A blog is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete informal diary-style text entries. Posts are displayed in reverse chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first, at the top of the web page; until 2009, blogs were the work of a single individual of a small group, covered a single subject or topic. In the 2010s, "multi-author blogs" emerged, featuring the writing of multiple authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, think tanks, advocacy groups, similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic; the rise of Twitter and other "microblogging" systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the news media. Blog can be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog; the emergence and growth of blogs in the late 1990s coincided with the advent of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users who did not have much experience with HTML or computer programming.
A knowledge of such technologies as HTML and File Transfer Protocol had been required to publish content on the Web, early Web users therefore tended to be hackers and computer enthusiasts. In the 2010s, the majority are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to leave online comments, it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. In that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do not only produce content to post on their blogs, but often build social relations with their readers and other bloggers. However, there are high-readership blogs. Many blogs provide commentary on topic, ranging from politics to sports. Others function as more personal online diaries, others function more as online brand advertising of a particular individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, links to other blogs, web pages, other media related to its topic; the ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs.
However, blog owners or authors moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are textual, although some focus on art, videos and audio. In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources; these blogs are referred to as edublogs. Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring short posts. On 16 February 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. On 20 February 2014, there were around 172 million Tumblr and 75.8 million WordPress blogs in existence worldwide. According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today. However, Blogger does not offer public statistics. Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22, 2014. The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger on 17 December 1997; the short form, "blog", was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in April or May 1999. Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used "blog" as both a noun and verb and devised the term "blogger" in connection with Pyra Labs' Blogger product, leading to the popularization of the terms.
Before blogging became popular, digital communities took many forms including Usenet, commercial online services such as GEnie, Byte Information Exchange and the early CompuServe, e-mail lists, Bulletin Board Systems. In the 1990s, Internet forum software created running conversations with "threads". Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual "corkboard". From 14 June 1993, Mosaic Communications Corporation maintained their "What’s New" list of new websites, updated daily and archived monthly; the page was accessible by a special ``. The earliest instance of a commercial blog was on the first business to consumer Web site created in 1995 by Ty, Inc. which featured a blog in a section called "Online Diary". The entries were maintained by featured Beanie Babies that were voted for monthly by Web site visitors; the modern blog evolved from the online diary where people would keep a running account of the events in their personal lives. Most such writers journalers. Justin Hall, who began personal blogging in 1994 while a student at Swarthmore College, is recognized as one of the earlier bloggers, as is Jerry Pournelle.
Dave Winer's Scripting News is credited with being one of the older and longer running weblogs. The Australian Netguide magazine maintained the Daily Net News on their web site from 1996. Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of new websites in Australia. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text, digital video, digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994; this practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance, such journals were used as evidence in legal matters. Some early bloggers, such as The Misanthropic Bitch, who began in 1997 referred to their online presence as a zine, before the term blog entered common usage. Early blogs were manually updated components of common Websites. In 1995, the "Online Diary" on
Binoculars or field glasses are two telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes when viewing distant objects. Most are sized to be held using both hands, although sizes vary from opera glasses to large pedestal mounted military models. Unlike a telescope, binoculars give users a three-dimensional image: for nearer objects the two views, presented to each of the viewer's eyes from different viewpoints, produce a merged view with an impression of depth. From the invention of the telescope in the 17th century the advantages of mounting two of them side by side for binocular vision seems to have been explored. Most early binoculars used Galilean optics; the Galilean design has the advantage of presenting an erect image but has a narrow field of view and is not capable of high magnification. This type of construction is still used in cheap models and in opera glasses or theater glasses; the Galilean design is used in low magnification binocular surgical and jewelers' loupes because they can be short and produce an upright image without extra or unusual erecting optics, reducing expense and overall weight.
They have large exit pupils making centering less critical and the narrow field of view works well in those applications. These are mounted on an eyeglass frame or custom-fit onto eyeglasses. An improved image and higher magnification is achieved in binoculars employing Keplerian optics, where the image formed by the objective lens is viewed through a positive eyepiece lens. Since the Keplerian configuration produces an inverted image, different methods are used to turn the image right way up. In aprismatic binoculars with Keplerian optics each tube has one or two additional lenses between the objective and the ocular; these lenses are used to erect the image. The binoculars with erecting lenses had a serious disadvantage: they are too long; such binoculars were popular in the 1800s, but became obsolete shortly after the Karl Zeiss company introduced improved prism binoculars in the 1890s. Optical prisms added to the design are another way to turn the image right way up in a Porro prism or roof-prisms design.
Porro prism binoculars are named after Italian optician Ignazio Porro who patented this image erecting system in 1854, refined by makers like the Carl Zeiss company in the 1890s. Binoculars of this type use a pair of Porro prisms in a Z-shaped configuration to erect the image; this results in binoculars that are wide, with objective lenses that are well separated and offset from the eyepieces, giving a better sensation of depth. Porro prism designs have the added benefit of folding the optical path so that the physical length of the binoculars is less than the focal length of the objective. Binoculars using roof prisms may have appeared as early as the 1870s in a design by Achille Victor Emile Daubresse. In 1897 Moritz Hensoldt began marketing roof prism binoculars. Most roof prism binoculars use either the Abbe-Koenig prism or the Schmidt-Pechan prism designs to erect the image and fold the optical path, they have objective lenses that are in line with the eyepieces. Roof-prisms designs create an instrument, narrower and more compact than Porro prisms.
There is a difference in image brightness. Porro-prism binoculars will inherently produce a brighter image than Schmidt-Pechan roof-prism binoculars of the same magnification, objective size, optical quality, because this roof-prism design employs silvered surfaces that reduce light transmission by 12% to 15%. Roof-prisms designs require tighter tolerances for alignment of their optical elements; this adds to their expense since the design requires them to use fixed elements that need to be set at a high degree of collimation at the factory. Porro prisms binoculars need their prism sets to be re-aligned to bring them into collimation; the fixed alignment in roof-prism designs means the binoculars will not need re-collimation. Binoculars are designed for specific applications; these different designs require certain optical parameters which may be listed on the prism cover plate of the binoculars. Those parameters are: Given as the first number in a binocular description, magnification is the ratio of the focal length of the objective divided by the focal length of the eyepiece.
This gives the magnifying power of binoculars. A magnification factor of 7, for example, produces an image 7 times larger than the original seen from that distance; the desirable amount of magnification depends upon the intended application, in most binoculars is a permanent, non-adjustable feature of the device. Hand-held binoculars have magnifications ranging from 7x to 10x, so they will be less susceptible to the effects of shaking hands. A larger magnification leads to a smaller field of view and may require a tripod for image stability; some specialized binoculars for astronomy or military use have magnifications ranging from 15x to 25x. Given as the second number in a binocular description, the diameter of the objective lens determines the resolution and how much light can be gathered to form an image; when two different binoculars have equal magnification, equal quality, produce a sufficiently matched exit pupil, the larger objective diameter produces a "brighter" and sharper
North Dakota is a U. S. state in northern regions of the United States. It is the nineteenth largest in area, the fourth smallest by population, the fourth most sparsely populated of the 50 states. North Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 3, 1889, along with its neighboring state, South Dakota, its capital is Bismarck, its largest city is Fargo. In the 21st century, North Dakota's natural resources have played a major role in its economic performance with the oil extraction from the Bakken formation, which lies beneath the northwestern part of the state; such development has led to reduced unemployment. North Dakota contains the tallest human-made structure in the KVLY-TV mast. North Dakota is a Midwestern state of the United States, it lies at the center of the North American continent. The geographic center of North America is near the town of Rugby. Bismarck is the capital of North Dakota, Fargo is the largest city. Soil is North Dakota's most precious resource, it is the base of the state's great agricultural wealth.
But North Dakota has enormous mineral resources. These mineral resources include billions of tons of lignite coal. In addition, North Dakota has large oil reserves. Petroleum was discovered in the state in 1951 and became one of North Dakota's most valuable mineral resources. In the early 2000's, the emergence of hydraulic fracturing technologies enabled mining companies to extract huge amounts of oil from the Bakken shale rock formation in the western part of the state. North Dakota's economy is based more on farming than are the economies of most other states. Many North Dakota factories manufacture farm equipment. Many of the state’s merchants rely on agriculture. Farms and ranches cover nearly all of North Dakota, they stretch from the flat Red River Valley in the east, across rolling plains, to the rugged Badlands in the west. The chief crop, wheat, is grown in nearly every county. North Dakota flaxseed, it is the country’s top producer of barley and sunflower seeds and a leader in the production of beans, lentils, oats and sugar beets.
Few white settlers came to the North Dakota region before the 1870's because railroads had not yet entered the area. During the early 1870's, the Northern Pacific Railroad began to push across the Dakota Territory. Large-scale farming began during the 1870's. Eastern corporations and some families established huge wheat farms covering large areas of land in the Red River Valley; the farms made such enormous profits. White settlers, attracted by the success of the bonanza farms, flocked to North Dakota increasing the territory's population. In 1870, North Dakota had 2,405 people. By 1890, the population had grown to 190,983. North Dakota was named for the Sioux people; the Sioux called meaning allies or friends. One of North Dakota's nicknames is the Peace Garden State; this nickname honors the International Peace Garden, which lies on the state's border with Manitoba, Canada. North Dakota is called the Flickertail State because of the many flickertail ground squirrels that live in the central part of the state.
North Dakota is in the U. S. region known as the Great Plains. The state shares the Red River of the North with Minnesota to the east. South Dakota is to the south, Montana is to the west, the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba are to the north. North Dakota is near the middle of North America with a stone marker in Rugby, North Dakota marking the "Geographic Center of the North American Continent". With an area of 70,762 square miles, North Dakota is the 19th largest state; the western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains as well as the northern part of the Badlands, which are to the west of the Missouri River. The state's high point, White Butte at 3,506 feet, Theodore Roosevelt National Park are in the Badlands; the region is abundant in fossil fuels including crude oil and lignite coal. The Missouri River forms Lake Sakakawea, the third largest artificial lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam; the central region of the state is divided into the Missouri Plateau.
The eastern part of the state consists of the flat Red River Valley, the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, supports a large agriculture industry. Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is found in the east. Eastern North Dakota is overall flat. Most of the state is covered in grassland. Natural trees in North Dakota are found where there is good drainage, such as the ravines and valley near the Pembina Gorge and Killdeer Mountains, the Turtle Mountains, the hills around Devil's Lake, in the dunes area of McHenry County in central North Dakota, along the Sheyenne Valley slopes and the Sheyenne delta; this diverse terrain supports nearly 2,000 species of plants. North Dakota has a continental climate with cold winters; the temperature differences are significant because of its far inland position and being in the center of the Northern Hemisphere, with equal distances to the North Pole and the Equator.
As such, summers are subtropical, but winters are cold enough to ensure plant hardiness is low. Native American peoples lived in what is now North Dakota for thousands of year
University of Maine at Machias
The University of Maine at Machias is a public university in Machias, Maine. It is one of seven campuses in the University of Maine System; the university was founded in 1909 as a normal school for educating teachers, offers studies in recreation, education, social sciences, physical sciences, including a recognized marine biology program. Enrollment is 800 students; the University of Maine at Machias is part of the University of Maine System. The university was founded in 1909; the campus occupies 243 acres in rural downeast coastal Maine on the Machias River. The original name of school was the Washington State Normal School, it was renamed to the University of Maine at Machias. The prior name is still evident in several locations on campus most prominently on Powers Hall. Through its liberal arts core and distinctive baccalaureate programs, the University prepares students for lifelong intellectual growth, individual success, leadership in a global society, the advancement of a sustainable environment.
The University’s applied research and public services contribute to the improvement of the quality of life and economic development in Downeast Maine. In April 2016, the University announced that it would enter into a partnership with the much larger University of Maine in Orono; the agreement included the sharing of administrators between the universities. The University of Maine at Machias offers 12 undergraduate majors; these include: Psychology & Community Studies, Biology and Entrepreneurial Studies, English, Creative Writing and Book Arts, Environmental Studies, Interdisciplinary Fine Arts, Marine Biology, Recreation Management. Student-faculty ratio is 12:1. For three straight years, the University of Maine at Machias was ranked among the top-five public comprehensive colleges in the north region by U. S. News and World Report. All student organizations are run independently through an elected process with oversight by a Student Senate. Students are responsible for meetings, financial organization, group meetings and outings.
Additionally, there are a great deal of unofficial activities on campus, ranging from hallway sports to movie nights in the lounge. UMM offers a wide variety of activities for all manner of students. There are eight Greek organizations on five fraternities and three sororities; some organizations are nationally affiliated, while others are local and exist at the University of Maine at Machias. All groups are run independently and jointly form Greek Council, which oversees Greek life as a whole; the recognized Greek fraternities on campus are Psi Delta, Kappa Delta Phi, Kappa Mu Alpha, Sigma Chi Lambda, Omicron Delta Pi. The sororities located on campus are Epsilon Sigma Alpha, Kappa Alpha Kappa, Phi Tau Phi; the University of Maine at Machias is the home of Sunrise Senior College, one of 16 enrichment experience institutions in Maine for people 50 and over and their partners of any age. Founded in 2002 as part of the Maine Senior College Network, Sunrise Senior College offers most of its classes on the UMM campus.
SSC has fall and spring semesters, but they only follow UMM's semesters—all of the SSC courses are shorter. The courses are not for credit, are taught by volunteers with expertise in their areas, no one needs to be a college graduate to attend. For more information about Sunrise Senior College, visit its official website The University of Maine at Machias has for many years been host to the annual Maine Blackfly Breeders Association convention in March. Convention-goers are asked to bring limericks, jokes and songs for annual contests. Exhibits, art and other items are sought. Special guests in March 2009 were members of the UMM Ukulele Club. Bloody Merry, an 8-foot-long black fly who made her debut at the 2007 convention, was in attendance flapping her wings and posing for admirers. Breeders heard the latest buzz on the association’s attempts at establishing a blackfly farm in Washington County, first discussed at last year’s event; the University of Maine at Machias offers several intercollegiate sports teams for both men and women.
All sports teams participate in the United States Collegiate Athletic Association as a member of the Yankee Small College Conference. The school participated in the NAIA's Sunrise Athletic Conference. Men's sports include basketball and soccer, while women's sports include basketball and volleyball; the university offers several club and intramural sports. Official website
Kenmare is a small town in the south of County Kerry, Ireland. The name Kenmare is the anglicised form of Ceann Mara meaning "head of the sea", referring to the head of Kenmare Bay. Kenmare is located at the head of Kenmare Bay, sometimes called the Kenmare River, where the Roughty River flows into the sea, at the junction of the Iveragh Peninsula and the Beara Peninsula; the traditional Irish name of the bay was Inbhear Scéine from the Celtic inver, recorded in the 11th Century narrative Lebor Gabála Érenn as the arrival point of the mythological Irish ancestor Partholón. It is located near the MacGillycuddy's Reeks, Mangerton Mountain and Caha Mountains and is a popular hillwalking destination. Nearby towns and villages are Tuosist, Glengarriff, Killarney and Sneem. Kenmare is in the Kerry constituency; the entire area was granted to the English scientist Sir William Petty by Oliver Cromwell as part payment for completing the mapping of Ireland, the Down Survey in 1656. He laid out the modern town circa 1670.
Before him, a previous surveyor of Ireland, Sir Valentine Browne, ancestor of the Earl of Kenmare, was granted some lands in County Kerry during the resulting plantation, the Munster Plantation. The three main streets that form a triangle in the centre of the town are called Main Street, Henry Street, after the son of William the 1st. Marquis and Shelbourne Street; this name was later applied to Shelbourne Road in Dublin. However, the area has more ancient roots. One of the largest stone circles in the south-west of Ireland is close to the town, shows occupation in the area going back to the Bronze Age, when it was constructed; the circle has 15 stones around the circumference with a boulder dolmen in the centre. Vikings are said to have raided the area around the town which at that time was called Ceann Mhara, which means "head of the sea" in Irish; the convent in the town, the Poor Clare Sisters, was founded in 1861 when five nuns including Sister Mary Frances Cusack, an author and publisher of many books, moved to Kenmare from their convent in Newry, County Down.
Under the guidance of Mother Abbess O'Hagan in 1864 a lace-working industry was established and Kenmare lace became noted worldwide. The convent no longer exists and Pobalscoil Inbhear Scéine secondary school occupies this site since 2001. A suspension bridge, claimed to be the first in Ireland, over the Kenmare River was opened in 1841 and served the community till 1932 when it was replaced by a new concrete bridge. During and after the Civil War, there were a number of incidents in Kenmare, including the killing of O'Connor brothers in September 1922 by Anti-Treaty forces, an attack on the daughters of a local doctor in 1923. Kenmare was held by Anti-Treaty forces during the Civil War, before being retaken by National Army troops in December 1922; the town library is one of the Carnegie Libraries funded by Andrew Carnegie. It opened in 1918, the architect was R. M. Butler; the library building is now home to the Carnegie Arts Centre and theatre, hosting a local drama group and a number of travelling productions each year, as well as music and comedy nights.
Holy Cross Catholic Church in Kenmare was consecrated in 1864. It was built under the guidance of Archdeacon Fr. John O'Sullivan -, interred within the church; the church has stained glass windows by Caseys Dublin and by Earley Dublin. The organ is by Telford. Buried in the church grounds is Monsignor P F Cremin, a periitus or theological expert at Vatican II, he was a native of Kenmare and had been Professor of Canon Law and Moral Theology at St Patrick's College, Maynooth from 1949 until 1980. He was a brother of Con Cremin, an Irish diplomat, who represented Ireland in France and Germany during World War II and subsequently in Portugal, the Holy See, the United Kingdom and at the United Nations; the Church of Ireland church of St Patrick celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2008. The town has been a winner in the Irish Tidy Towns Competition in 2013, 2000 and was a runner-up in 2003 and 2008. Kenmare lies on two noted Irish tourist routes, the Ring of Kerry and the Ring of Beara 32 kilometres from Killarney.
As a result, it is a popular tourist destination and many of the businesses in the area cater to tourists. The town is noted for its food and pubs. Kenmare has a range of traditional pubs. Since the late 1990s the tourism industry has driven local construction work, with land being sold at high prices to developers wishing to build estates of holiday homes; this has led to an increase in the town's population during the peak tourist season, prompted fears among some residents that the town is becoming overdeveloped and losing much of its identity. Inter-county Gaelic footballers Mickey'Ned' O'Sullivan, Stephen O'Brien and Paul O'Connor and current Kerry star Sean o Shea are from the Kenmare area, while Pat Spillane is from nearby Templenoe. Kenmare is the home of Irish Olympic slalom skier Thos Foley. Buff Egan is an online celebrity, known by hurling fans in Ireland for his saying and hurling match reports Kenmare was home to composer Ernest John Moeran for a number of years up to his death and a local bar was named after him - but has since been renamed.
Diplomat Con Cremin was from Kenmare, as is senator Mark Dal
Conservation is an ethic of resource use and protection. Its primary focus is upon maintaining the health of the natural world, its fisheries and biological diversity. Secondary focus is on material conservation, including non-renewable resources such as metals and fossil fuels, energy conservation, important to protect the natural world; those who follow the conservation ethic and those who advocate or work toward conservation goals are termed conservationists. The terms conservation and preservation are conflated outside the academic and professional kinds of literature; the US National Park Service offers the following explanation of the important ways in which these two terms represent different conceptions of environmental protection ethics: ″Conservation and preservation are linked and may indeed seem to mean the same thing. Both terms involve a degree of protection, but how that protection is carried out is the key difference. Conservation is associated with the protection of natural resources, while preservation is associated with the protection of buildings and landscapes.
Put conservation seeks the proper use of nature, while preservation seeks protection of nature from use. During the environmental movement of the early 20th century, two opposing factions emerged: conservationists and preservationists. Conservationists sought to regulate human use while preservationists sought to eliminate human impact altogether.″ To conserve habitat in terrestrial ecoregions and to stop deforestation is a goal shared by many groups with a wide variety of motivations. To protect sea life from extinction due to overfishing or climate change is another stated goal of conservation – ensuring that "some will be available for future generations" to continue a way of life; the consumer conservation ethic is sometimes expressed by the four R's: " Rethink, Recycle, Repair" This social ethic relates to local purchasing, moral purchasing, the sustained, efficient use of renewable resources, the moderation of destructive use of finite resources, the prevention of harm to common resources such as air and water quality, the natural functions of a living earth, cultural values in a built environment.
The principal value underlying most expressions of the conservation ethic is that the natural world has intrinsic and intangible worth along with utilitarian value – a view carried forward by the scientific conservation movement and some of the older Romantic schools of ecology movement. More Utilitarian schools of conservation seek a proper valuation of local and global impacts of human activity upon nature in their effect upon human well being, now and to posterity. How such values are assessed and exchanged among people determines the social and personal restraints and imperatives by which conservation is practiced; this is a view common in the modern environmental movement. These movements have diverged but they have deep and common roots in the conservation movement. In the United States of America, the year 1864 saw the publication of two books which laid the foundation for Romantic and Utilitarian conservation traditions in America; the posthumous publication of Henry David Thoreau's Walden established the grandeur of unspoiled nature as a citadel to nourish the spirit of man.
From George Perkins Marsh a different book and Nature subtitled "The Earth as Modified by Human Action", catalogued his observations of man exhausting and altering the land from which his sustenance derives. In common usage, the term refers to the activity of systematically protecting natural resources such as forests, including biological diversity. Carl F. Jordan defines the term as: biological conservation as being a philosophy of managing the environment in a manner that does not despoil, exhaust or extinguish. While this usage is not new, the idea of biological conservation has been applied to the principles of ecology, bio geography, anthropology and sociology to maintain biodiversity; the term "conservation" itself may cover the concepts such as cultural diversity, genetic diversity and the concept of movements environmental conservation, seedbank. These are summarized as the priority to respect diversity by Greens. Much recent movement in conservation can be considered a resistance to commercialism and globalization.
Slow Food is a consequence of rejecting these as moral priorities, embracing a slower and more locally focused lifestyle. Distinct trends exist regarding conservation development. While many countries' efforts to preserve species and their habitats have been government-led, those in the North Western Europe tended to arise out of the middle-class and aristocratic interest in natural history, expressed at the level of the individual and the national, regional or local learned society, thus countries like Britain, the Netherlands, etc. had what we would today term NGOs – in the shape of the RSPB, National Trust and County Naturalists' Trusts Natuurmonumenten, Provincial Conservation Trusts for each Dutch province, etc. – a long time before there were national parks and national nature reserves. This in part reflects the absence of wilderness areas in cultivated Europe, as well as a longstanding interest in laissez-faire government in some countries, like the UK, leaving it as no coincidence that John Muir, the Scottish-born founder of the National Park movement did his sterling work in the USA, where he was the motor force behind the establishment of such NPs as Yosemite and Yellowstone.
Nowadays more than 10 percent
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h