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American Airlines Arena

The American Airlines Arena is a sports and entertainment arena located in Downtown Miami, along Biscayne Bay. It was constructed beginning in 1998 as a replacement for the Miami Arena and designed by the architecture firms Arquitectonica and 360 Architecture; the Arena is home to the Miami Heat of the National Basketball Association. The American Airlines Arena is directly served by the Miami Metrorail at Government Center station via free transfers to Metromover Omni Loop, providing direct service to Freedom Tower and Park West stations; the Arena is within walking distance from the Historic Overtown/Lyric Theatre Metrorail station. The American Airlines Arena has 2,105 club seats, 80 luxury suites, 76 private boxes; the Waterfront Theater is Florida's largest theater, housed within the arena, that can seat between 3,000 and 5,800. The theater can be configured for family events, musical theatre and other stage shows. American Airlines which has a hub at Miami International Airport maintains the American Airlines Arena Travel Center at the venue.

In September 2019, it was reported that the arena will have a new name in 2020. The airline holds the naming rights for another NBA venue, the American Airlines Center for the Dallas Mavericks and the Dallas Stars, which opened in 2001; the American Airlines Arena opened on December 31, 1999, its construction cost was $213 million. Architectural design team members included George Heinlein, Cristian Petschen, Reinaldo Borges, Lance Simon; the American Airlines Arena was inaugurated with a concert by Gloria Estefan. Two days on January 2, 2000, the Miami Heat played its first game in the new arena by defeating the Orlando Magic 111–103; as part of its sponsorship arrangement, American Airlines had a giant aircraft painted atop the arena's roof, with an American Airlines logo in the center. The design is visible from airplanes taking off and landing at Miami International Airport, where American has a hub; the arena has luxury skyboxes called "Flagship Lounges", a trademark used for American's premium-class lounges at certain airports.

Local sportscasters refer to the arena as the "triple-A". Some sports reporters on the local news stations such as WSVN have referred to the arena as "A3"; the arena is known for its unusual scoreboard, designed by Artist Christopher Janney. Drawing on the underwater anemone forms, the scoreboard changes colors depending on the atmosphere. For concerts in an arena configuration, end stage capacity is 12,202 for 180° shows, 15,402 for 270° shows, 18,309 for 360° shows. For center stage concerts the arena can seat 19,146; the Miami Heat has not had to pay to use the $357-million venue, which sits on $38 million of county land. "It was never a good deal," says former Miami-Dade Commissioner Katy Sorenson, who opposed the new arena in 1996. "There are certain politicians who just get stars in their eyes and don't think about what the real cost is going to be." WTVJ, the city's NBC owned-and-operated station in Miami, had their Downtown Miami Studios in the back of the arena from 2001 till 2011. Although American Airlines underwent a significant rebrand in early 2013, the arena still uses the airline's old logo.

On September 10, 2019, it was reported that American Airlines said that it would not renew its naming rights upon expiration at the end of 2019. The new naming rights contract with a sponsor yet to be determined will be a ten-year/six-month deal lasting from January 1, 2020, to June 30, 2030. Traffic congestion after events can cause delays for those. Visitors to the American Airlines Arena are encouraged to take Metrorail, Metromover, or Metrobus, as parking can be scarce and expensive. Metromover's Freedom Tower station is located two blocks west of the arena; the nearest Metrorail stations are Historic Overtown. The Metromover connects to Metrorail at Government Center station. American Airlines Arena features 939 parking spaces during HEAT Games. On-site parking is reserved for Dewar's 12 Clubhouse ticket holders. On-site parking spaces must be pre-purchased through the Arena's Official Parking Provider, ParkJockey; the American Airlines Arena along with the American Airlines Center in Dallas, hosted the 2006 NBA Finals and the 2011 NBA Finals.

The Miami Heat played the Dallas Mavericks. The Heat won the championship in 2006 in Dallas and the Mavericks won in the 2011 rematch in Miami; these series were the second appearances in the NBA Finals for both franchises. As the airline held the naming rights to both venues, people nicknamed the matchups as the "American Airlines series"; the arena hosted the 2012, 2013 and 2014 NBA Finals along with the Chesapeake Energy Arena in Oklahoma City in 2012, the AT&T Center in San Antonio in 2013 and 2014. In 2012, the Heat defeated the Oklahoma City Thunder in five games, winning the championship at home. In 2013, the Heat played the San Antonio Spurs; the Heat faced a 3-2 series deficit returning to Miami but won games 6 and 7 to defend their championship. In 2014, the Spurs defeated the Heat in five games in San Antonio and won the championship and the rematch. Since 2015, the arena has hosted the annual Hoophall Miami Invitational, a NCAA Division I college basketball showcase event; the arena hosted WCW Uncensored pay-per-view in 2000.

Three major WWE pay-per-view events have been held at the arena: the Royal Rumble in 2006, Survivor Series in 2007 and 2010. The American Airlines Arena hosted the first UFC event in the state of Florida, UFC 42: Sudden Impact, on April 25, 2003; the arena features a regulation NHL ice rink, though the arena has

Columbus Man-Tended Free Flyer

The Columbus Man-Tended Free Flyer was a European Space Agency program to develop a space station that could be used for a variety of microgravity experiments while serving ESA's needs for an autonomous manned space platform. It consisted of a Columbus module docked to a service module containing solar power collectors and other services; the program ran from 1986 to 1991, was expected to cost $3.56 billion including launch and utilization, was cancelled while still in the planning stage. Aspects of the program were realised in the Columbus science laboratory attached to the International Space Station. ESA's Board of Directors approved the Columbus program in 1985. Like the Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules and the Automated Transfer Vehicle resupply craft, Columbus traces its origins to Spacelab; the Columbus program was intended to supplement NASA's Space Station Freedom. The Columbus program included three flight configurations: A Man-tended Free-Flyer, as a space station element An Attached Pressurized Module,as a manned space station component An unmanned Polar Platform for remote sensing and data returnThe entire Columbus package was expected to cost $3.56 billion including launch and utilization.

The estimated costs of the MTFF alone were $160–180 million in 1986. The MTFF element would be serviced by the Hermes mini-shuttle launched atop the Ariane 5, flying periodically to the station for maintenance and reconfiguration. NASA approved the MTFF although it would require additional communications, docking facilities, data processing and other Station resources. Hermes would dock with the man-tended free-flyer to retrieve microgravity experiments. Since the initial plans, numerous studies and proposals were made. For development cost saving and optimization of spares provisioning during the operational phase commonality was foreseen between the flight configurations and to the space station; when the complete phase C/D proposal was delivered end 1989 by the prime contractor MBB-ERNO it turned out that the costs were much higher than expected by ESA. The Columbus budget was trimmed by canceling the smaller $145-million Eureca B platform. Hermes and Columbus would receive final approval in 1991.

By this time, the cost of German unification had forced Germany to demand a 15-20% reduction in ESA 1990-2000 spending and it was becoming clear either the German-led MTFF, Italian-led APM or French-led Hermes projects would have to be cancelled. After several budget cuts, the CNES-led Hermes program was cancelled and the polar platform was contracted separately with commonality to the French satellite Helios. All that remained in the Columbus program was the APM, first renamed to "Columbus Orbital Facility" and to just "Columbus", it would be redesigned to fit with the International Space Station. When only the APM was left in ESA's Columbus program, there were not enough tasks for the two main contributors Germany and Italy represented by MBB-ERNO and Alenia respectively; as compromise the Pre Integrated Columbus APM - principle was invented meaning a split systems engineering responsibility where Alenia as a co-prime is responsible for the overall Columbus configuration, the mechanical and thermal/life support systems, HFE and harness design/manufacturing whereas EADS Astrium Space Transportation is responsible for the overall Columbus design and all Avionics systems including electrical harness design and software.

Splitting off systems engineering responsibility and harness design under separate fixed-price contracts was found not to be advantageous with respect to efficiency and fast decision making as financial reasonings were pre-dominant in the last phase of development and verification. ESA's Columbus module for the International Space Station was based on the APM, it was launched aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis on February 7, 2008 on flight STS-122

Noriko H. Arai

Noriko H. Arai is a Japanese researcher in mathematical logic and artificial intelligence, known for her work on a project to develop robots that can pass the entrance examinations for the University of Tokyo, she is a professor in the information and society research division of the National Institute of Informatics. Arai was born in Tokyo, she earned a law degree from Hitotsubashi University and in 1985, a mathematics degree magna cum laude from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. Her doctorate is from the Tokyo Institute of Technology, she joined the National Institute of Informatics in 2001. Arai's Todai Robot Project aims to build a robot that can pass the entrance examinations for the University of Tokyo by 2021. Arai became director of the project in 2011. At a 2017 TED Talk, she reported that her system could achieve a score better than 80% of the applicants to the university. Arai sees the success of the project as evidence that human education should concentrate more on problem solving and creativity, less on rote learning.

Arai is the founder of Researchmap, "the largest social network for researchers in Japan". She was one of 15 top artificial intelligence researchers invited by French president Emmanuel Macron to join him in March 2018 for the announcement of a major new French initiative for artificial intelligence research. Living in the AI Era: Noriko Arai, Mathematician, NHK, June 7, 2018