The American Buffalo known as a gold buffalo, is a 24-karat bullion coin first offered for sale by the United States Mint on June 22, 2006, available for shipment beginning on July 13. The coin follows the design of the Indian Head nickel and has gained its nickname from the American Bison on the reverse side of the design; this was the first time that the United States Government has minted pure 24-karat gold coins for the public. The coin has a legal tender value of US$50. Due to a combination of the coin's popularity and the tremendous increase in the price of gold since its creation the coin's value has increased in a short time of just a few years; the initial 2006 U. S. Mint price of the proof coin was $800. In 2007 the Mint proof coin was $899.95, $1,410.00 in 2009, $2,010.00 in 2011. In addition to requiring a presidential dollar coin series to begin in 2007 and redesigning the cent in 2009, the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005 mandated the production of a one-ounce 24-karat gold bullion coin with a face value of $50 and a mintage limit of up to 300,000 coins.
The design of the American Buffalo gold bullion coin is a modified version of James Earle Fraser's design for the Indian Head nickel, issued in early 1913. After a raised mound of dirt below the animal on the reverse was reduced, the Type 2 variation continued to be minted for the rest of 1913 and every year until 1938, except for 1922, 1932, 1933 when no nickels were struck. Fraser's Indian Head nickel design is regarded as among the best designs of any U. S. coins. The same design was used on the 2001 Smithsonian commemorative coin; the obverse of the coin depicts a Native American, whom Fraser said he created as a mixture of the features of three chiefs from different American Indian tribes, Big Tree, Iron Tail, Two Moons, who posed as models for him to sketch. The obverse shows the motto "LIBERTY" on the top right, the year of mintage on the bottom left, below that the letter F for Fraser; the American Buffalo gold bullion coin further has in common with the nickel the motto E PLURIBUS UNUM above the buffalo's lower back and the device UNITED·STATES·OF·AMERICA along the top.
Differences that can be noted between the nickel and the fifty dollar piece are, on the gold American Buffalo coin the mound area of the reverse of the Indian Head nickel bearing the words, FIVE CENTS, has been changed to read $50 1 OZ..9999 FINE GOLD. The motto, IN GOD WE TRUST, appearing on all U. S. gold coins since 1908, can be seen on the reverse of the newer coin to the left of, beneath, the buffalo's head. The U. S. Mint has indicated an expansion of the program, to include buffalo gold coins in fractional sizes for 2008 only; the specially-packaged 8–8-08 Double Prosperity set contains a one-half ounce gold buffalo coin. Weights and measures provided below: Currently, all U. S. bullion coins, including the American Buffalo gold piece, are being struck at the West Point Mint in New York. According to the U. S. Mint website, only the proof version of the buffalo gold coin bears the mint mark "W" on the obverse of the coin, behind the neck of the Indian; the 2006 and 2007 coins only have been issued in a one-ounce version, but in 2008, $5, $10, $25 face value coins were minted with 1/10 oz, 1/4 oz, 1/2 oz of gold respectively.
After a long wait by both collectors and investors, the uncirculated version of the American Buffalo gold piece was made available to coin dealers on June 20, 2006. Collectors who wanted to purchase the proof version from the mint were given the opportunity to place their orders with the mint beginning on July 22; the 2006 proof quality coin has a strict mintage limit of 300,000, with an additional enforced limit of only ten coins per household. The catalog number of the 2006 proof coin at the U. S. Mint is; the coin was created in order to compete with foreign 24-karat gold bullion coins. Since investors sometimes prefer 99.99% pure gold over the 91.67% gold used in the American Gold Eagle, many were choosing non-U. S. Coins, such as the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf, to meet their bullion needs. With the American Buffalo coin, the U. S. government hopes to increase the amount of U. S. gold sales and cash in on the 24-karat sales, which makes up about 60% of the world gold market. On September 26, 2008, the U.
S. Mint announced that, temporarily, it would halt sales of the American Buffalo coins because it could not keep up with soaring demand as investors sought the safety of gold amid the subprime mortgage crisis of the late 2000s, which had affected the price of gold. Mintage for the bullion version of the American Buffalo is as follows: American Eagle bullion coins American Buffalo, in which three criminals conspire to steal a valuable Indian Head nickel American coin U. S. Mint Program Page American Buffalo Coin page at U. S. Mint Catalog Specifications
White Oak Conservation is 700 acres of the 13,000 acres on White Oak Plantation, forest, wetlands and wildlife facilities, a golf course outside Yulee, Florida just south of the Georgia state line along the St. Marys River; the site houses more than 200 animals from 20-plus species and is internationally known for its wildlife conservation. It has been successful in breeding several types of endangered and vulnerable species, including addra gazelle, gerenuk, Mississippi sandhill crane and three of the five species of rhinoceros; the site accommodates conferences and has welcomed renowned guests, most notably former U. S. President Bill Clinton. Additionally, White Oak was home to the Mikhail Baryshnikov Dance Studio, now located in New York, visited by choreographers, dance troupes and others in the performing arts from around the world; the earliest recorded history of White Oak Plantation dates back to April 16, 1768, when the British governor of Florida gave land along the St. Marys River through a land grant to Andrew Way, his deputy surveyor of lands.
Three years Jermyn Wright a recipient of a land grant on the St. Marys, purchased Way's property; the plantation was home to food stores for naval vessels using the river. After removing the stands of cypress from the property's swampy areas, Wright began to cultivate rice, establishing the southern-most rice plantation on the Atlantic coast. By 1833, Zephaniah Kingsley, a pre-Civil War agricultural baron, had become the plantation's owner. In 1842, White Oak Plantation was purchased by Abraham Bessent, a shopkeeper in nearby St. Marys, Georgia; the sale included 109 whose names were recorded on the deed. Before the American Civil War, White Oak had about 350 acres of rice paddies in cultivation. Today, the abandoned paddies are still visible, the remnants of a building from the Kingsley era still stand in what is now a cheetah enclosure. During the Civil War, most planters left their rice plantations and permanently relocated to their summer estates, it is probable. The Gilman family acquired the property in the late 1930s.
Isaac Gilman grew from humble beginnings, peddling in Manhattan in the 1880s after emigrating from Europe. He saved up, in 1907, he purchased a struggling paper company in Vermont, renamed the Gilman Paper Company in 1921. Gilman handed off the business to his son, who in 1939 moved it to the 7,400-acre White Oak site, acquired a year earlier and constructed a large paper operation. Early features included timber production. Charles Gilman died in 1967, leaving his sons Chris and Howard to run it as president and senior officer, respectively. Chris died in 1982, it was that Howard Gilman began to spearhead additions to the White Oak property, investing $154 million to build the Baryshnikov Dance Studio, a conference center, a nine-hole golf course, expansive enclosures and buildings to raise, breed and study threatened and endangered species. Outside of White Oak, Gilman made large contributions to the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Brooklyn Academy of Music. Starting in 1993, the Howard Gilman Foundation hosted a variety of national and international conferences and seminars at White Oak directly related to its three fields of interest: arts and culture and the environment, public policy.
The foundation—created by Gilman in 1981 to support the arts and wildlife—owned White Oak following Howard Gilman's death in 1998 until March 2013. In March 2013, White Oak was purchased by Kimbra Walter; the Walters are conservationists. White Oak operations and facilities are managed by White Oak Conservation Holdings LLC, which the Walters established for this purpose. White Oak has been successful in breeding and conserving a wide variety of species. All of the wild population decreases of the imperiled species conserved at the center can be attributed to habitat loss and poaching. Not to be confused with a zoo, White Oak is unknown to the general public and only began offering public tours in the mid-2000s. Tours are now offered two days a week for guests. White Oak is, prominent in the zoological world, providing offspring to conservation breeding programs throughout the U. S. and the world. White Oak contributes to wildlife research and field conservation programs that have aided in the survival of several rare species.
Additionally, an outreach program to educate about wildlife conservation is expected to start in 2013. The Addra gazelle—a member of the antelope family found in the grasslands and woods of Africa—is one of a few critically endangered species at White Oak; the International Union for Conservation of Nature classifies species in one of seven categories: least concern, near threatened, endangered, critically endangered, extinct in the wild, extinct. White Oak has maintained a breeding herd of addra gazelles since 1983, since more than 280 have been born at the center. White Oak participates in Aquariums' Dama Gazelle Species Survival Plan. Inhabitants of northern Colombia, the blue-billed curassows are critically endangered, with only 250 to 1,000 left in the wild. White Oak manages several breeding
JUSTICE is a human rights and law reform organisation based in the United Kingdom. It is the British section of the International Commission of Jurists, the international human rights organisation of lawyers devoted to the legal protection of human rights worldwide. Members of JUSTICE are predominantly barristers and solicitors, legal academics, law students. JUSTICE is independent and all-party, having representatives of the three major political parties on its ruling Council, it is a registered charity under English law. JUSTICE's director is Andrea Coomber, the chair of JUSTICE Council is Baroness Kennedy of the Shaws QC. JUSTICE was founded in 1957, following the visit of a group of British lawyers to observe the treason trials of members of the African National Congress in apartheid South Africa and the show-trials in communist Hungary, its first chairman was Hartley Shawcross, the chief British prosecutor at Nuremberg, another founder was Peter Benenson who would establish Amnesty International.
Indeed, when AI first started in 1961, it shared its offices with JUSTICE. In 1958, it became the British section of the International Commission of Jurists; the original terms of JUSTICE's constitution committed it `to uphold and strengthen the principles of the Rule of Law in the territories for which the British Parliament is directly or responsible: in particular, to assist in the administration of justice and in the preservation of the fundamental liberties of the individual'. Indeed, JUSTICE itself gave birth to a number of subordinate branches in what were still British colonies and dependent territories; as each of these countries moved towards independence in the 1960s, the branches reconstituted themselves as national sections of the ICJ. This, in turn, shifted the emphasis of JUSTICE's own work towards the UK itself. Thus, although founded with an international orientation, JUSTICE established a specific focus on the rule of law and protection of fundamental rights in the UK. Through the work of its first secretary, Tom Sargant OBE, JUSTICE developed expertise in cases involving miscarriages of justice, secured the release of many prisoners, wrongly imprisoned.
Sargant was instrumental in the establishment of the BBC series Rough Justice, which led to the release from prison of eighteen victims of miscarriages of justice. At the same time JUSTICE developed as a policy organisation, producing reports that helped establish the UK's Ombudsman system, the Criminal Injuries Compensation Board, the Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974, the Data Protection Act 1998, the Criminal Cases Review Commission. Many of the measures contained in the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 were put forward by JUSTICE. Through the 1990s it established and developed programmes on human rights legislation, criminal justice and immigration, discrimination and privacy, it campaigned for the incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law by way of the Human Rights Act 1998. Dame Anne Owers CBE, Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Prisons, was the Director of JUSTICE until 2001. Previous Chairs of JUSTICE include Lord Alexander of Weedon QC, Lord Goodhart QC, the former Law Lord, Lord Steyn.
The main areas of JUSTICE's work are: Human rights Criminal justice EU law The rule of lawJUSTICE's focus is on UK law but its work involves highlighting the importance of international human rights law as well as bringing to bear the insights of comparative analysis of other jurisdictions. European law plays an large role in this work, it works by briefing parliamentarians and policy-makers on the human rights implications of legislation. As a policy organisation it is less involved in overt campaigning and individual casework and more on providing independent, expert legal analysis on matters of fundamental rights, it works at the European and international levels, lobbying the European Union institutions, the Council of Europe and the various United Nations treaty bodies. Each of JUSTICE's areas of work in turn covers a broad range of issues, including asylum and immigration, counter-terrorism and discrimination, privacy, EU Freedom Justice and Security issues, legal aid and access to justice, as well as constitutional issues tied to the role of the judiciary and Parliamentary scrutiny of legislation.
JUSTICE has a long history of intervening in cases of public importance involving the protection of fundamental rights. To this end, it has intervened before in cases before the Court of Appeal and the House of Lords, the Privy Council, the European Court of Human Rights, the European Court of Justice. In October 2009, it became the first NGO to intervene in a case before the UK Supreme Court. Rule of law Rule According to Higher Law JUSTICE International Commission of Jurists