popular boat, the 14-foot "Brutal Beast." Simple enough for inexpensive mass-production, the Beasts became the dominant instructional craft of Marblehead—and other communities—into the forties. When the U. S. entered World War I, the Burgess Company was sold to John N. Willys. Burgess became a Lieutenant Commander and designed planes for the Navy. After the war he returned to boat design and construction and designed three successful J-class yacht defenders of the America's Cup: Enterprise in 1930, Rainbow in 1934, Ranger in 1937.
In 1922 he and A. Loring Swasey and Frank C. Paine formed the design firm Swasey & Paine in Boston. Lewis Francis Herreshoff worked with them, they designed several yachts, including the Advace for John S. Lawrence, the Gosson for Charles Francis Adams III
Prada S.p. A. is an Italian luxury fashion house, specializing in leather handbags, travel accessories, ready-to-wear and other fashion accessories, founded in 1913 by Mario Prada. The company was started in 1913 by Mario Prada and his brother Martino as a leather goods shop – Fratelli Prada – in Milan, Italy; the shop sold animal goods and imported English steamer trunks and handbags. Mario Prada did not believe that women should have a role in business, so he prevented female family members from entering his company. Mario's son harbored no interest in the business, so it was his daughter Luisa Prada who took the helm of Prada as his successor, ran it for twenty years, her own daughter, Miuccia Prada, joined the company in 1970 taking over for her mother in 1978. Miuccia began making waterproof backpacks out of a nylon fabric, she met Patrizio Bertelli in 1977, an Italian who had begun his own leather goods business at the age of 24, he joined the company soon after. He advised Miuccia on company business.
It was his advice to change the existing luggage. Miuccia inherited the company in 1978 by which time sales were up to U. S. $450,000. With Bertelli alongside her as business manager, Miuccia was allowed time to implement her creativity in the company's designs, she would go on to incorporate her ideas into the house of Prada. She released her first set of backpacks and totes in 1979, they were made out of a tough military spec black nylon that her grandfather had used as coverings for steamer trunks. Initial success was not instant, as they were hard to sell due to the lack of advertising and high prices, but the lines would go on to become her first commercial hit. Next and Bertelli sought out wholesale accounts for the bags in upscale department stores and boutiques worldwide. In 1983, Prada opened a second boutique in the centre of the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele in Milan's shopping heart, on the site of the previous historic "London House" emporium run by Felice Bellini from 1870 to the 1960s, reminiscent of the original shop, but with a sleek and modern contrast to it.
The next big release was a nylon tote. That same year, the house of Prada began expansion across continental Europe and the United States by opening locations in prominent shopping districts within Florence, Paris and New York City. A shoe line was released in 1984. In 1985 Miuccia released the "classic Prada handbag". Although practical and sturdy, its sleek lines and craftsmanship had a luxury that has become the Prada signature. In 1987 Miuccia and Bertelli married. Prada launched its women's ready-to-wear collection in 1989, the designs came to be known for their dropped waistlines and narrow belts. Prada's popularity increased when the fashion world took notice of its clean lines, opulent fabrics, basic colors; the logo for the label was not as obvious a design element as those on bags from other prominent luxury brands such as Louis Vuitton. It tried to market its lack of prestigious appeal, including of its apparel, by projecting an image of "anti-status" or "inverse snobbery". Prada's originality made it one of the most influential fashion houses, the brand became a premium status symbol in the 1990s.
Sales were reported at L 70 billion, or US$31.7 million, in 1998. Partrizio di Marco took charge of the growing business in the United States after working for the house in Asia, he was successful in having the Prada bags prominently displayed in department stores, so that they could become a hit with fashion editors. Prada's continued success was attributed to its "working-class" theme which, Ginia Bellafante at The New York Times Magazine proclaimed, "was becoming chic in the high-tech, IPO-driven early 1990s." Furthermore, now husband and wife and Bertelli led the Prada label on a cautious expansion, making products hard to come by. In 1992, the high fashion brand Miu Miu, named after Miuccia's nickname, launched. Miu Miu catered to younger consumers, such as celebrities. By 1993 Prada was awarded the Council of Fashion Designers of America award for accessories. Men's ready-to-wear collections were launched in the mid-1990s. By 1994, sales were at US$210 million, with clothing sales accounting for 20%.
Prada won another award from the CFDA, in 1995 as a "designer of the year" 1996 witnessed the opening of the 18,000 ft² Prada boutique in Manhattan, New York, the largest in the chain at the time. By now the House of Prada operated in 40 locations worldwide; the company subcontracted work from 84 other manufacturers in Italy. Miuccia's Prada and Bertelli company were merged to create Prapar B. V. in 1996. The name, was changed to Prada B. V. and Patrizio Bertelli was named Chief Executive Officer of the Prada luxury company. In 1997, Prada posted revenue of US$674 million. Another store in Milan opened that same year. According to the Wall Street Journal, Bertelli smashed the windows of the store a day before the opening, after he had become unsatisfied with the set-up. Prada acquired shares in the Gucci group, blamed Gucci for "aping his wife's designs." In June 1998, Bertelli gained 9.5% interests at US$260 million. Analysts began to speculate; the proposition seemed unlikely, because Prada was at the time still a small company and was in debt.
Funding Universe states that "At the least, Prada had a voice as one of Gucci's largest shareholders and would stand to profi
Edward Burgess (yacht designer)
Edward Burgess was an American yacht designer, born June 30, 1848 in West Sandwich, Massachusetts. Burgess is fifth son of Cordelia Williams Ellis; the Burgess family were merchants who made their money in the West Indies trade and lost it in 1879. Burgess was educated at Harvard, graduating in 1871, became secretary of the Boston Society of Natural History, in which capacity he edited the publications of the society, published several memoirs on anatomical subjects. In 1879, he became instructor in entomology at Harvard, remaining until 1883, he traveled in Europe and, in an amateur way, studied the principles of naval architecture, bringing his knowledge and judgment to the practical test of designing and building vessels for his own use. He relied on this when he turned to the design of sailing yachts for a living in 1883. Several of his boats won fame in the waters of the eastern United States. In 1884, a committee of Bostonians selected him to design a large sloop yacht to represent the United States in a series of international races.
From his designs, Puritan was built. This was a remarkable triumph in view of the fact that it was the first attempt of an American designer to solve certain shipbuilding problems to which Englishmen had given their attention for a score of years. In 1886, his Mayflower larger than Puritan, led in the race with the English Galatea. In 1888, Burgess' fishing schooner Carrie E. Phillips outdistanced four competitors in the fisherman's race held in Boston harbor, his Volunteer won the America's cup against the Thistle in 1887. His other yachts included the Mariquita and Gossoon, both remarkably swift sloops designed to counter the success of the Clyde-built cutter Minerva. Burgess married Caroline Louisa Sullivant on June 1877 in Boston, they had Charles Paine. Burgess died July 1891 of typhoid fever. Caroline died 16 September 1891 in Boston of pneumonia, they are both buried at Mount Auburn Cemetery lot #1167 Geranium Path. Burgess was inducted into the America's Cup Hall of Fame in 1994; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G..
"Burgess, Edward". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "Burgess, Edward". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Reynolds, Francis J. ed.. "Burgess, Edward". Collier's New Encyclopedia. New York: P. F. Collier & Son Company. Adolphus Gustavus McVey. "Edward Burgess and his work". New England Magazine. Vol. V. pp. 49–62. Boston's North Shore by Joseph E. Garland. Published 1978. Benjamin Franklin Burgess Obituary, NEHGS Register Volume 65 xlviii, 1911. 139. Benjamin Franklin Burgess genealogy. Tasha Tudor ancestry. Wilson, J. G.. "Burgess, Edward". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Reynolds, Francis J. ed.. "Burgess, Edward". Collier's New Encyclopedia. New York: P. F. Collier & Son Company; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "Burgess, Edward". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead; the location of the early Burgess summer cottage is now Lynch Park in Massachusetts.
Latter it was owned by the Evans Family who hosted President William Howard Tafts 1910 summer "Whitehouse". A map of Beverly Cove from the 1872 Atlas of Essex County plate 95, showing the Burgess cottage off Ober Street on Woodbury Point
Louis Vuitton Malletier referred to as Louis Vuitton, or shortened to LV, is a French fashion house and luxury retail company founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton. The label's LV monogram appears on most of its products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, watches, accessories and books. Louis Vuitton is one of the world's leading international fashion houses. For six consecutive years, Louis Vuitton was named the world's most valuable luxury brand, its 2012 valuation was US$25.9 billion. The 2013 valuation of the brand was US$28.4 billion with revenue of US$9.4 billion. The company operates in 50 countries with more than 460 stores worldwide; the Louis Vuitton label was founded by Vuitton in 1854 on Rue Neuve des Capucines in France. Louis Vuitton had observed that the HJ Cave Osilite trunk could be stacked. In 1858, Vuitton introduced his flat-topped trunks with trianon canvas, making them lightweight and airtight. Before the introduction of Vuitton's trunks, rounded-top trunks were used to promote water runoff, thus could not be stacked.
It was Vuitton's gray Trianon canvas flat trunk that allowed the ability to stack with ease for voyages. Many other luggage makers imitated LV's design; the company participated in the 1867 Universal Exhibition in Paris. In 1871, Ōyama Iwao became the first recorded Japanese customer, ordering a set of luggage while in Paris as a military observer during the Franco-Prussian War. To protect against the duplication of his look, Vuitton changed the Trianon design to a beige and brown stripes design in 1876. By 1885, the company opened its first store in London on Oxford Street. Soon thereafter, due to the continuing imitation of his look, in 1888, Vuitton created the Damier Canvas pattern, which bore a logo that reads "marque L. Vuitton déposée", which translates into "L. Vuitton registered trademark". In 1892, Louis Vuitton died, the company's management passed to his son. After the death of his father, Georges Vuitton began a campaign to build the company into a worldwide corporation, exhibiting the company's products at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893.
In 1896, the company made the worldwide patents on it. Its graphic symbols, including quatrefoils and flowers, were based on the trend of using Japanese Mon designs in the late Victorian era; the patents proved to be successful in stopping counterfeiting. In this same year, Georges traveled to the United States, where he toured cities such as New York and Chicago, selling Vuitton products. In 1901, the Louis Vuitton Company introduced the Steamer Bag, a smaller piece of luggage designed to be kept inside Vuitton luggage trunks. By 1913, the Louis Vuitton Building opened on the Champs-Elysees, it was the largest travel-goods store in the world at the time. Stores opened in New York, Washington, London and Buenos Aires as World War I began. Afterwards, in 1930, the Keepall bag was introduced. During 1932, LV introduced the Noé bag; this bag was made for champagne vintners to transport bottles. Soon thereafter, the Louis Vuitton Speedy bag was introduced. In 1936 Georges Vuitton died, his son, Gaston-Louis Vuitton, assumed control of the company.
During World War II, Louis Vuitton collaborated with the Nazis during the German occupation of France. The French book Louis Vuitton, A French Saga, authored by French journalist Stephanie Bonvicini and published by Paris-based Editions Fayard tells how members of the Vuitton family aided the puppet government led by Marshal Philippe Pétain and increased their wealth from their business affairs with the Germans; the family set up a factory dedicated to producing artifacts glorifying Pétain, including more than 2,500 busts. Caroline Babulle, a spokeswoman for the publisher, said: "They have not contested anything in the book, but they are trying to bury it by pretending it doesn't exist." Responding to the book's release in 2004, a spokesman for LVMH said: "This is ancient history. The book covers a period when it was family-run and long before it became part of LVMH. We are diverse and all the things a modern company should be." An LVMH spokesman told the satirical magazine Le Canard Enchaîné: "We don't deny the facts, but regrettably the author has exaggerated the Vichy episode.
We haven't put any pressure on anyone. If the journalists want to censor themselves that suits us fine." That publication was the only French periodical to mention the book, LVMH is the country's biggest advertiser in the press. During this period, Louis Vuitton began to incorporate leather into most of its products, which ranged from small purses and wallets to larger pieces of luggage. In order to broaden its line, the company revamped its signature Monogram Canvas in 1959 to make it more supple, allowing it to be used for purses and wallets, it is believed that in the 1920s, counterfeiting returned as a greater issue to continue on into the 21st century. In 1966, the Papillon was launched. By 1977 with annual revenue up to 70 million Francs. A year the label opened its first stores in Japan: in Tokyo and Osaka. In 1983, the company joined with America's Cup to form the Louis Vuitton Cup, a preliminary competition for the yacht race. Louis Vuitton expanded its presence in Asia with the opening of a store in Taipei, Taiwan in 1983 and Seoul, South Korea in 1984.
In the following
Nathanael Greene Herreshoff
Nathanael Greene Herreshoff was an American naval architect, mechanical engineer, yacht design innovator. He produced a succession of undefeated America's Cup defenders between 1893-1920. Herreshoff was born on March 18, 1848 in Bristol, Rhode Island and was named after General Nathanael Greene, he was one of seven brothers, behind Lewis and John B. and the elder of John B. F. and Julian L. He graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1870 with a three-year degree in mechanical engineering. After graduation, he took a position with the Corliss Steam Engine Company in Providence, Rhode Island. At the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he oversaw operation of the Corliss Stationary Engine, a 40-foot-tall, 1,400-horsepower dynamo that powered the exhibition's machinery. In 1878 Herreshoff returned to Bristol where he and his older brother John B. formed the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company. Herreshoff provided the engineering expertise and his brother provided the business expertise, managing the firm's personnel and interacting with clients.
Together, they grew the business from about 20 employees to over 400. In 1888, a serious accident occurred while Herreshoff was supervising speed trials of a 138-foot, 875-horsepower steamboat named Say When. After a safety valve opened to release over-pressure, Herreshoff closed it so the boat could achieve its anticipated maximum speed, but a boiler exploded. Herreshoff lost his steam engineer's license. Herreshoff was an accomplished sailor. Two of Herreshoff's sons would become yacht designers: Sidney Dewolf Herreshoff and Lewis Francis Herreshoff, he died on June 1938 in Bristol, Rhode Island. While the firm's early work centered on steam-powered vessels, by the 1890s the Herreshoffs turned to the design and construction of yachts for wealthy American clients, including Jay Gould, William Randolph Hearst, John Pierpont Morgan, Cornelius Vanderbilt III, Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, William Kissam Vanderbilt II, Harry Payne Whitney and Alexander Smith Cochran. Herreshoff boat production incorporated power tools that increased productivity at a high level of quality, using craftsmen that received the highest boat-builder wages in the state of Rhode Island.
Herreshoff was noted as an innovative sailboat designer of his time. His designs ranged from the 12½, a 16-foot sailboat for training the children of yachtsmen, to the 144-foot America's Cup Reliance, with a sail area of 16,000 square feet, he received the first US patent for a sailing catamaran. The firm built the America's Cup winning Cup yachts Enterprise - 1930, Rainbow - 1934; every winning America's Cup Yacht from 1893 to 1934 was built by the Herreshoff yard. The 123-foot Defender featured steel-framing, bronze plating up to the waterline and aluminum topsides to achieve a lighter and faster boat; this combination of materials had been pioneered in the French fresh-water racing yacht Vendenesse, described in a New York Times article and caught the attention of the Vanderbilt Americacup syndicate. In salt water, Defender was subject to galvanic corrosion. Defender won the America's Cup in 1895 over Lord Dunraven's Valkyrie III, she was used as an effective trial-horse for Herreshoff's new Cup defender Columbia in 1899.
She was broken up in 1901. Those of the 2,000-plus designs by Herreshoff that survive are sought by connoisseurs of classic yachts. Herreshoff S-Class sailboats, designed in 1919 and built until 1941, are still raced in Narragansett Bay, Buzzards Bay and Western Long Island Sound, his 12 1/2 design of 1914 raced in New England as well. The New York 30 is well regarded as a one-design racer/cruiser; the Herreshoff Marine Museum preserves Herreshoff's legacy at the former site of the Herreshoff Manufacturing Co. Lightning—the US Navy's first purpose-built torpedo boat—a speed record breaking steam launch with a spar torpedo, 1876. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Herreshoff constructed a double-hulled sailing boat of his own design; the craft, raced at her maiden regatta on June 22, 1876 and performed exceedingly well. Her debut demonstrated the distinct performance advantages afforded by catamarans over the standard monohulls, it was as a result of this event, the Centennial Regatta of the New York Yacht Club, that catamarans were barred from regular sailing classes, this remained the case until the 1970s.
Amaryllis—Herreshoff sailing catamaran, 1876 Duplex catamaran, 1877 Helianthus III, 1924 Herreshoff designed and built the following America's Cup contenders. All won the series against their challengers. Herreshoff was the helmsman of Vigilant. Vigilant, 1893 Defender, 1895 Columbia, 1899 & 1901 Reliance, 1903 Resolute, 1920 According to his son's biography of Herreshoff's career of 72 years, Herreshoff achieved the following: Designed and built five winning America's Cup yachts. Designed well over 2000 craft and produced more than 18,000 drawings. Between 1890 and 1938, the number of yachts he designed that won the Astor Cup, Puritan Cup and Kings Cup outnumbered the winning yachts of all rival yacht designers combined. Built the first torpedo boats for the U. S. Navy. Developed the first handicapping formula to allow yachts of different sizes and types to race together. Developed yacht scantlings based on scientific load calculations. Invented streamlined bulb and fin keels. Invented the sail track and slide in it
Charles Francis Adams III
Charles Francis Adams III known as Deacon, was an American politician. He was a member of the prominent American Adams family, was the United States Secretary of the Navy under President Herbert Hoover and a well-known yachtsman. Charles Francis Adams III was born on August 2, 1866 in Quincy, Massachusetts to Frances "Fanny" Cadwalader Crowninshield and John Quincy Adams II. Adams graduated cum laude from Harvard College in 1888, where he was a brother of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, he graduated from Harvard Law School in 1892. A scion of the Adams family that produced two presidents, Charles Francis III, the son of John Quincy Adams II, the oldest son of the Charles Francis Adams, Sr. was the great-grandson of the sixth U. S. President John Quincy Adams, the great-great-grandson of the second U. S. President John Adams, his mother Fanny Crowninshield was the granddaughter of U. S. Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Williams Crowninshield. Adams was the third cousin twice removed of Otis Norcross, the 19th Mayor of Boston.
Both descending from their fourth great grandfather, Joseph Adams. Charles Francis Adams, Jr. was the uncle, not the father of Charles Francis Adams III, an assumption made by virtue of sequential name succession. Charles F. Adams, Jr. had five children, the first three being daughters, which may explain why his brother John Q. Adams II took the prerogative to name his son after their uncle. Charles, Jr.'s only sons were born in 1875. After graduating from Harvard Law and being admitted to the bar in 1893, he was first a lawyer went into business. From 1896 to 1897, Adams served as mayor of Massachusetts. In 1903, while serving as president of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Adams proposed to Congress that the famed frigate USS Constitution be restored and returned to active service; this led to Congress authorizing funds for the restoration of Constitution and opening her to the public in 1907. In 1916, the Massachusetts legislature and electorate approved a calling of a constitutional convention.
Adams was elected as a delegate at large to serve as a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1917. At one time, he was an officer in 43 corporations, including several banks and many of the country's largest corporations such as the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, the Union Pacific Railroad, the Harvard Corporation. From 1929 until his retirement in 1933, Adams served as the Secretary of the Navy under President Herbert Hoover. While Secretary, Adams vigorously promoted public understanding of the Navy's indispensable role in international affairs, worked strenuously to maintain naval strength and efficiency during a period of severe economic depression, he served at the London Naval Treaty in 1930 where he maintained the principle of United States naval parity with Britain. Adams was a supporter of limited presidential terms, well before the 22nd Amendment passed, advocated that the Presidents should be required to renounce political parties and that after they left the presidency, should be made ex-officio members of the United States Senate.
In 1920, Adams skippered the America's Cup defender Resolute and soon became known as the "Dean of American Helmsmen". He was posthumously inducted into the America's Cup Hall of Fame in 1993. In 1939, he won the King's Cup, Astor Cup, Puritan Cup, the three most coveted domestic yachting trophies in a single season. In 1929, he became a member of the District of Columbia Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, his national membership number was 48,952. He was an honorary companion of the Naval Order of the United States. In 1932, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Sciences. On April 3, 1899, Adams married Frances, the daughter of U. S. Representative William C. Lovering, at St. John's Episcopal Church in Washington, D. C. Together, they had two children: Catherine Frances Lovering Adams, who married Henry Sturgis Morgan, son of J. P. Morgan, Jr. and one of the founders of Morgan Stanley, along with Harold Stanley, on June 26, 1923. Together, they had five sons. Charles Francis Adams IV, a prominent businessman and the first president of Raytheon Company, was married firstly to Margaret, had issue: Abigail Adams, Allison Adams, Charles Francis Adams V, Timothy Adams.
He married secondly. Adams died on June 11, 1954, was interred in Mount Wollaston Cemetery in Quincy, Massachusetts, on June 13, 1954, his estate, valued at $192,000 in 1954, was left to his widow. The Charles Francis Adams Memorial Trophy for yacht racing was established in his memory, the Navy destroyer USS Charles F. Adams was dedicated in his honor. "Charles Francis Adams III". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-05-16