Helen Adams Keller was an American author, political activist, lecturer. She was the first deaf-blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree; the story of Keller and her teacher, Anne Sullivan, was made famous by Keller's autobiography, The Story of My Life, its adaptations for film and stage, The Miracle Worker. Her birthplace in West Tuscumbia, Alabama, is now a museum and sponsors an annual "Helen Keller Day", her June 27 birthday is commemorated as Helen Keller Day in Pennsylvania and, in the centenary year of her birth, was recognized by a presidential proclamation from Jimmy Carter. A prolific author, Keller was outspoken in her convictions. A member of the Socialist Party of America and the Industrial Workers of the World, she campaigned for women's suffrage, labor rights, socialism and other similar causes, she was inducted into the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame in 1971 and was one of twelve inaugural inductees to the Alabama Writers Hall of Fame on June 8, 2015. Helen Adams Keller was born on June 1880, in Tuscumbia, Alabama.
Her family lived on Ivy Green, that Helen's grandfather had built decades earlier. She had four siblings, her father, Arthur Henley Keller, spent many years as an editor of the Tuscumbia North Alabamian and had served as a captain in the Confederate Army. Her mother, Catherine Everett Keller, known as "Kate", was the daughter of Charles W. Adams, a Confederate general, her paternal lineage was traced to a native of Switzerland. One of Helen's Swiss ancestors was the first teacher for the deaf in Zurich. Keller reflected on this coincidence in her first autobiography, stating "that there is no king who has not had a slave among his ancestors, no slave who has not had a king among his."At 19 months old Keller contracted an unknown illness described by doctors as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain", which might have been scarlet fever or meningitis. The illness left her both blind, she lived, as she recalled in her autobiography, "at sea in a dense fog." At that time, Keller was able to communicate somewhat with Martha Washington, the six-year-old daughter of the family cook, who understood her signs.
In 1886, Keller's mother, inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf and blind woman, Laura Bridgman, dispatched the young Keller, accompanied by her father, to seek out physician J. Julian Chisolm, an eye, ear and throat specialist in Baltimore, for advice. Chisholm referred the Kellers to Alexander Graham Bell, working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised them to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, located in South Boston. Michael Anagnos, the school's director, asked 20-year-old former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired, to become Keller's instructor, it was the beginning of a 49-year-long relationship during which Sullivan evolved into Keller's governess and her companion. Sullivan arrived at Keller's house on March 5, 1887, a day Keller would forever remember as my soul's birthday. Sullivan began to teach Helen to communicate by spelling words into her hand, beginning with "d-o-l-l" for the doll that she had brought Keller as a present.
Keller was frustrated, at first, because she did not understand that every object had a word uniquely identifying it. In fact, when Sullivan was trying to teach Keller the word for "mug", Keller became so frustrated she broke the mug, but soon she began imitating Sullivan’s hand gestures. “I did not know that I was spelling a word or that words existed,” Keller remembered. “I was making my fingers go in monkey-like imitation.” Keller's breakthrough in communication came the next month, when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on the palm of her hand, while running cool water over her other hand, symbolized the idea of "water". Writing in her autobiography, The Story of My Life, Keller recalled the moment. "I stood still, my whole attention fixed upon the motions of her fingers. I felt a misty consciousness as of something forgotten — a thrill of returning thought. I knew that w-a-t-e-r meant the wonderful cool something, flowing over my hand; the living word awakened my soul, gave it light, set it free!"
Keller nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world. Helen Keller was viewed as isolated but was in touch with the outside world, she was able to enjoy music by feeling the beat and she was able to have a strong connection with animals through touch. She was delayed at picking up language. In May 1888, Keller started attending the Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Keller and Sullivan moved to New York to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf, to learn from Sarah Fuller at the Horace Mann School for the Deaf. In 1896, they returned to Massachusetts, Keller entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College of Harvard University where she lived in Briggs Hall, South House, her admirer, Mark Twain, had introduced her to Standard Oil magnate Henry Huttleston Rogers, with his wife Abbie, paid for her education. In 1904, at the age of 24, Keller gradu
Louis Braille's original publication, Procedure for Writing Words and Plainsong in Dots, credits Barbier's night writing as being the basis for the braille script. It differed in a fundamental way from modern braille: It contained nine decades of characters rather than the modern five, utilizing dashes as well as dots. Braille recognized, that the dashes were problematic, being difficult to distinguish from the dots in practice, those characters were abandoned in the second edition of the book; the first four decades indicated the 40 letters of the alphabet. The seventh decade was used for musical notes. Most of the remaining characters were unassigned; as in modern braille, most of the higher decades were derived from the first: Decades 1–4 were the same as today and had their modern French values. Decade 5 was not derived from the first. Like the first decade, only the top half of the cell was used; the digit 1 was a dash in the top row. 3–5 were a top dash with a left and right dot in the middle.
9 and 0 were a and b shifted to the right: Decade 6 was derived from the first by adding dash at the bottom. That is, it resembled the 3rd decade with the two bottom dots connected into a line. Decade 7 was formed with a dash in the top row of the cell, displacing the dots of the first decade downward; that is, it was much like the modern fifth decade with an overstruck dash at the top. For the 1st and 3rd characters of the decade, the dots were shifted all the way down to the bottom row, rather than shifted once to the middle as in the modern 5th decade: No character outside the original 1st and 5th decades occupied just the top half of the cell. Decade 8 was formed by splitting the first decade with a dash, placing it between the upper and lower parts of each sign; that is, a dash appeared in the middle row, displacing the dots of that row to the bottom of the cell. In the case of first and 3rd characters, which did not have dots in the middle row, the dots at the top were displaced to the bottom instead.
That is, this decade was equivalent to adding an overstrike to ⠄⠅⠤⠩⠡⠍⠭⠥⠌⠬. Decade 9 was derived from the fifth by adding a dash in the bottom row; these were left unassigned apart from the first three, which were used when needed as markers of words and plainsong, respectively. Thus the 1st and 5th decades occupied only the top half of the cell, while all characters in the other decades had a dot or dash in the bottom row; the supplemental signs were ⠄⠤⠜⠼ and a top dash with ⠠⠰. Of the 125 possible patterns, 97 were used; the modern 5th decade and other supplemental signs do not appear in the 1829 version of braille, apart from ⠐ and ⠒ in plainsong notation. Punctuation differed from today accounting for the shift downward when the dash was dropped from the bottom row of the cell. ⠶ was used for both parentheses, as in modern English braille. ⠦ was used for either quotation mark. Anticipating that the dashes might prove problematic, Braille provided that the supplemental sign ⠼ would shift the decade by four.
That is, adding it to the first four decades would produce substitutes for the fifth through eighth. Only its use to replace the old fifth decade has been retained; the original proposal was as follows: The book allots a great deal of space to the representation of music. Instrumental notation was a one-to-one transcription of the system in use for the blind; the durations of the notes and the accidentals, had to be replaced. A simplified system for plainsong was provided; the twelve notes are the twelve characters of the upper half of the cell. By themselves, they indicate half notes. Quarter notes are 2nd decade, dotted quarter notes 3rd, eighth notes 4th. Dotted half notes are indicated by a dash below, whole notes by a dash above, dotted whole notes by a mid dash; the alto, bass and tenor clefs were indicated by the 5th–8th characters of the fifth decade. ⠐ is the sharp-note prefix, ⠒ the bass-note prefix, the equivalent with a dash the natural prefix. ⠄⠤ are the repetition sign and'star'. The book finishes with a proposal for braille shorthand, utilizing the first decade for vowels, the fifth for consonants.
That is, Braille's shorthand used a 4-dot cell rather than the standard 6-dot cell, taking two-thirds the space of normal braille, one-third the space of Barbier's night writing. In the classroom, Braille's students found the characters with dashes to be impractical, as the dashes were not distinguishable from pairs of dots, they were abandoned; the second edition of the Procédé, published in 1837, sets out French Braille as we know it today. According to Henri, at right, the numerical sign was used with the new fifth decade, plus one of the supplementary characters, for mathematical notation: ⠼⠖ +, ⠼⠤ −, ⠼⠦ ×, ⠼⠲ /, ⠼⠶ =, ⠼⠜ √. Several of these value
Perkins School for the Blind
Perkins School for the Blind, in Watertown, Massachusetts, is the oldest school for the blind in the United States. It has been known as the Perkins Institution for the Blind. Perkins manufactures its own Perkins Brailler, used to print embossed, tactile books for the blind. Founded in 1829, Perkins was the first school for the blind established in the United States; the school was named the New England Asylum for the Blind and was incorporated on March 2, 1829. The name was changed to Perkins School For the Blind. John Dix Fisher first considered the idea of a school for blind children based upon his visits to Paris at the National Institute for the Blind and was inspired to create such a school in Boston; the school is named in honor of Thomas Handasyd Perkins, one of the organization's incorporators and a Boston shipping merchant who began losing his sight at the time of establishment. In 1833, the school outgrew the Pleasant Street house of the father of its founder Samuel Gridley Howe, Perkins donated his Pearl Street mansion as the school's second home.
In 1839, Perkins donated the proceeds. This gift allowed the purchase of a more spacious building in South Boston. In 1885, 6 acres were purchased in the Hyde Square section of Jamaica Plain, a residential district of Boston, to build a kindergarten; this property was home to both Laura Helen Keller. The school moved to its present campus, in Watertown, Massachusetts, in the autumn of 1912. Charles Dickens visited Perkins in 1842 during a lecture tour of America and was amazed at the work Howe was doing with Laura Bridgman, a deaf-blind girl who had come to the school in 1837 from New Hampshire, he wrote about his visit in American Notes. In 1887, Perkins director Michael Anagnos sent graduate Anne Sullivan to teach Helen Keller in Alabama. After working with her pupil at the Keller home, Sullivan returned to Perkins with Keller in 1888 and resided there intermittently until 1893. In 1931, Perkins Braille and Talking Book Library was created. In 1951, David Abraham produced the first Perkins Brailler.
By 1977, about 100,000 Perkins Braillers had been distributed worldwide. In the 21st century, Perkins has expanded its mission online to include resources for families with blind and visually impaired children, teachers of the visually impaired. Perkins has worked with its local partners in Asian countries to host an online community for educators and families. In 2011, Perkins completed construction of the Grousbeck Center for Students and Technology on its 38-acre campus in Watertown, Massachusetts; this facility houses accessible technology for people who are visually impaired. The most recent project in Watertown for visually impaired persons is the "Braille Trail", completed in July 2016. Perkins partners with local groups in 67 countries—schools, universities, NGOs, government agencies, parent networks—to educate and empower people who are blind, deafblind or visually impaired, who may have additional disabilities; the organization does this through disseminating resources, such as Perkins Braillers and expertise on the ground in these countries.
One such example of this work in the African countries of Tanzania and Kenya is Perkins' role in the Kilimanjaro Blind Trust, Inc.. Special educators from other countries are invited to the Watertown campus every year, for an intensive study of blindness and multiple-disability education, which they bring back to their respective regions. Perkins Solutions concentrates on a broad array of assistive technology and accessibility assessment and consulting; the range of Perkins Braillers ships to 175 countries and includes the Classic Brailler, the Next Generation Brailler and the Smart Brailler launched in 2012 with text-to-speech output, visual display, applications for teaching braille. This subsidiary of Perkins partners with associations for the blind and sighted, education ministers and resellers around the globe in an effort to provide accessible equipment—including Perkins Braillers, brailler repair and assistive technology—to all who need it. On May 5, 2016, Perkins launched BlindNewWorld, a social change campaign aimed at helping the sighted population to be more inclusive of people who are blind and to make the world more accessible to them.
On June 8, 2012, in conjunction with the Helen Keller National Center and the Federal Communications Commission, Perkins School for the Blind was selected to conduct nationwide outreach for the National Deaf-Blind Equipment Distribution Program. Mandated by the 21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act and established by the FCC, the NDBEDP will aid individuals with combined vision and hearing loss connect with family and their community by distributing accessible communications technology. Perkins' and partners' outreach campaign to educate people on this program is called iCanConnect, which will aim to inform the nearly one million people in the United States with some sort of combined hearing and vision loss on the types of equipment—e.g. Screen-enlargement software, video phones and electronic refreshable braille displays—available to them free of charge. Perkins Braille and Talking Book Library works in conjunction with the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped at its Watertown chapter.
Perkins has collaborated with the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired on a Web resource called PathsToLiteracy.org, an online hub for information related to literacy f
English Braille known as Grade 2 Braille, is the braille alphabet used for English. It consists of 250 or so letters, punctuation, formatting marks and abbreviations; some English Braille letters, such as ⠡ ⟨ch⟩, correspond to more than one letter in print. There are three levels of complexity in English Braille. Grade 1 is restricted to basic literacy. Grade 2, nearly universal beyond basic literacy materials, abandons one-to-one transcription in many places and adds hundreds of abbreviations and contractions. Both grades have been standardized. "Grade 3" is any of various personal shorthands. It is never found in publications. Most of this article describes the 1994 American edition of Grade 2 Braille, equivalent to British Grade 2 Braille; some of the differences with Unified English Braille, adopted by various countries between 2005 and 2012, are discussed at the end. Braille was intended, is portrayed, as a re-encoding of the English orthography used by sighted people. However, braille is an independent writing system, not a variant of the printed English alphabet.
Braille was introduced to Britain in 1861. In 1876, a French-based system with a few hundred English contractions and abbreviations was adopted as the predominant script in Great Britain. However, the contractions and abbreviations proved unsatisfactory, in 1902 the current grade-2 system, called Revised Braille, was adopted in the British Commonwealth. In 1878, the ideal of basing all braille alphabets of the world on the original French alphabetic order was accepted by Britain and Egypt. In the United States at the time, three scripts were used: non-braille New York Point. A contracted English Braille, Grade 1½, was adopted in Britain in 1918, contracted Grade 2, with a few minor concessions to the Americans, was adopted in 1932; the concessions were to swap the British two-dot capital sign with the one-dot emphasis sign, omitted anyway, to drop a few religious contractions from general usage, to introduce a rule stating that contractions and abbreviations should not span'major' syllable boundaries.
In 1991, an American proposal was made for Unified English Braille, intended to eliminate the confusion caused by competing standards for academic uses of English Braille. After several design revisions, it has since been adopted by the Commonwealth countries starting in 2005, by the United States; the chief differences with Revised Braille are in punctuation and formatting, more reflecting print conventions in matters such as brackets, mathematical notation, typefaces. The 64 braille patterns are arranged into decades based on the numerical order of those patterns; the first decade are the numerals 1 through 0, which utilize only the mid row of the cell. In addition, for each decade there are two additional mirror-image patterns, there are three patterns that utilize only the bottom row of the cell; the final pattern, the empty cell ⟨⠀⟩, is used as a space. Cells 1 through 25 plus 40 are assigned to the 26 letters of the basic Latin alphabet; the other 37 cells are used for punctuation and assigned different values in different languages.
The English grade-two values are as follows. * Formatting marks, explained below § Abbreviation signs, illustrated below † Abolished in Unified English Braille ¤ The period, ⟨⠲⟩, is distinguished from the decimal point, ⟨⠨⟩. The apostrophe, ⟨⠄⟩, is distinguished from the single quotation mark; the English Braille alphabet has letters that correspond directly to the 26 letters of the English print alphabet, but ligatures that are equivalent to digraphs and sequences in print. † Abolished in Unified English BrailleSome of these ligatures transcribe common words, such as and or of, but they are not words: Pronunciation and meaning are ignored, only spelling is relevant. For example, ⠮ ⟨the⟩ is used when the sequence of print letters the appears, not just for the word "the"; that is, ⠮ ⟨the⟩ is the letter "the" in braille, as in the two-letter word ⠮⠝ then. Hand is written h-and, roof is written r-o-of, forest is written with three letters in braille, ⠿⠑⠌ for-e-st. Numbers are used this way as well—7th is written ⠼⠛⠹ #-7-th, here printed English approximates normal practice in braille.
There are numerous conventions for when a print sequence is "contracted" this way in braille, when it is spelled out in full. The ligatures ⟨ - ing ⟩ and ⟨ - ble ⟩ are used everywhere else; the ligatures of the third decade, ⟨and, for, of, with⟩, take precedence over the letters of decades. For example is written ⠮⠝ the-n, not *⠹⠢ th-en; when standing as words adjacent to other such words, or to ⠁ a, no space is left between them. For example, the, for a, with the, of a are al
Armenian Braille is either of two braille alphabets used for writing the Armenian language. The assignments of the Armenian alphabet to braille patterns is consistent with unified international braille, with the same punctuation, except for the comma; however and Western Armenian are assigned braille letters based on different criteria. The conventions for Western Armenian were developed in Lebanon. In Eastern Armenian, braille cells are assigned international values based on the historical correspondences of the Armenian script. For this reason they match the Latin transliteration convention used in the table below. In Western Armenian, braille cells are assigned according to a pronunciation which diverges from the historical origin of the letters, thus what are transliterated b g d in the table below are assigned braille values as p q th, while p t č̣ k are pronounced like English b d j g and have those braille assignments. Եւ is ⠯. Apart from the comma and question mark above and Western Braille use the same punctuation.
Moon type is a simplification of the Latin alphabet for embossing. An adaptation for Armenian-reading blind people has been proposed
The Perkins Brailler is a "braille typewriter" with a key corresponding to each of the six dots of the braille code, a space key, a backspace key, a line space key. Like a manual typewriter, it has two side knobs to advance paper through the machine and a carriage return lever above the keys; the rollers that hold and advance the paper have grooves designed to avoid crushing the raised dots the brailler creates. Although braille notation was designed for people who are blind or visually impaired to read, prior to the introduction of the Perkins Brailler, writing braille was a cumbersome process. Braille writers created braille characters with a stylus and slate or by using one of the complex and fragile braille writing machines available at the time; the first Braille writer machine was presented by Frank Haven Hall in 1892. The original Perkins Brailler was produced in 1951 by David Abraham, a woodworking teacher at the Perkins School for the Blind, dissatisfied with problems of the existing technology.
The director of the Perkins School for the Blind, Gabriel Farrell, asked Abraham to create an inexpensive and reliable machine to allow students to more write braille. Farrell and Abraham worked with Edward Waterhouse, a math teacher at Perkins, to create the design for the Brailler. In 2008, a lighter and quieter version was launched, it includes an erase key and an integrated carrying handle. The new model won the Silver Award in the 2009 International Design Excellence Awards; the paper placement is achieved by rolling the paper onto an internal drum, unrolling it when the user presses a line-feed key, using a clock-like escapement to move an embossing carriage over the paper. A system of six cams consisting of rods with a square cross-section transfers keystrokes to the wire-like styli contained in the carriage. Tolerances are close, the buildup of oily dirt with normal use necessitates periodic cleaning and adjustment. A new version of the Perkins Brailler, the SMART Brailler, was invented by David S. Morgan and released in 2011.
The SMART Brailler is based on the mechanical action of the classic Perkins Brailler, when unpowered, is operable as a standard Brailler. The SMART Brailler includes sensors capturing the mechanical motion of the embosser, when powered, adds text-to-speech audio feedback and a digital display for use by both sighted and blind individuals. Software for the SMART Brailler includes multi-lingual speech and Braille support, including English, UK English, French, Italian, Polish and Turkish. With the advent of computers, many users create braille output using a computer and a braille embosser connected to the computer. Visually impaired users can read the computer screen by using screen reader computer software and/or braille displays. Users of such a system can use a computer keyboard in the standard way for typing or can use a special keyboard driver that allows the six keys sdf-jkl to be used as a braille entry device similar to the Perkins Brailler. Many visually impaired users use electronic portable note-taking devices that allow keyboard entry in braille using the 6-key layout of the Perkins Brailler and output in synthesized speech and/or a one or two-line refreshable braille display consisting of tiny pins made of metal and plastic.
Notetakers include PDA features such as calculator. Because of the many moving parts and the accessibility of the refreshable braille displays to the environment, notetakers are quite expensive, they are damaged and must be returned to their country of origin for periodic cleaning. Mountbatten Brailler Book E-book Braille e-book Braille translator Braille embosser Perkins Brailler Website Perkins School for the Blind "About Perkins Braillers" at Perkins School for the Blind Braille Writer Simulator online Braille-n-Print converter Perkin SMART Brailler website
Slate and stylus
The slate and stylus are tools used by blind persons to write text that they can read without assistance. Invented by Charles Barbier as the tool for writing night writing, the slate and stylus allow for a quick, easy and constant method of making embossed printing for Braille character encoding. Prior methods of making raised printing for the blind required a movable type printing press; the basic design of the slate consists of two pieces of metal, plastic or wood fastened together with a hinge at one side. The back part of the slate is solid with slight depressions spaced in braille cells of six dots each; the depressions are 0.75 mm deep and about 1.5 mm in diameter. The horizontal and vertical spacing between dots within a cell is 2.5 mm, while the distance between adjacent cells is about 4 mm. The front of the slate consists of rectangular windows; the inner rim of each window is provided with six indentations, which assist the user to position the stylus properly and press to form a dot.
There are pins or posts in the back of the slate positioned in non-cell areas to hold the paper in place and keep the top properly positioned over the back. The pins align with matching depressions on the opposite side of the slate. A slate as designed for a normal 8.5 inch piece of paper has 28 cells in each row. The rows can be any number at least four; the stylus is a short blunted awl with a handle to fit comfortably the hand of the user. Writing is accomplished by placing a piece of heavy paper in the slate, aligning it and closing the slate; the pins in the back of the slate puncture or pinch the paper securely between the two halves of the slate. The person writing begins in the upper right, each combination of dots in the cell has to be completed backward; the awl is pressed to form a depression in the paper. The writer moves to the next cell as appropriate; the slate is repositioned as needed to continue writing on the paper. When completed the writer removes the slate and turns the paper over to read the braille by feeling the dots that were pushed up from the back.
Prior to the system devised by Louis Braille, a number of other methods for blind people to read and/or write on paper were used. One of the most popular was the English system of Dr. William Moon invented in 1845; the English/Moon system or Moon type is easy to learn for the newly blind as it has a strong resemblance to the familiar written alphabet, but Braille has such great advantages over the Moon system for regular usage that it eclipsed the Moon system. Braille with its slate and stylus was unique in that it was the first and, until computers with screen readers, the only method a blind person could write and read themselves what had been written; the earliest systematic attempt to provide a method to "teach the blind to read and to write, give them books printed by themselves" was by Valentin Haüy who used a system of embossed roman characters. In June 1784, Haüy sought his first pupil at the church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. On 5 December 1786, Haüy's pupils had embossed from movable letterpress type his "Essai sur l'éducation des aveugles" the first book published for the blind.
Prior to 1786 tools for the blind to read or write were the results of individuals personal approaches to solutions. One of the more notable approach was that of Nicholas Saunderson blind nearly from birth, devised an Arithmetical slate. Braille evolved from the night writing of Charles Barbier. "Ecriture Nocturne" was invented in response to Napoleon's demand for a code that soldiers could use to communicate silently and without light at night. Because it used a cell with 2 columns of six dots each a total of 12 dots could be required for a single symbol, the cell was too large for a single touch and was hard to read and learn, it was not successful. Alpha Chi Omega; the Lyre of Alpha Chi Omega. Original from the New York Public Library: Alpha Chi Omega. P. 285. Dodge, Mary Mapes Dodge. St. Nicholas. Original from the University of Michigan: Scribner & Co. p. 910. Perkins School for the Blind. Report. Original from Harvard University: Perkins School for the Blind. P. 69. Shrady. Medical Record. Original from Harvard University: W. Wood.
P. 621. Harry Houdini Collection; the Popular Science Monthly. Original from the New York Public Library: D. Appleton. P. 645. Oregon Education Department. Biennial Report. Original from the New York Public Library: Oregon Education Department. P. 164. Mrs Frederick Rhinelander Jones. "The Education of the Blind". In Goodale, Frances; the Literature of Philanthropy. Harper & Brothers. P. 187. Wisconsin State Board of Control. Biennial Report. Original from the University of Wisconsin - Madison: Wisconsin State Board of Control. P. 222. Stadelman, Joseph M.. "Valentin Haüy". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Sauvage, G. M.. "Louis Braille". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. ADA. Americans with Disabilities Act: Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings. DIANE Publishing. P. 14. ISBN 0-7881-1830-7. How Tactile Writing Began at www.bpa.org Blind Persons' Association Braille Slate Simulator