Immaculate Heart of Mary
The Eastern Catholic Churches occasionally utilize the image and theology associated with the Immaculate Heart of Mary. However, this is a cause of controversy, some seeing it as a form of liturgical latinisation. The Roman Catholic view is based on Mariology, as exemplified by Pope John Paul IIs Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae, the heart is depicted pierced with seven wounds or swords, in homage to the seven dolors of Mary. Also, roses or another type of flower may be wrapped around the heart, veneration of the Heart of Mary is analogous to worship of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. There are, differences in this analogy as devotion to the heart of Jesus is especially directed to the heart as overflowing with love for humanity. In the devotion to Mary, the attraction is the love of her heart for Jesus, a second difference is the nature of the devotion itself. In devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the Roman Catholic venerates in a sense of love responding to love, in devotion to the Heart of Mary and imitation hold as important a place as love.
The aim of the devotion is to unite mankind to God through Marys heart, the object of the devotion being to love God and Jesus better by uniting ones self to Mary for this purpose and by imitating her virtues. In Chapter 2 of St. Lukes gospel, the evangelist twice reports that Mary kept all things in her heart, luke 2,35 recounts the prophecy of Simeon that her heart would be pierced with a sword. This image is the most popular representation of the Immaculate Heart, St. Johns Gospel further invited attention to Marys heart with its depiction of Mary at the foot of the cross at Jesus crucifixion. St. Augustine said of this that Mary was not merely passive at the foot of the cross, devotion to the Heart of Mary began in the Middle Ages with saints like Anselm of Canterbury, and Bernard of Clairvaux. It was practiced and developed by Mechtild, Gertrude the Great and Bridget of Sweden. Evidence is discernible in the pious meditations on the Ave Maria and the Salve Regina, usually attributed either to St.
Anselm of Lucca or St. Bernard, Mariae Virginis by Richard de Saint-Laurent, Penitentiary of Rouen in the thirteenth century. St. Bernardine of Siena, is sometimes called “Doctor of the Heart of Mary”, St. Francis de Sales speaks of the perfections of this heart, the model of love for God, and dedicated to it his Theotimus. In the second half of the century and the first half of the seventeenth. He established several religious societies interested in upholding and promoting the devotion, of which his book on the Coeur Admirable, published in 1681. Jean Eudes efforts to secure the approval of an office and feast failed at Rome, notwithstanding this disappointment, in 1729, his project was defeated, and in 1765, the two causes were separated, to assure the success of the principal one. In its principal object this feast is identical with the feast of the Inner Life of Mary and it commemorates the joys and sorrows of the Mother of God, her virtues and perfections, her love for God and her Divine Son and her compassionate love for mankind
Christian mysticism refers to the development of mystical practices and theory within Christianity. It has often connected to mystical theology, especially in the Roman Catholic. The attributes and means by which Christian mysticism is studied and practiced are varied and they range from ecstatic visions of the souls mystical union with God to simple prayerful contemplation of Holy Scripture. Mysticism is derived from the Greek μυω, meaning to conceal, in the Hellenistic world, a mystikos was an initiate of a mystery religion. Mystical referred to religious rituals and use of the word lacked any direct references to the transcendental. In early Christianity the term referred to three dimensions, which soon became intertwined, namely the biblical, the liturgical and the spiritual or contemplative. The biblical dimension refers to hidden or allegorical interpretations of Scriptures, the liturgical dimension refers to the liturgical mystery of the Eucharist, the presence of Christ at the Eucharist.
The third dimension is the contemplative or experiential knowledge of God, William James popularized the use of the term religious experience in his 1902 book The Varieties of Religious Experience. It has influenced the understanding of mysticism as an experience which supplies knowledge. Wayne Proudfoot traces the roots of the notion of religious experience further back to the German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, the notion of religious experience was used by Schleiermacher to defend religion against the growing scientific and secular critique. It was adopted by scholars of religion, of which William James was the most influential. Other critics point out that the stress on experience is accompanied by favoring the atomic individual, transformation has particular importance in the theology of Origen. Mystical experience is not simply a matter between the mystic and God, but is shaped by cultural issues. Thus, the nature of experience could be tailored to the particular cultural and theological issues of the time.
The link between mysticism and the vision of the Divine was introduced by the early Church Fathers, who used the term as an adjective, as in mystical theology, in Christian mysticism, Shekhinah became mystery, Daat became gnosis, and poverty became an important component of monasticism. The Alexandrian contribution to Christian mysticism centers on Origen and Clement of Alexandria, given the importance of reason, Clement stresses apatheia as a reasonable ordering of our passions in order to live within Gods love, which is seen as a form of truth. Alexandrian mysticism developed alongside Hermeticism and Neoplatonism and therefore some of the same ideas, images. In particular, Philo taught that allegorical interpretations of the Hebrew Scriptures provides access to the meanings of the texts
Francisco and Jacinta Marto
Mary was given the title Our Lady of Fátima as a result, and Fátima became a major centre of world Christian pilgrimage. The youngest children of Manuel and Olimpia Marto and Jacinta were typical of Portuguese village children of that time and they were illiterate but had a rich oral tradition. According to Lúcias memoirs, Francisco had a disposition, was somewhat musically inclined. Jacinta was affectionate if a bit spoiled and she had a sweet singing voice and a gift for dancing. Following their experiences, their personalities remained the same. Francisco preferred to pray alone, saying that this would console Jesus for the sins of the world, all three children, but particularly Francisco and Jacinta, practiced stringent self-mortifications to this end. The brother and sister, who tended to their sheep with their cousin Lucia in the fields of Fatima. Lucia recorded the words of several prayers she said they learned from this angel, Lucia wrote in her memoirs that she and her cousins saw the first apparition of Mary on May 13,1917.
At the time of the apparition, Francisco was 9 years old, during the first apparition, Mary is said to have asked the three children to say the Rosary and to make sacrifices, offering them for the conversion of sinners. She asked them to return to that spot on the thirteenth of each month for the six months. The siblings were victims of the great 1918 influenza epidemic swept through Europe that year. In October 1918, Mary supposedly appeared and take them to heaven soon, Francisco declined hospital treatment on April 3,1919, and died at home the next day. Jacinta was moved from one hospital to another in an attempt to save her life and she developed purulent pleurisy and endured an operation in which two of her ribs were removed. Because of the condition of her heart, she could not be fully anesthetized, only local, and suffered terrible pain, which she said would help to convert many sinners. On February 19,1920, Jacinta asked the hospital chaplain who heard her confession to bring her Holy Communion and he told her that her condition was not that serious and that he would return the next day.
The next day Jacinta was dead, she had died, as she had said she would. Tell them to pray to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for peace, since God entrusted it to her and Francisco are both buried at the Our Lady of Fátima Basilica. The cause for the siblings canonization began in 1946, exhumed in 1935 and again in 1951, Jacintas face was found incorrupt, Franciscos had decomposed
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Cova da Iria
Cova da Iria was a field belonging to the family of Sister Lúcia in Fátima, Portugal. Lúcia was one of the three children who, according to Roman Catholic Church, received several visitations and messages by the Blessed Virgin Mary. The children frequently pastured their families sheep on land, and were responsible for caring for them. In the water well of Lúcias house they received three times apparitions of an angel who presented himself as the Guardian Angel of Portugal. On May 13,1917, around noon, the three little shepherds saw an apparition of a beautiful lady made of light, holding a rosary in her hand. It is told that there was lightning, and the children, Lúcia Santos and Jacinta. Just above an oak tree, they saw again the vision of the woman, known as Our Lady of the Rosary of Fátima and she said, I come from Heaven. They saw the lady a total of six times, the last in October 1917. She told them to pray the rosary to obtain the end of the Great War, a small chapel was built at this site in the 1920s, when people were already making devotional pilgrimages there.
Since the Holy See officially approved Our Lady of Fátima apparitions, people from all over the world travel to it in a spirit of faith and penance. The chapel has been expanded and is now larger, enclosed within a basilica. Also on the grounds are a hotel and medical facilities
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
Miracle of the Sun
The Miracle of the Sun was an event which occurred on 13 October 1917, reportedly attended by 30,000 to 100,000 people gathered near Fátima, Portugal. Several newspaper reporters were in attendance and they took testimony from people who claimed to have witnessed extraordinary solar activity. According to these reports, the event lasted approximately ten minutes, the event was officially accepted as a miracle by the Catholic Church on 13 October 1930. The lady told to her that they should continue to come to the Cova each month until October, the people had gathered because three young shepherd children had predicted that at high noon the lady who had appeared to them several times would perform a great miracle. According to many witnesses, after a period of rain, the dark clouds broke and it was said to be significantly duller than normal, and to cast multicolored lights across the landscape, the people, and the surrounding clouds. The sun was reported to have careened towards the earth before zig-zagging back to its normal position.
Witnesses reported that their previously wet clothes became suddenly and completely dry, as well as the wet, not all witnesses reported seeing the sun dance. Some people only saw the radiant colors, and others, including some believers, the children stated that the Lady had promised them that she would on 13 October reveal her identity to them and provide a miracle so that all may believe. The most widely cited descriptions of the events reported at Fátima are taken from the writings of John De Marchi, De Marchi spent seven years in Fátima, from 1943 to 1950, conducting research and interviewing the principals at length. In The Immaculate Heart, published in 1952, De Marchi reports that, heir ranks included believers and non-believers, pious old ladies, from these mixed categories, have given formal testimony. Reports do vary, impressions are in minor details confused, some of the witness statements follow below. They are taken from John De Marchis several books on the matter. ―Dr, domingos Pinto Coelho, writing for the Catholic newspaper Ordem.
The silver sun, enveloped in the same gauzy grey light, was seen to whirl, the light turned a beautiful blue, as if it had come through the stained-glass windows of a cathedral, and spread itself over the people who knelt with outstretched hands. People wept and prayed with uncovered heads, in the presence of a miracle they had awaited, the seconds seemed like hours, so vivid were they. ―Reporter for the Lisbon newspaper O Dia. The suns disc did not remain immobile and this was not the sparkling of a heavenly body, for it spun round on itself in a mad whirl, when suddenly a clamor was heard from all the people. The sun, seemed to loosen itself from the firmament, the sensation during those moments was terrible. —Dr. Almeida Garrett, Professor of Natural Sciences at Coimbra University, as if like a bolt from the blue, the clouds were wrenched apart, and the sun at its zenith appeared in all its splendor. This sublime and incomparable spectacle, which was repeated three times, lasted for about ten minutes