Baffin Island, in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the largest island in Canada and the fifth-largest island in the world. Its area is 507,451 km2 and its population is about 11,000, it is located in the region of 70° N and 75° W. It was named by English colonists after English explorer William Baffin. Historians believe it is that Pre-Columbian Norse explorers from Greenland and Iceland knew of the island, they believe it is the site of Helluland, referred to in the Icelandic sagas (Grœnlendinga saga and the Saga of Erik the Red. Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut, is located on the southeastern coast; until 1987, the town was called Frobisher Bay, after the English name for the bay on which it is located. That year the indigenous people voted to take their own nameTo the south lies Hudson Strait, separating Baffin Island from mainland Quebec. South of the western end of the island is the Fury and Hecla Strait which separates the island from the Melville Peninsula on the mainland. To the east are Davis Strait and Baffin Bay, with Greenland beyond.
The Foxe Basin, the Gulf of Boothia and Lancaster Sound separate Baffin Island from the rest of the archipelago to the west and north. The Baffin Mountains run along the northeastern coast of the island and are a part of the Arctic Cordillera. Mount Odin is the highest peak, with an elevation of at least 2,143 m, although some sources say 2,147 m. Another peak of note is Mount Asgard, located in Auyuittuq National Park, with an elevation of 2,011 m. Mount Thor, with an elevation of 1,675 m, is said to have the greatest purely vertical drop of any mountain on Earth, at 1,250 m; the two largest lakes on the island lie in the south-central part of the island: Nettilling Lake and Amadjuak Lake further south. The Barnes Ice Cap, in the middle of the island, has been retreating since at least the early 1960s, when the Geographical Branch of the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys sent a three-man survey team to the area to measure isostatic rebound and cross-valley features of the Isortoq River.
Conversely, in the 1970s parts of Baffin Island failed to have the usual ice-free period in the summer. Baffin Island has been inhabited for over 3,000 years, first by the pre-Dorset, followed by the Dorset, the Thule, ancestors of the Inuit who have lived on the island for the last thousand years. In about 986, Erik Thorvaldsson, known as Erik the Red, formed three settlements near the southwestern tip of Greenland. In late 985 or 986, Bjarni Herjolfsson, sailing from Iceland to Greenland, was blown off course and sighted land southwest of Greenland. Bjarni appears to be the first European to see Baffin Island, the first European to see America beyond Greenland, it was about 15 years that the Norse Greenlanders, led by Leif Erikson, a son of Erik the Red, started exploring new areas around the year 1000. Baffin Island is thought to be Helluland, the archaeological site at Tanfield Valley is thought to have been a trading post; the Saga of Erik the Red, 1880 translation into English by J. Sephton from the original Icelandic'Eiríks saga rauða': "They sailed away from land.
Thence they sailed away from Bjarneyjar with northerly winds. They were out at sea two half-days, they came to land, rowed along it in boats, explored it, found there flat stones, many and so great that two men might well lie on them stretched on their backs with heel to heel. Polar-foxes were there in abundance; this land they gave name to, called it Helluland." In September 2008, the Nunatsiaq News, a weekly newspaper, reported that Patricia Sutherland, who worked at the Canadian Museum of Civilization had archaeological remains of yarn and cordage, rat droppings, tally sticks, a carved wooden Dorset culture face mask depicting Caucasian features, possible architectural remains, which indicated that European traders and settlers had been on Baffin Island not than 1000 CE. What the source of this Old World contact may have been is unclear and controversial. So, as Sutherland said, if you believe that spinning was not an indigenous technique, used in Arctic North America you have to consider the possibility that as "remote as it may seem," these finds may represent evidence of contact with Europeans prior to the Vikings' arrival in Greenland."
Sutherland's research led to a 2012 announcement that whetstones had been found with remnants of alloys indicative of Viking presence. In 2018, Michele Hayeur Smith of Brown University, who specializes in the study of ancient textiles, wrote that she does not think the ancient Arctic people, the Dorset and Thule, needed to be taught how to spin yarn "It's a pretty intuitive thing to do." Journal of Archaeological Science, August 2018:"... the date received on Sample 4440b from Nanook indicates that sinew was being spun and plied at least as early, if not earlier, than yarn at this site. We feel that the most parsimonious explanation of this data is that the practice of spinning hair and wool into plied yarn most developed within this context of complex, Arctic ﬁber technologies, not through contact with European textile producers. Our investigations indicate that Paleoeskimo communities on Baffin Island spun threads from the hair and from the sinews
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28, 1892, in San Francisco, California, by the Scottish-American preservationist John Muir, who became its first president; the Sierra Club operates in the United States. Traditionally associated with the progressive movement, the club was one of the first large-scale environmental preservation organizations in the world, engages in lobbying politicians to promote environmentalist policies. Recent focuses of the club include promoting sustainable energy, mitigating global warming, opposing the use of coal; the club is known for its political endorsements, which are sought after by candidates in local elections. The Sierra Club is organized on both a local level; the club is divided into large chapters representing large geographic areas, some of which have tens of thousands of members. These chapters are divided into regional groups, special interest sections and task forces. While much activity is coordinated at a local level, the Club is a unified organization.
In addition to political advocacy, the Sierra Club organizes outdoor recreation activities, has been a notable organization for mountaineering and rock climbing in the United States. Members of the Sierra Club pioneered the Yosemite Decimal System of climbing, were responsible for a substantial amount of the early development of climbing. Much of this activity occurred in the group's namesake Sierra Nevada; the Sierra Club does not set standards for or regulate alpinism, but it organizes wilderness courses and occasional alpine expeditions for members. In California, the club, through its outdoor recreation groups, is considered the state's analogue to other state mountaineering clubs such as Mazamas or the Colorado Mountain Club; the Sierra Club's stated mission is "To explore and protect the wild places of the earth. Each year, five directors are elected to three-year terms, all club members are eligible to vote. A president is elected annually by the Board from among its members; the Executive Director runs the day-to-day operations of the group.
Michael Brune of Rainforest Action Network, has served as the organization's executive director since 2010. Brune succeeded Carl Pope. Pope stepped down amid discontent. Sierra Club members belong to local groups. National and local special-interest sections and task forces address particular issues; the national Sierra Club sets overarching rules. The club is known for engaging in two main activities: promoting and guiding outdoor recreational activities, done throughout the United States but in California, political activism to promote environmental causes. Richard M. Skinner of the Brookings Institution describes the Sierra Club as one of the United States' "leading environmental organizations"; the Sierra Club makes endorsements of individual candidates for elected office, which has substantial weight given the club's reputation and large membership. Journalist Robert Underwood Johnson had worked with John Muir on the successful campaign to create a large Yosemite National Park surrounding the much smaller state park, created in 1864.
This campaign succeeded in 1890. As early as 1889, Johnson had encouraged Muir to form an "association" to help protect the Sierra Nevada, preliminary meetings were held to plan the group. Others involved in the early planning included artist William Keith, Willis Linn Jepson, Willard Drake Johnson, Joseph LeConte and David Starr Jordan. In May 1892, a group of professors from the University of California and Stanford University helped Muir and attorney Warren Olney launch the new organization modeled after the eastern Appalachian Mountain Club; the Sierra Club's charter members elected Muir president, an office he held until his death in 1914. The Club's first goals included establishing Glacier and Mount Rainier national parks, convincing the California legislature to give Yosemite Valley to the U. S. federal government, preserving California's coastal redwoods. Muir escorted President Theodore Roosevelt through Yosemite in 1903, two years the California legislature ceded Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove to the federal government.
The Sierra Club won its first lobbying victory with the creation of the country's second national park, after Yellowstone in 1872. In the first decade of the 1900s, the Sierra Club became embroiled in the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir controversy that divided preservationists from "resource management" conservationists. In the late 19th century, the city of San Francisco was outgrowing its limited water supply, which depended on intermittent local springs and streams. In 1890, San Francisco mayor James D. Phelan proposed to build a dam and aqueduct on the Tuolumne River, one of the largest southern Sierra rivers, as a way to increase and stabilize the city's water supply. Gifford Pinchot, a progressive supporter of public utilities and head of the US Forest Service, which had jurisdiction over the national parks, supported the creation of the Hetch
John Muir known as "John of the Mountains" and "Father of the National Parks", was an influential Scottish-American naturalist, environmental philosopher and early advocate for the preservation of wilderness in the United States of America. His letters and books describing his adventures in nature in the Sierra Nevada, have been read by millions, his activism has helped to preserve the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and many other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he co-founded, is a prominent American conservation organization. In his life, Muir devoted most of his time to the preservation of the Western forests; as part of the campaign to make Yosemite a national park, Muir published two landmark articles on wilderness preservation in The Century Magazine, "The Treasures of the Yosemite" and "Features of the Proposed Yosemite National Park". S. Congress to pass a bill in 1890 establishing Yosemite National Park; the spiritual quality and enthusiasm toward nature expressed in his writings has inspired readers, including presidents and congressmen, to take action to help preserve large nature areas.
John Muir has been considered "an inspiration to both Scots and Americans". Muir's biographer, Steven J. Holmes, believes that Muir has become "one of the patron saints of twentieth-century American environmental activity," both political and recreational; as a result, his writings are discussed in books and journals, he is quoted by nature photographers such as Ansel Adams. "Muir has profoundly shaped the categories through which Americans understand and envision their relationships with the natural world," writes Holmes. Muir was noted for being an ecological thinker, political spokesman, religious prophet, whose writings became a personal guide into nature for countless individuals, making his name "almost ubiquitous" in the modern environmental consciousness. According to author William Anderson, Muir exemplified "the archetype of our oneness with the earth", while biographer Donald Worster says he believed his mission was "saving the American soul from total surrender to materialism." On April 21, 2013, the first John Muir Day was celebrated in Scotland, which marked the 175th anniversary of his birth, paying homage to the conservationist.
John Muir's Birthplace is a four-story stone house in East Lothian, Scotland. His parents were Ann Gilrye, he was the third of eight children: Margaret, David, Daniel and Mary, the American-born Joanna. His earliest recollections were of taking short walks with his grandfather. In his autobiography, he described his boyhood pursuits, which included fighting, either by re-enacting romantic battles from the Wars of Scottish Independence or just scrapping on the playground, hunting for birds' nests. Author Amy Marquis notes that he began his "love affair" with nature while young, implies that it may have been in reaction to his strict religious upbringing. "His father believed that anything that distracted from Bible studies was frivolous and punishable." But the young Muir was a "restless spirit" and "prone to lashings." As a young boy, Muir became fascinated with the East Lothian landscape, spent a lot of time wandering the local coastline and countryside. It was during this time that he became interested in natural history and the works of Scottish naturalist Alexander Wilson.
Although he spent the majority of his life in America, Muir never forgot his roots in Scotland. He held a strong connection with his birthplace and Scottish identity throughout his life and was heard talking about his childhood spent amid the East Lothian countryside, he admired the works of Thomas Carlyle and poetry of Robert Burns. He returned to Scotland on a trip in 1893, where he met one of his Dunbar schoolmates and visited the places of his youth that were etched in his memory, he never lost his strong Scottish accent despite having lived in America for many years. In 1849, Muir's family immigrated to the United States, starting a farm near Portage, called Fountain Lake Farm, it has been designated a National Historic Landmark. Stephen Fox recounts that Muir's father found the Church of Scotland insufficiently strict in faith and practice, leading to their immigration and joining a congregation of the Campbellite Restoration Movement, called the Disciples of Christ. By the age of 11, the young Muir had learned to recite "by heart and by sore flesh" all of the New Testament and most of the Old Testament.
In maturity, while remaining a spiritual man, Muir may have changed his orthodox beliefs. He wrote, "I never tried to abandon creeds or code of civilization. Elsewhere in his writings, he described the conventional image of a Creator, "as purely a manufactured article as any puppet of a half-penny theater." When he was 22 years old, Muir enrolled at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, paying his own way for several years. There, under a towering black locust tree beside North Hall, Muir took his first botany lesson. A fellow student plucked a flower from the tree and used it to explain how the grand locust is a member of the pea family, related to the straggling pea plant. Fifty years the naturalist Muir described the day in his autobiography. "This fine lesson charmed me and sent me flying to the woods and meadows in wild enthusiasm." As a freshman, Muir studied chemistry with Profes
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize and predict natural phenomena. This is in contrast to experimental physics; the advancement of science depends on the interplay between experimental studies and theory. In some cases, theoretical physics adheres to standards of mathematical rigour while giving little weight to experiments and observations. For example, while developing special relativity, Albert Einstein was concerned with the Lorentz transformation which left Maxwell's equations invariant, but was uninterested in the Michelson–Morley experiment on Earth's drift through a luminiferous aether. Conversely, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for explaining the photoelectric effect an experimental result lacking a theoretical formulation. A physical theory is a model of physical events, it is judged by the extent. The quality of a physical theory is judged on its ability to make new predictions which can be verified by new observations.
A physical theory differs from a mathematical theorem in that while both are based on some form of axioms, judgment of mathematical applicability is not based on agreement with any experimental results. A physical theory differs from a mathematical theory, in the sense that the word "theory" has a different meaning in mathematical terms. A physical theory involves one or more relationships between various measurable quantities. Archimedes realized that a ship floats by displacing its mass of water, Pythagoras understood the relation between the length of a vibrating string and the musical tone it produces. Other examples include entropy as a measure of the uncertainty regarding the positions and motions of unseen particles and the quantum mechanical idea that energy are not continuously variable. Theoretical physics consists of several different approaches. In this regard, theoretical particle physics forms a good example. For instance: "phenomenologists" might employ empirical formulas to agree with experimental results without deep physical understanding.
"Modelers" appear much like phenomenologists, but try to model speculative theories that have certain desirable features, or apply the techniques of mathematical modeling to physics problems. Some attempt to create approximate theories, called effective theories, because developed theories may be regarded as unsolvable or too complicated. Other theorists may try to unify, reinterpret or generalise extant theories, or create new ones altogether. Sometimes the vision provided by pure mathematical systems can provide clues to how a physical system might be modeled. Theoretical problems that need computational investigation are the concern of computational physics. Theoretical advances may consist in setting aside old, incorrect paradigms or may be an alternative model that provides answers that are more accurate or that can be more applied. In the latter case, a correspondence principle will be required to recover the known result. Sometimes though, advances may proceed along different paths. For example, an correct theory may need some conceptual or factual revisions.
However, an exception to all the above is the wave–particle duality, a theory combining aspects of different, opposing models via the Bohr complementarity principle. Physical theories become accepted if they are able to make correct predictions and no incorrect ones; the theory should have, at least as a secondary objective, a certain economy and elegance, a notion sometimes called "Occam's razor" after the 13th-century English philosopher William of Occam, in which the simpler of two theories that describe the same matter just as adequately is preferred. They are more to be accepted if they connect a wide range of phenomena. Testing the consequences of a theory is part of the scientific method. Physical theories can be grouped into three categories: mainstream theories, proposed theories and fringe theories. Theoretical physics began at least 2,300 years ago, under the Pre-socratic philosophy, continued by Plato and Aristotle, whose views held sway for a millennium. During the rise of medieval universities, the only acknowledged intellectual disciplines were the seven liberal arts of the Trivium like grammar and rhetoric and of the Quadrivium like arithmetic, geometry and astronomy.
During the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the concept of experimental science, the counterpoint to theory, began with scholars such as Ibn al-Haytham and Francis Bacon. As the Scientific Revolution gathered pace, the concepts of matter, space and causality began to acquire the form we know today, other sciences spun off from the rubric of natural philosophy, thus began the modern era of theory with the Copernican paradigm shift in astronomy, soon followed by Johannes Kepler's expressions for planetary orbits, which summarized the meticulous observations of Tycho Brahe.
Outward Bound is an international network of outdoor education schools, founded in the United Kingdom by Kurt Hahn and Lawrence Holt in 1941. Today there are schools in 33 countries. Outward Bound International is a non-profit membership and licensing organisation for the international network of Outward Bound schools; the Outward Bound Trust is an educational charity established in 1946 to operate the schools in the United Kingdom. Separate organizations operate the schools in each of the other countries in which Outward Bound operates. Outward Bound helped to shape the U. S. Peace Corps and numerous other outdoor adventure programs, its aim is to foster the personal growth and social skills of participants by using challenging expeditions in the outdoors. The first Outward Bound school was opened in Aberdovey, Wales in 1941 by Kurt Hahn and Lawrence Holt with the support of the Blue Funnel Line. Outward Bound grew out of Hahn's work in the development of the Gordonstoun school and what is now known as the Duke of Edinburgh's Award.
Outward Bound's founding mission was to improve the survival chances of young seamen after their ships were torpedoed in the mid-Atlantic. James Martin Hogan served as warden for the first year of the school; this mission was established and expanded by Capt. J. F.'Freddy' Fuller who took over the leadership of the Aberdovey school in 1942 and served the Outward Bound movement as senior warden until 1971. Fuller had been seconded from the Blue Funnel Line following wartime experience during the Battle of the Atlantic of surviving two successive torpedo attacks and commanding an open lifeboat in the Atlantic Ocean for thirty-five days without losing a single member of the crew. An educational charity, named The Outward Bound Trust, was established in 1946 to operate the school. A second school followed in England at Eskdale Green in 1950; the first Outward Bound program for females was conducted in 1951. During the next decade, several other schools opened around the United Kingdom. Outward Bound Australia was founded in 1956.
A school in Lumut, Malaysia was opened in 1958. The first Outward Bound USA course was run in 1961 for the Peace Corps. Outward Bound New Zealand was founded in 1962 and Outward Bound Singapore was established in 1967. From the inception of Outward Bound, community service was an integral part of the program in the areas of sea and mountain rescues and this remains an important part of the training for both staff and students. During the period 1941 to 1965 in the United Kingdom, the philosophy of the schools evolved from ‘character‐training’ to ‘personal growth’ and ‘self‐discovery’. Outward Bound International was founded in 2004 to license the use of the brand name'Outward Bound' and to provide support for the international network of schools; the name Outward Bound derives from a nautical expression that refers to the moment a ship leaves the harbor. This is signified by Outward Bound's use of the Blue Peter. JF Fuller adapted the Outward Bound motto, "To Serve, To Strive and not To Yield," from the poem "Ulysses" by Alfred Lord Tennyson: Since its founding in the middle of the last century, Outward Bound has encouraged individuals to test their physical and emotional limits in challenging outdoor adventure programs.
The experiences are a means of building inner strength and a heightened awareness of human interdependence. Outward Bound operates more than 30 schools in various countries and reports serving over 250,000 students each year; the Compass Rose serves as the logo for all the schools around the world. Outward Bound courses follow a kind of recipe or formula, termed the Outward Bound Process Model, well described by Walsh and Golins as: Taking a ready, motivated learner into a prescribed, unfamiliar physical environment, along with a small group of people who are faced with a series of incremental, inter-related problem-solving tasks which creates in the individual a state of dissonance requiring adaptive coping and leads to a sense of mastery or competence when equilibrium is managed; the cumulative effect of these experiences leads to a reorganisation of the self-conceptions and information the learner holds about him/herself. The learner will continue to be positively oriented to further learning and development experiences.
In a typical class, participants are divided into small patrols under the guidance of one or more instructors. The first few days at a base camp, are spent training for the outdoor education activities that the course will contain and in the philosophy of Outward Bound. After initial confidence-building challenges, the group heads off on an expedition; as the group develops the capacity to do so, the instructors ask the group to make its own decisions. Adventure education Experiential education Experiential learning Lack of physical education Outward Bound Australia Outward Bound Costa Rica Outward Bound New Zealand Outward Bound Singapore Outward Bound USA Outward Bound International official website Outward Bound Canada Outward Bound Czech Republic Outward Bound Netherlands Outward Bound New Zealand Outward Bound Oman Outward Bound Malaysia, Lumut Outward Bound Sabah Outward Bound UK