The Himalayan Journal is the annual magazine of the Himalayan Club in India. The magazine was established in 1929; the first editor-in-chief was the English geographer Kenneth Mason. He was a surveyor operating from Shimla. Mason continued editing from England. Subsequent editors were C. W. F. Noyce, H. W. Tobin, Trevor Braham. In 1960, K. Biswas took over as the first Indian editor. From 1969 to 1979 and from 1987 to 1989 Soli S. Mehta was editor. Since 1990, Harish Kapadia is editor; the following persons have been editor-in-chief of the magazine: Kenneth Mason C. W. F. Noyce H. W. Tobin Trevor H. Braham Dr. K. Biswas Soli S. Mehta Harish Kapadia Official website Himalayan Index
Golden is the Home Rule Municipality, the county seat of Jefferson County, United States. Golden lies along Clear Creek at the base of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Founded during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush on June 16, 1859, the mining camp was named "Golden City" in honor of Thomas L. Golden. Golden City served as the capital of the provisional Territory of Jefferson from 1860 to 1861, capital of the official Territory of Colorado from 1862 to 1867. In 1867, the territorial capital was moved about 12 miles east to Denver City; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 18,867. The Colorado School of Mines, offering programs in engineering and science, is located in Golden. There are the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Earthquake Information Center, Coors Brewing Company, CoorsTek, Software Bisque, American Mountaineering Center, Colorado Railroad Museum, it is the birthplace of the Jolly Rancher, a candy bought out by the Hershey Foods Corporation. Famous western showman William F.
"Buffalo Bill" Cody is buried nearby on Lookout Mountain, as well as the city being home to Spot Bikes and Yeti Cycles. Established during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush, Golden City became a leading economic and political center of the region, its geographic location made it a center of trade between the gold fields to the west and settlements to the east. Golden City was established on June 1859, along Clear Creek west of Denver; the city is named after Thomas L. Golden. Other important businessmen and prospectors like William A. H. Loveland and George West were among the first people to settle in Golden. By the end of 1860, Golden City had been popularly elected the seat of Jefferson County and was capital of the provisional Jefferson Territory; as drafted in the territorial constitution, the capital of the Jefferson Territory was proposed to be Golden with a population of 700, as a result of its proximity to mountain mining towns, greater ability to hold a congressional quorum than had Denver. Golden City was temporarily removed from the status of territory capital as a result of an act passed on November 5, 1861, by the territorial government.
Colorado City, a small town to the south of Denver, became the new temporary territorial capital, but saw only one short event at this location. This status was revoked, however, as on August 4, 1862, the territorial government voted formally to move back to Golden. While the town lost much of its populace and leading citizenry during the Civil War for several reasons, Golden City became capital of the federally recognized Colorado Territory on August 2, 1862, continuing as such until 1867, it was the time period between 1862 and the early 1870s that a fierce railroad competition developed between Denver, ten miles to the east, Golden. By the mid-1860s, Golden held only an honorific status as territorial capital, rather than serving as the legitimate source of territorial power. Denver, the larger and more developed city, was the focused core of important territorial occasions, with the Governor residing in Denver, territorial government meetings occurring there as well; the citizens and supporters of Golden realized that a spur from Golden to the new transcontinental railroad, running through Cheyenne, Wyoming, 100 miles to the north, was the only possibility for Golden to reemerge as the dominant heart of commerce in the territory.
W. A. H. Loveland founded the Colorado Central Railroad on February 1865, to do just this. With Golden beginning talk of creating a railroad, prominent Denver residents raced to do the same. In an appeal to the residents of Denver, The Rocky Mountain News, based in Denver itself, wrote an article imploring the citizens of Denver to vote to fund a railroad. If we defeat those bonds, all hope of a railroad for the next two years is gone... Gentlemen of Denver, what will you do? The fate of your city is in your own hands.” The residents of Denver voted for the bonds. By 1869, the railroad race to Cheyenne was becoming less and less of a race, as the Denver Pacific Railway pulled ahead of the struggling Colorado Central Railroad. Realizing they were going to lose the race to Cheyenne, the Colorado Central began expanding west into mountain communities such as Georgetown, Black Hawk, Central City, all areas founded on and focused in silver mining. Golden, having sidetracked into servicing various close-by mountain communities, continued to fall behind the pace set by the Denver railroad, by 1870 lost the race to Cheyenne.
However, The Colorado Central Railroad connected directly with Cheyenne seven years in 1877, but by that point, the race with Denver had been lost. Although Golden’s Colorado Central Railroad offered a challenge to Denver's railroad, the better funded Denver Pacific Railway was able to connect to Cheyenne far more than Golden, securing for Denver its long term status as both capital and prominent city. Golden City became the "Lowell of the West", a regional center of trade and industry that boasted at certain times three flour mills, five smelters, the first railroad into the Colorado mountains, the Coors Brewery, brick works, the only paper mill west of Missouri and coal mines, more. During the 1870s, it became home to three institutions of higher education, the Colorado University Schools, of which the Colorado School of Mines remains today. Golden was home to an opera house and seven churches, including Colorado's third church, oldest Baptist church oldest Christian church, first Swedish immigrant churc
Mountaineering is the set of activities that involves ascending mountains. Mountaineering-related activities include traditional outdoor climbing, hiking and traversing via ferratas. Indoor climbing, sport climbing and bouldering are considered mountaineering as well. While mountaineering began as attempts to reach the highest point of unclimbed big mountains, it has branched into specializations that address different aspects of mountains, depending on whether the route chosen is over rock, snow, or ice or on level ground. All require various degrees of experience, athletic ability, technical knowledge to maintain safety, it is still common to seek the summits of peaks, whether unclimbed or not. Mountaineering is called alpinism, mountain climbers are sometimes called alpinists, although use of the term may vary between countries and eras; the word "alpinism" was born in the 19th century to refer to climbing for the purpose of enjoying climbing itself as a sport or recreation, distinct from climbing while hunting or as a religious pilgrimage, done at that time.
The UIAA, the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation, is the International Olympic Committee-recognized world governing body for mountaineering and climbing, addressing issues like access, mountain protection, safety and ice climbing. Many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they regarded as sacred due to their perceived proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. On April 26, 1336 famous Italian poet Petrarch climbed to the summit of 1,912 m Mount Ventoux overlooking the Bay of Marseilles, claiming to be inspired by Philip V of Macedon's ascent of Mount Haemo, making him the first known alpinist. One of the first European mountains visited by many tourists was Sněžka; this was due to the minor technical difficulties ascent and the fact that since the sixteenth century, many resort visitors flocked to the nearby Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój and visible Sněžka, visually dominant over all Krkonoše was for them an important attraction. The first confirmed ascent took place in the year 1456.
In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a little team, using ladders and ropes. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, has been said to mark the beginning of mountaineering. In 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains. During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, many mountain summits were surmounted for the first time.. In 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. In 1757 Swiss scientist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure made the first of several unsuccessful attempts on Mont Blanc in France offering a reward, claimed in 1786 by Jacques Balmat and Michel-Gabriel Paccard. By the early 19th century many of the alpine peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812, the Breithorn in 1813.
In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc, followed in 1838 by Henriette d'Angeville. The beginning of mountaineering as a sport in the UK is dated to the ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 by English mountaineer Sir Alfred Wills, who made mountaineering fashionable in Britain; this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, Johannes Zumtaugwald. In the early years of the "golden age", scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and alpine mountaineering overall.
One of the most dramatic events was the spectacular first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865 by a party led by English illustrator Edward Whymper, in which four of the party members fell to their deaths. This ascent is regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age. By this point the sport of mountaineering had reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides and fixed guidelines. Mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James and two others in 1820. Though lower than Pikes Peak, the glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842. Pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
In 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Denali, the tallest peak in North America, was climbed
Canadian Alpine Journal
The Canadian Alpine Journal is the yearly magazine of the Alpine Club of Canada. It serves as a worldwide journal of record for achievements in climbing, ski mountaineering, exploration of mountains; the magazine is headquartered in Ontario. Each issue contains feature stories about notable climbs, written by the participants, as well as short notes by climbers about new and noteworthy achievements; some general articles about mountaineering, mountain medicine, the mountain environment, or other topics are sometimes included. Each issue includes book reviews, memorials of deceased members, club activities; the journal was founded in 1907, during the early decades some volumes covered more than one year. Since 1947, the journal has been published annually. Other magazines of record for climbing include the American Alpine Journal published by the American Alpine Club, the Alpine Journal published by the Alpine Club, the Himalayan Journal, Iwa To Yuki, a Japanese journal. All of these journals are used by climbers planning expeditions those who wish to verify that a proposed route would be a new one.
Entries in these journals concerning major Himalayan peaks are indexed in the Himalayan Index. Canadian Alpine Journal
Francis P. Farquhar
Francis Peloubet Farquhar was an American mountaineer and author in addition to his career as a Certified Public Accountant. Farquhar was born in Newton, the son of David Webber Farquhar and Grace Thaxter Peloubet, he attended Harvard University, where he edited The Harvard Crimson for three years and studied under, among others, Bliss Perry and George Santayana. Graduating from Harvard in 1909, he came to San Francisco in 1910, where he worked for a publisher and began a lifelong interest in fine printing, he visited Yosemite and joined the Sierra Club in 1911. He returned to New England to pursue the profession of accounting, studying under Clinton Scovell, a pioneer in the field of cost accounting. In 1914 he moved again to California, he served in the Navy there and in Washington, D. C. during World War I. In 1922 he set up his own accounting firm in San Francisco. In 1936 he brought in Clifford Heimbuchder, who soon became a full partner in the firm, renamed Farquhar and Heimbucher. Farquhar was active in the Sierra Club, serving on its board of directors from 1924 to 1951 and president in 1933-1935 and 1948-1949.
He served as Sierra Club Bulletin editor from 1926 to 1946. Farquhar was a mountaineer who invited Robert L. M. Underhill to introduce proper use of modern Alpine rope techniques to Sierra Club members on an annual club High Trip in 1931, he made multiple first ascents. On August 26, 1921, he completed the first ascent of Middle Palisade by the south-west chute with Ansel Hall, he was the author of numerous articles for the Sierra Club and the California Historical Society, some of which were reprinted in book form. In 1956-59 he was editor of the American Alpine Journal published by the American Alpine Club, he wrote forewords for several books on California history. His best known book is History of the Sierra Nevada, still in print. In addition to serving as Sierra Club president, he was president of the California Society of Certified Public Accountants, California Academy of Sciences, the California Historical Society. In 1965 he was awarded the Sierra Club's John Muir Award for distinguished work as a conservationist and mountaineer.
He received the Henry R. Wagner Memorial Award of the California Historical Society in 1966; the University of California at Los Angeles conferred on him the honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters in 1967. In 1934 he married fellow mountaineer, his half brother was the Los Angeles architect Robert D. Farquhar, who moved in with the Farquhars in Berkeley in 1953. Marjorie Bridge Farquhar died in 1999 in San Francisco. Mount Farquhar, located 1.6 miles northwest of Mount Brewer in Kings Canyon National Park, was named in his honor. Since 1970, the Sierra Club has given the Francis P. Farquhar Mountaineering Award in his honor. 1925: Exploration of the Sierra Nevada, California Historical Society 1926: Place Names of the High Sierra, Sierra Club 1930: Up and Down California in 1860-1864: The Journal of William H. Brewer, University of California Press 1932: Joaquin Murieta, the Brigand Chief of California, Grabhorn Press, San Francisco 1938: Preface to Clarence King's The Helmet of Mambrino, The Book Club of California 1943: A Brief Chronology of Discovery in the Pacific Ocean from Balboa to Capt.
Cook's First Voyage, 1513 to 1770, Grabhorn Press, San Francisco 1947: Preface and editing, Clarence King's Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada 1948: Yosemite, the Big Trees and the High Sierra: A Selective Bibliography, University of California Press, ISBN 978-1-57898-155-7 1950: Flight to the North Pole, 24 August 1949, Grabhorn Press 1953: First Ascents Throughout the World, 1901-1950, Grabhorn Press 1953: The Books of the Colorado River & the Grand Canyon, Fretwater Press, ISBN 978-1-892327-14-7 1957: Place Names for Bohemians: Clubhouse to Grove, Silverado Squatters 1959: Naming Alaska's mountains: with some accounts of their first ascents, American Alpine Club 1965: History of the Sierra Nevada, University of California Press, Berkeley, ISBN 0-520-01551-7 1968: "Comments on Some Bay Area Fine Printers" in Edwin Grabhorn: Recollections of the Grabhorn Press, University of California, Bancroft Library, Regional Oral History Office Francis Farquhar Obituary Francis P. Farquhar, Exploration of the Sierra Nevada Francis P. Farquhar, Place Names of the High Sierra Guide to the Francis P. Farquhar Papers at The Bancroft Library Portrait Photo on Mt. Whitney Francis P. Farquhar at Find a Grave
Alpine Club of Canada
The Alpine Club of Canada is an amateur athletic association with its national office in Canmore, Alberta, a focal point for Canadian mountaineering since its founding in 1906. The club was co-founded by Arthur Oliver Wheeler, who served as its first president, Elizabeth Parker, a journalist for the Manitoba Free Press. Byron Harmon, whose 6500+ photographs of the Canadian Rockies in the early 20th century provide the best glimpse of the area at that time, was official photographer to the club at its founding; the club is the leading organization in Canada devoted to climbing, mountain culture, issues related to alpine pursuits and ecology. It is the Canadian regulatory organization for climbing competition, sanctioning local and national events, assembling and supporting the national team; the ACC is divided into 22 regional sections across Canada that serve local members and focus on local issues and access, linking mountain enthusiasts to the national community. The club maintains membership in international organizations including the International Federation of Sport Climbing and the Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme, provides year-round mountain adventures and an extensive system of alpine and backcountry huts throughout the Canadian Rockies, the ACC has grown from its early inception into a full-fledged mountain organization with a strong foundation of volunteer and corporate support.
The club's goals remain the promotion of the sport of competitive climbing, mountain culture adventure and environmental responsibility. The ACC publishes the annual Canadian Alpine Journal, which serves as the journal of record for Canadian achievements in climbing, ski mountaineering, exploration of mountains. While the ACC's national office is in Canmore, the core of the Club's activities are the volunteer-led outdoor recreation opportunities offered to its 10,000 members through the 22 regional sections across the country. In 2006, Canada Post issued a stamp to celebrate the club's centenary. In the spirit of the Alpine Club created in England in 1857, the American Alpine Club, the ACC was established in Winnipeg in 1906 by A. O. Wheeler and Elizabeth Parker, with the support of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Arthur O. Wheeler, born in 1860 in Kilkenny County, immigrated to Canada in 1876 at the age of 16 with his family. Beginning in 1883, he worked for the Dominion Government and Canadian Pacific Railway as a land surveyor in the Canadian Rockies.
His employment allowed him to experience mountaineering while exposing him to environmental concerns about the future of Canadian wilderness. He was described by climbing enthusiast Andrew J. Kauffman as having "Irish emotions, Irish sensitivity, Irish grace and, more than some would like, an Irish temper", he was eager to create a Canadian climbing institution that focused on mutual appreciation of mountaineering and the environment rather than furthering social status, as it was in Britain's Alpine Club. Wheeler's wrote many letters seeking support for the creation of a Canadian Alpine Club, which ended up in the hands of columnist Elizabeth Parker. A native of Winnipeg, Parker was an environmental enthusiast. Conscious of the benefit of mountains, she took her children to Banff in the summer of 1904, she began writing newspaper and magazine articles about the mountains. If her health did not allow her to be a climber she thought that mountaineering could help women become stronger and more confident.
After reading her articles, an editor of the Manitoba Free Press referenced her to Wheeler's letters. Writing an article in response to his letter, Parker advocated the establishment of an Alpine Club. However, she believed that it should be Canadian to encourage the development of national identity and reaffirm Canadian independence. Together they combined their efforts to create the Alpine Club of Canada; the inaugural meeting took place on March 27 and 28 1906. A. O. Wheeler became Elizabeth Parker was named First Secretary. Several categories of members were created with different levels of involvement: Honorary Members, Active Members; the first official camp of the ACC took place in July 1906. Thanks to the Canadian Pacific Railway, campers arrived at Field, B. C in Yoho National Park on July 8; the camp's chief mountaineer was Morrison Bridgland. The ACC received helped from professional mountain guides Edouard and Gottfried Feuz, from Switzerland; the Dominion Government, as recognition of its "spirit of patriotism", sponsored the camp, as well as the government of Alberta, the Canadian Pacific Railway and the North-West Mounted Police.
Every member paid a dollar a day: with its 100 participants, the camp was considered a success. Morrison Bridgland chose the official climb, the 3066 meter-high Vice President: 44 members graduated and became Active Member of the Alpine Club of Canada. Molded after the Alpine Club in Great Britain, the Alpine Club of Canada was created to give environmental enthusiasts an opportunity to explore and experience the Canadian wilderness. Unlike the Alpine Club of Great Britain, the Alpine Club of Canada was created to promote equality between men and women within mountaineering and climbing, to promote the conservation and preservation of Canadian wilderness. At the turn of the 20th century development in Canada expanded into mountain ecosystems, so founders Elizabeth Parker and A. O. Wheeler created the ACC to advocate the prevention of human infiltrations such as electricity and housing in the C
Climbing is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep object. It is done for locomotion and competition, in trades that rely on it, in emergency rescue and military operations, it is done indoors and out, on man-made structures. Guides, such as professional mountain guides, have been an essential element of pursuing the sport in the natural environment, remain so today. Climbing activities include: Bouldering: Ascending boulders or small outcrops with climbing shoes and a chalk bag or bucket. Instead of using a safety rope from above, injury is avoided using a crash pad and a human spotter Buildering: Ascending the exterior skeletons of buildings without protective equipment. Canyoneering: Climbing along canyons for sport or recreation. Chalk climbing: Ascending chalk cliffs uses some of the same techniques as ice climbing. Competition climbing: A formal, competitive sport of recent origins practiced on artificial walls that resemble natural formations.
The International Federation of Sport Climbing is the official organization governing competition rock climbing worldwide and is recognized by the IOC and GAISF and is a member of the International World Games Association. The UIAA is the official organization governing competition ice climbing worldwide. Competition climbing has three major disciplines: Lead and Speed. Free Climbing: a form of rock climbing in which the climber uses climbing equipment such as ropes and other means of climbing protection, but only to protect against injury during falls and not to assist progress. Ice climbing: Ascending ice or hard snow formations using special equipment ice axes and crampons. Techniques of protecting the climber are similar to those of rock climbing, with protective devices adapted to frozen conditions. Indoor climbing: Top roping, lead climbing, bouldering artificial walls with bolted holds in a climbing gym. Ladder climbing: Climbing ladders for exercise; this may involve climbing up and down the underside of a ladder, or along a horizontally aligned ladder or'monkey bars'.
The ladder may be climbed going backwards, or sideways. Lumberjack tree-trimming and competitive tree-trunk or pole climbing for speed using spikes and belts. Mallakhamba: A traditional Indian sport which combines climbing a pole or rope with the performance of aerial Yoga and gymnastics. Mountaineering: Ascending mountains for sport or recreation, it involves rock and/or ice climbing. Pole climbing: Climbing poles and masts without equipment. Rock climbing: Ascending rock formations using climbing shoes and a chalk bag. Equipment such as ropes, nuts and camming devices are employed, either as a safeguard or for artificial aid. Rope access: Industrial climbing abseiling, as an alternative to scaffolding for short works on exposed structures. Rope climbing: Climbing a short, thick rope for speed. Not to be confused with roped climbing, as in rock or ice climbing. Scrambling which includes easy rock climbing, is considered part of hillwalking. Sport climbing is a form of rock climbing that relies on permanent anchors fixed to the rock, bolts, for protection.
Top roping: Ascending a rock climbing route protected by a rope anchored at the top and protected by a belayer below Traditional climbing is a form of climbing without fixed anchors and bolts. Climbers place removable protection such as camming devices and other passive and active protection that holds the rope to the rock in the event of a fall and/or when weighted by a climber. Solo climbing: Solo climbing or soloing is a style of climbing in which the climber climbs alone, without somebody belaying them; when free soloing, an error is fatal as no belay systems are being used. Soloing can be self-belayed, hence minimizing the risks. Tree climbing: Recreationally ascending trees using ropes and other protective equipment. A tower climber is a professional who climbs broadcasting or telecommunication towers or masts for maintenance or repair. Rock and tree climbing all utilize ropes for safety or aid. Pole climbing and rope climbing were among the first exercises to be included in the origins of modern gymnastics in the late 18th century and early 19th century.
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