Alfredo James Pacino is an American actor and filmmaker who has had a career spanning more than five decades. He has received numerous accolades and honors both competitive and honorary, among them an Academy Award, two Tony Awards, two Primetime Emmy Awards, a British Academy Film Award, four Golden Globe Awards, the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Film Institute, the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award and the National Medal of Arts, he is one of few performers to have won a competitive Oscar, an Emmy and a Tony Award for acting, dubbed the "Triple Crown of Acting". A method actor and former student of the HB Studio and the Actors Studio in New York City, where he was taught by Charlie Laughton and Lee Strasberg, Pacino made his feature film debut with a minor role in Me, Natalie and gained favorable notice for his lead role as a heroin addict in The Panic in Needle Park, he achieved international acclaim and recognition for his breakthrough role as Michael Corleone in Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather receiving his first Oscar nomination and would reprise the role in the successful sequels The Godfather Part II and The Godfather Part III.
Pacino's performance as Michael Corleone in these films is regarded as one of the greatest screen performances in film history. Pacino received his first Best Actor Oscar nomination for Serpico, and Justice for All and won the award in 1993 for his performance as blind Lieutenant Colonel Slade in Scent of a Woman. For his performances in The Godfather, Dick Tracy and Glengarry Glen Ross, Pacino was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Other notable roles include Tony Montana in Scarface, Carlito Brigante in Carlito's Way, Lieutenant Vincent Hanna in Heat, Benjamin Ruggiero in Donnie Brasco, Lowell Bergman in The Insider and Detective Will Dormer in Insomnia. In television, Pacino has acted in several productions for HBO, including the miniseries Angels in America and the Jack Kevorkian biopic You Don't Know Jack. In addition to his work in film, Pacino has had an extensive career on stage, he is a two-time Tony Award winner, in 1969 and 1977, for his performances in Does a Tiger Wear a Necktie? and The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel, respectively.
A lifelong fan of Shakespeare, Pacino directed and starred in Looking for Richard, a documentary film about the play Richard III, a role which Pacino had earlier portrayed on stage in 1977. He has acted as Shylock in a 2004 feature film adaptation and a 2010 stage production of The Merchant of Venice. Having made his filmmaking debut with Looking for Richard, Pacino has directed and starred in the independent film Chinese Coffee and the films Wilde Salomé and Salomé, about the play Salomé by Oscar Wilde. Since 1994, Pacino has been the joint president of the Actors Studio with Ellen Burstyn and Harvey Keitel. In 2016, he received the Kennedy Center Honor. Pacino was born in East Harlem, New York City, to Italian American parents Salvatore and Rose Pacino, his parents divorced. His mother took him to The Bronx where they lived with her parents and James Gerardi who were immigrants from Corleone, Sicily, his father, from San Fratello in the Province of Messina, moved to Covina, California to work as an insurance salesman and restaurateur.
In his teenage years, Pacino was known as "Sonny" to his friends. He had ambitions to become a baseball player and was nicknamed "The Actor". Pacino attended Herman Ridder Junior High School, but by secondary school he had dropped out of most of his classes except for English, he subsequently attended the High School of Performing Arts, after gaining admission by audition. His mother disagreed with his decision and, after an argument, he left home. To finance his acting studies, Pacino took low-paying jobs as messenger, busboy and postal clerk, once worked in the mailroom for Commentary magazine. Pacino began smoking and drinking at age nine, used marijuana casually at age 13, but he abstained from hard drugs, his two closest friends died from drug abuse at the ages of 19 and 30. Growing up in the Bronx, Pacino got into occasional fights and was considered somewhat of a troublemaker at school, he acted in basement plays in New York's theatrical underground but was rejected as a teenager by the Actors Studio.
Pacino joined the Herbert Berghof Studio, where he met acting teacher Charlie Laughton, who became his mentor and best friend. In this period, he was unemployed and homeless, sometimes slept on the street, in theaters, or at friends' houses. In 1962, his mother died at the age of 43; the following year, Pacino's grandfather James Gerardi died. Pacino recalled it as "the lowest point of my life". After four years at HB Studio, Pacino auditioned for the Actors Studio; the Actors Studio is a membership organization of professional actors, theatre directors, playwrights in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of Manhattan. Pacino studied "method acting" under acting coach Lee Strasberg, who appeared with Pacino in the films The Godfather Part II and in... And Justice for All. During interviews he spoke about Strasberg and the Studio's effect on his career. "The Actors Studio meant so much to me in my life. Lee Strasberg hasn't been given the credit he deserves
John Savage (actor)
John Savage is an American actor, best known for his roles in the films The Deer Hunter, The Onion Field and Salvador. He is known for his role as Donald Lydecker in the TV series Dark Angel. Savage was born in Old Bethpage, New York, to Muriel, a housewife, Floyd-Jones Youngs, an insurance salesman who served on Guadalcanal during World War II with the Marine Corps, his sisters are actress Gail Youngs. His brother is actor Jim Youngs. Savage has appeared in more than 200 feature films, short films, recurring roles in television series and guest appearances in episodes of television series. One of Savage's first notable roles is as Claude Bukowski in the 1979 film Hair, his first major film role was as Steven Pushkov in the multiple Oscar-winning 1978 film The Deer Hunter. He had a lead role in the 1979 film The Onion Field. In the late 1970s, he performed in the Broadway production of David Mamet's play American Buffalo. In 1991, he starred in Italian director Lucio Fulci's final film Door to Silence.
He had a brief role in the 1998 war film The Thin Red Line, portrayed Captain Ransom in the two part episode Equinox of the television series Star Trek: Voyager in 1999, appeared in the recurring role of Donald Lydecker in the first and second seasons of the 2000 television series Dark Angel. Savage appeared in the recurring role of Henry Scudder in the HBO television series Carnivàle between 2003 and 2005, he appeared in unrelated roles in two of the series in the Law & Order franchise: the 2004 episode "Conscience" of Law & Order: Criminal Intent, the 2005 episode "Quarry" of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit. Savage starred in the 2015 horror film Tales of Halloween, the 2017 film In Dubious Battle, on the 2017 continuation of the television show Twin Peaks. In 2018, he appeared on the television show Goliath. In 2018, Savage lent his voice to a monologue on the title track of the album This Town by Steve Smith of Dirty Vegas. In 2017, Savage spoke at a tribute honoring director Richard Donner, held by The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
John Savage on IMDb John Savage at the Internet Broadway Database John Savage at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
The Donmar Warehouse is a 251-seat, not-for-profit theatre in Covent Garden, England. It first opened on 18 July 1977. Sam Mendes, Michael Grandage and now Josie Rourke have all served as artistic director; the theatre has a diverse artistic policy that includes new writing, contemporary reappraisals of European classics and American drama and small-scale musical theatre. As well as presenting at least six productions a year at its home in Covent Garden, every year the Donmar tours one in-house production in the UK. Theatrical producer Donald Albery formed Donmar Productions around 1953, with the name derived from the first three letters of his name and the first three letters of his wife's middle name, Margaret. In 1961, he bought the warehouse, a building that in the 1870s had been a vat room and hops warehouse for the local brewery in Covent Garden, in the 1920s had been used as a film studio and the Covent Garden Market banana-ripening depot, his son Ian Albery, a producer and theatre design consultant, converted the warehouse into a private rehearsal studio.
In 1977, the Royal Shakespeare Company acquired it as a theatre and renamed it the Warehouse and equipping at "immense speed". The first show, which opened on 18 July 1977, was Schweik in the Second World War, directed by Howard Davies, which transferred from the Other Place in Stratford; the electricity for the theatre was turned on just 30 minutes before curtain up, the concrete steps up to the theatre were still wet. The Warehouse was an RSC workshop as much as a showcase and the seasons were remarkably innovative, including Trevor Nunn's acclaimed Stratford 1976 Macbeth, starring Judi Dench and Ian McKellen, which opened at the Covent Garden venue in September 1977 before transferring to the Young Vic; the RSC went on to stage numerous acclaimed productions, both original and transfers from The Other Place, Stratford. In 1980 nearly all the RSC company were involved in Nicholas Nickleby so a new two hander was found from the pile of submitted scripts. Educating Rita, with Julie Walters and Mark Kingston directed by Mike Ockrent, went on to be one of the RSC's biggest successes.
From 1983 to 1989 it came under the artistic directorship of Nica Burns. In 1990, Roger Wingate was responsible for the acquisition of the Donmar Warehouse, he rebuilt and re-equipped it in the form it is known today. Prior to its reopening in 1992, Roger Wingate appointed Sam Mendes as the theatre’s first Artistic Director; as a board member and theatrical producer, Roger Wingate remains involved with the Donmar to the present day. The Donmar became an independent producing house in 1992 with Sam Mendes as artistic director, his opening production was Stephen Sondheim's Assassins. He followed this with a series of classic revivals. Among Mendes' productions were John Kander and Fred Ebb's Cabaret, Tennessee Williams's The Glass Menagerie, Stephen Sondheim's Company, Alan Bennett's Habeas Corpus and his farewell duo of Chekhov's Uncle Vanya and Twelfth Night, which transferred to the Brooklyn Academy of Music. Under Mendes, Matthew Warchus's production of Sam Shepard's True West, Katie Mitchell's of Beckett's Endgame, David Leveaux's of Sophocles's Elektra and Tom Stoppard's The Real Thing were all productions at Donmar.
Mendes' successor Michael Grandage directed some of the key productions of the part of Mendes' tenure, including Peter Nichols's Passion Play and Privates on Parade and Sondheim's Merrily We Roll Along. In 2002 Michael Grandage succeeded Sam Mendes as Artistic Director. Grandage appointed Jamie Lloyd as Associate Directors. For its revivals of foreign plays, the company commissioned new translations or versions, including Ibsen's The Wild Duck, Racine's Phaedra, Dario Fo's Accidental Death of An Anarchist and Strindberg's Creditors, its musical productions included Grand Hotel and the Stephen Sondheim works, Pacific Overtures, Merrily We Roll Along, Into the Woods and the 1992 production of Assassins that opened Sam Mendes' tenure as Artistic Director. Under the umbrella of Warehouse Productions, the theatre sometimes opened shows in the West End. Including 1999's Suddenly Last Summer and 2005's Guys and Dolls. Many well-known actors have appeared at the theatre, including Nicole Kidman, Gwyneth Paltrow, Ian McKellen and Ewan McGregor.
With only 250 seats, the tickets for Othello starring McGregor were in such demand that Grandage feared it could become "a bad news story". His response was to plan a one-year season at the 750-seat Wyndham's Theatre, four major new productions presented by Donmar West End, it commenced on 12 September 2008, with Kenneth Branagh in the title role of Chekhov's Ivanov, given in a new version by Tom Stoppard and directed by Grandage. The West End season continued with Derek Jacobi in Twelfth Night, Judi Dench in Yukio Mishima's Madame de Sade and Jude Law in Hamlet, all directed by Grandage. Following the Donmar West End season, the Donmar held three productions internationally: transfers of Red and Creditors, to Broadway and the Brooklyn Academy of Music respectively. Furthermore, from 30 September through December, the Donmar had the first of three year resident spots at Trafalgar Studios 2, in order to showcase its past Resident Assistant Directors. In late 2010, the Donmar led the UK celebrations to mark Stephen Sondheim's 80th birthday to recognise his long association with the theatre.
It included a new production of Passion directed by Jamie Lloyd. In February 2011, the Donmar collaborated with the National Theatre Live programme to broadcast its production of King Lear, starring Derek Jacobi, to cinemas around the world. With over 350 screens i
Wyndham's Theatre is a West End theatre, one of two opened by actor/manager Charles Wyndham. Located on Charing Cross Road in the City of Westminster, it was designed c.1898 by W. G. R. Sprague, the architect of six other London theatres between and 1916, it was designed to seat 759 patrons on three levels. The theatre was Grade II* listed by English Heritage in September 1960. Wyndham had always dreamed of building a theatre of his own, through the admiration of a patron and the financial confidence of friends, he was able to realise his dream. Wyndham's Theatre opened on 16 November 1899, in the presence of the Prince of Wales; the first play performed. In 1910, Gerald du Maurier began an association with the theatre which lasted 15 years and to include the stage debut of the screen actress Tallulah Bankhead. Du Maurier's small daughter, Daphne watched her father's performance from the wings. Thirty years she presented her own play, The Years Between, on the same stage. In April 1953 the theatre premiered Graham Greene's first play, The Living Room, with a cast including Dorothy Tutin.
In January 1954, a small-scale musical pastiche, Sandy Wilson's The Boy Friend, which had premiered at the much smaller Players' Theatre, was moved to the Wyndham stage. It ran for 2,078 performances, before transferring to Broadway. During the 60s and early 70s, the theatre continued to provide a setting for stars such as Alec Guinness, Vanessa Redgrave and Diana Rigg; the blockbuster of the 1970s decade – Godspell – opened at Wyndham's in January 1972 and ran to October 1974. The original cast included Marti Webb and Jeremy Irons. Among more recent distinguished productions were the world premiere of The Ride Down Mt. Morgan by American playwright Arthur Miller and the British premiere of Edward Albee's Three Tall Women, starring Maggie Smith. Twenty-five years after making her debut there, Diana Rigg returned to play a hugely successful season as Medea; the critically acclaimed comedy,'Art', by Yasmina Reza, began its record-breaking run at Wyndham's in 1996 with Albert Finney, Tom Courtenay and Ken Stott in the cast.
It opened in October 1996, transferred to the Whitehall Theatre in October 2001. Madonna made her West End debut there in 2002; this was followed by many other dramatic productions, including Dinner and the National Theatre's Democracy during 2004, Holly Hunter in By The Bog Of Cats, American TV star Ruby Wax in a children's stage version of The Witches, which ran during March 2005. Since theatre patrons have seen Sienna Miller star alongside Helen McCrory, Reece Shearsmith and Clive Rowe in a new production of Shakespeare's As You Like It. A large-scale replica of the facade of the theatre was constructed at the Universal Studios theme park in Orlando, Florida as part of the park's London-themed area. In May 2005, the theatre was taken over by Cameron Mackintosh's Delfont-Mackintosh Ltd. which began operations of the venue in September 2005. In October 2005 the theatre presented Tom Stoppard's Heroes, a translation of the French play Le vent des peupliers by Gérald Sibleyras, which starred Richard Griffiths and John Hurt.
The following year the theatre hosted a new production of Joanna Murray-Smith's play Honour starring Diana Rigg, Martin Jarvis and Natascha McElhone, which ran between 7 February and 6 May 2006. It hosted the West End transfer of the Menier Chocolate Factory's hit production of Stephen Sondheim's musical Sunday in the Park with George, which starred Daniel Evans and Jenna Russell and ran till September. Between December 2006 and April 2007, the theatre presented the West End commercial transfer of Alan Bennett's National Theatre hit The History Boys which played to sell-out houses during its run until April 2007. Bill Kenwright's production of Somerset Maugham's The Letter played through summer 2007. There was a short hiatus. Shadowlands, based on the life story of C. S. Lewis opened in October 2007, starring Charles Dance and Janie Dee, before another return of Alan Bennett's The History Boys from December 2007; the theatre closed temporarily for refurbishment works, before reopening in September 2008 with Kenneth Branagh starring in Michael Grandage's production of Chekhov's Ivanov.
This new version by Tom Stoppard was the opening play in the Donmar West End twelve-month season at Wyndham's, with tickets at Donmar Warehouse prices. The Donmar West End season included Derek Jacobi starring in Twelfth Night, Judi Dench in Yukio Mishima's Madame de Sade, Jude Law in Hamlet, all staged by Grandage. Dinner by Moira Buffini starring Harriet Walter Democracy by Michael Frayn, starring Colm Meaney Dylan Moran: Monster II By the Bog of Cats by Marina Carr, starring Holly Hunter The Witches by David Wood, starring Ruby Wax The Vagina Monologues, by Eve Ensler As You Like It by William Shakespeare, starring Sienna Miller and Clive Rowe Heroes by Gérald Sibleyras, starring Richard Griffiths, John Hurt and Ken Stott Honour by Joanna Murray-Smith, starring Diana Rigg and Martin Jarvis Sunday in the Park with George (23 May 200
Laurence John Fishburne III is an American actor, producer and film director. He is known for playing Morpheus in The Matrix trilogy, Jason "Furious" Styles in the 1991 drama film Boyz n the Hood and Tyrone "Mr. Clean" Miller in the 1979 war film Apocalypse Now. For his portrayal of Ike Turner in What's Love Got to Do With It, Fishburne was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor, he won a Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play for his performance in Two Trains Running, an Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series for his performance in TriBeCa. Fishburne became the first African American to portray Othello in a motion picture by a major studio when he appeared in Oliver Parker's 1995 film adaptation of the Shakespeare play. Fishburne starred including Deep Cover and King of New York. From 2008 to 2011, he starred as Dr. Raymond Langston on the CBS crime drama CSI: Crime Scene Investigation and from 2013 to 2015 starred as Special Agent Jack Crawford in the NBC thriller series Hannibal.
In 2013, he portrayed Perry White in the Zack Snyder-directed Superman reboot Man of Steel and in 2016 reprised his role in Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice as part of the DC Extended Universe. Fishburne played Bill Foster in the film Ant-Man and the Wasp, released in 2018 as part of the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Fishburne was born in Augusta, the son of Hattie Bell, a junior high school mathematics and science teacher, Laurence John Fishburne, Jr. a juvenile corrections officer. After his parents divorced during his childhood, he moved with his mother to Brooklyn, New York, where he was raised, his father saw him once a month. Fishburne is a graduate of Lincoln Square Academy in New York. For most of his early career, he was credited as Larry Fishburne. In 1973, Fishburne had his first acting role portraying Joshua Hall on the ABC soap opera One Life to Live, his most memorable childhood role was in Cornbread, Earl and Me, in which he played a young boy who witnessed the police shooting of a popular high school basketball star.
He earned a supporting role in Apocalypse Now, in which he played Tyrone Miller, a cocky 17-year-old Gunner's Mate 3rd Class from the Bronx, nicknamed Mr. Clean; when production began in March 1976, he was just 14 years old, having lied about his age to get the part. Filming took so long that he was 17 years old upon its completion. Fishburne periodically on stage. In the early 1980s, he worked as a bouncer at punk rock clubs, he appeared in the early 1980s movies Band of the Hand, Death Wish 2 and The Cotton Club, had a minor role in the critically acclaimed Steven Spielberg film The Color Purple. Fishburne had a recurring role as Cowboy Curtis on Paul Reubens' CBS children's television show Pee-wee's Playhouse, he appeared in the M*A*S*H episode, "The Tooth Shall Set You Free". In Spenser: For Hire, he was a guest star for the second-season episode "Personal Demons", he appeared alongside Kevin Bacon in Quicksilver. His stage work during the 1980s included Short Eyes, Loose Ends, both produced at Second Stage Theatre in New York City.
In 1987 he played a part in the third A Nightmare On Elm Street film as a hospital orderly. Fishburne featured in Red Heat beside James Belushi. Fishburne starred as "Dap" in Spike Lee's School Daze. Fishburne's character was a depiction of an African American, culturally inclined college student at a black college. In 1990, Fishburne played Jimmy Jump in the controversial King of New York, in 1991, starred in Boyz n the Hood; the following year, in 1992, he won a Tony Award for his stage performance in the August Wilson play Two Trains Running and an Emmy Award for his performance in the opening episode, "The Box," of the short-lived anthology series television drama TriBeCa. He starred in Deep Cover alongside Jeff Goldblum. In 1993, he received his first Oscar nomination for his portrayal of Ike Turner in What's Love Got to Do With It. Fishburne won an Image Award for "Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture" for his performance as West Indian Professor Maurice Phipps in the 1995 American drama ensemble film, Higher Learning.
He played the title role in Othello, the second African-American actor, after Paul Robeson, to perform the role. In 1997, Fishburne starred in the science fiction horror Event Horizon alongside Sam Neill. Fishburne is best known for his role as Morpheus, the hacker-mentor of Neo, played by Keanu Reeves, in the 1999 blockbuster science fiction film The Matrix. Fishburne provided the voice of Thrax in Osmosis Jones in 2001, he reprised his role as Morpheus in the Matrix sequels The Matrix Reloaded, The Matrix Revolutions in 2003. He featured as a stretcher-bearer in one version of the video for The Spooks' song "Things I've Seen" and appeared with Tom Cruise as Theodore Brassell, IMF superior of Cruise's character in Mission: Impossible III. Fishburne has worked with actress Angela Bassett on four projects, he said. I haven't experienced it with anyone else. A freedom happens when we work together." In 2006, they appeared onstage in a Pasadena Playhouse production of August Wilson's Fences. He played terrorist leader, Ahmat, revealed to be CIA in the 2006 film Five Fingers.
He provided the voice of the narrator in the 2007 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles film, TMNT. The same year, he provided the voice of the Silver Surfer in 2007 film Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer. On February 24, 2007, Fishburne was honored with the Harvard Foundation's Artist of the Year award at t
The Buffalo nickel or Indian Head nickel is a copper-nickel five-cent piece, struck by the United States Mint from 1913 to 1938. It was designed by sculptor James Earle Fraser; as part of a drive to beautify the coinage, five denominations of US coins had received new designs between 1907 and 1909. In 1911, Taft administration officials decided to replace Charles E. Barber's Liberty Head design for the nickel, commissioned Fraser to do the work, they were impressed by Fraser's designs showing an American bison. The designs were approved in 1912, but were delayed several months because of objections from the Hobbs Manufacturing Company, which made mechanisms to detect slugs in nickel-operated machines; the company was not satisfied by changes made in the coin by Fraser, in February 1913, Treasury Secretary Franklin MacVeagh decided to issue the coins despite the objections. Despite attempts by the Mint to adjust the design, the coins proved to strike indistinctly, to be subject to wear—the dates were worn away in circulation.
In 1938, after the expiration of the minimum 25-year period during which the design could not be replaced without congressional authorization, it was replaced by the Jefferson nickel, designed by Felix Schlag. Fraser's design is admired today, has been used on commemorative coins and the gold American Buffalo series. In 1883, the Liberty Head nickel was issued. After the coin was released, it was modified to add the word "CENTS" to the reverse because the similarity in size with the half eagle allowed criminals to gild the new nickels and pass them as five dollar coins. An Act of Congress, passed into law on September 26, 1890 required that coinage designs not be changed until they had been in use 25 years, unless Congress authorized the change; the act made silver dollar exceptions to the twenty-five year rule. However, the Mint continued to strike the Liberty Head nickel in large numbers through the first decade of the 20th century. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904 expressed his dissatisfaction with the artistic state of the American coinage, hoped to hire sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens to redesign all the coins.
Constrained by the 1890 act, the Mint only hired Saint-Gaudens to redesign the cent and the four gold pieces. Saint-Gaudens, before his 1907 death, designed the eagle and double eagle, which entered circulation that year. By that time, the Liberty Head nickel had been in circulation for more than 25 years, was eligible for redesign regardless of the special provision. In 1909, Mint Director Frank Leach instructed Barber to make pattern coins for new nickels. Most of these coins featured George Washington; the press found out about the pieces, speculated they would be released into circulation by the end of the year. The Mint received orders from banks in anticipation of the "Washington nickel". However, the project was discontinued when Leach left office on November 1, 1909, to be replaced by Abram Andrew. Andrew was dissatisfied with the just-issued Lincoln cent, considered seeking congressional authorization to replace the cent with a design by sculptor James Earle Fraser. While the change in the cent did not occur, according to numismatic historian Roger Burdette, "Fraser's enthusiasm led to adoption of the Buffalo nickel in December 1912".
On May 4, 1911, Eames MacVeagh, son of Treasury Secretary Franklin MacVeagh wrote to his father: A little matter that seems to have been overlooked by all of you is the opportunity to beautify the design of the nickel or five cent piece during your administration, it seems to me that it would be a permanent souvenir of a most attractive sort. As you are aware, it is the only coin the design of which you can change during your administration, as I believe there is a law to the effect that the designs must not be changed oftener than every twenty-five years. I should think it might be the coin of which the greatest numbers are in circulation. Soon after the MacVeagh letter, Andrew announced that the Mint would be soliciting new designs for the nickel. Fraser, an assistant to Saint-Gaudens, approached the Mint, produced concepts and designs; the new Mint director, George Roberts, who had replaced Andrew favored a design featuring assassinated President Abraham Lincoln, but Fraser soon developed a design featuring a Native American on one side and a bison on the other.
Andrew and Roberts recommended Fraser to MacVeagh, in July 1911, the Secretary approved hiring Fraser to design a new nickel. Official approval was slow in coming. MacVeagh wrote, "Tell him that of the three sketches which he submitted we would like to use the sketch of the head of the Indian and the sketch of the buffalo." Roberts transmitted the news followed up with a long list of instructions to the sculptor, in which he noted, "The motto,'In God We Trust', is not required upon this coin and I presume we are agreed that nothing should be upon it, not required." Fraser completed the models by June 1912, prepared coin-size electrotypes. He brought the models and electrotypes to Washington on July 10, where they met with the enthusiastic agreement of Secretary MacVeagh. In July 1912, word of the new design became publicly known, coin-operated machine manufacturers sought information. Replying to the inquiries, MacVeagh wrote that there would be no change in the diameter, thickness, or weight of the nickel.
This satisfied mos
The Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Broadway Theatre, more known as the Tony Award, recognizes excellence in live Broadway theatre. The awards are presented by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League at an annual ceremony in Manhattan; the awards are given for Broadway productions and performances, an award is given for regional theatre. Several discretionary non-competitive awards are given, including a Special Tony Award, the Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre, the Isabelle Stevenson Award; the awards are named after co-founder of the American Theatre Wing. The rules for the Tony Awards are set forth in the official document "Rules and Regulations of The American Theatre Wing's Tony Awards", which applies for that season only; the Tony Awards are considered the highest U. S. theatre honor, the New York theatre industry's equivalent to the Academy Awards for film, the Emmy Awards for television, the Grammy Awards for music. It forms the fourth spoke in the EGOT, that is, someone who has won all four awards.
The Tony Awards are considered the equivalent of the Laurence Olivier Awards in the United Kingdom and the Molière Awards in France. From 1997 to 2010, the Tony Awards ceremony was held at Radio City Music Hall in New York City in June and broadcast live on CBS television, except in 1999, when it was held at the Gershwin Theatre. In 2011 and 2012, the ceremony was held at the Beacon Theatre. From 2013 to 2015, the 67th, 68th, 69th ceremonies returned to Radio City Music Hall; the 70th Tony Awards was held on June 2016 at the Beacon Theatre. The 71st Tony Awards and 72nd Tony Awards were held at Radio City Music Hall in 2017 and 2018, respectively; as of 2014, there are 26 categories of awards, plus several special awards. Starting with 11 awards in 1947, the names and number of categories have changed over the years; some examples: the category Best Book of a Musical was called "Best Author". The category of Best Costume Design was one of the original awards. For two years, in 1960 and 1961, this category was split into Best Costume Designer and Best Costume Designer.
It went to a single category, but in 2005 it was divided again. For the category of Best Director of a Play, a single category was for directors of plays and musicals prior to 1960. A newly established non-competitive award, The Isabelle Stevenson Award, was given for the first time at the awards ceremony in 2009; the award is for an individual who has made a "substantial contribution of volunteered time and effort on behalf of one or more humanitarian, social service or charitable organizations". The category of Best Special Theatrical Event was retired as of the 2009–2010 season; the categories of Best Sound Design of a Play and Best Sound Design of a Musical were retired as of the 2014–2015 season. On April 24, 2017, the Tony Awards administration committee announced that the Sound Design Award would be reintroduced for the 2017–2018 season; the award was founded in 1947 by a committee of the American Theatre Wing headed by Brock Pemberton. The award is named after Antoinette Perry, nicknamed Tony, an actress, producer and co-founder of the American Theatre Wing, who died in 1946.
As her official biography at the Tony Awards website states, "At Jacob Wilk's suggestion, proposed an award in her honor for distinguished stage acting and technical achievement. At the initial event in 1947, as he handed out an award, he called it a Tony; the name stuck."The first awards ceremony was held on April 6, 1947, at the Waldorf Astoria hotel in New York City. The first prizes were "a scroll, cigarette lighter and articles of jewelry such as 14-carat gold compacts and bracelets for the women, money clips for the men", it was not until the third awards ceremony in 1949 that the first Tony medallion was given to award winners. Awarded by a panel of 868 voters from various areas of the entertainment industry and press. Since 1967, the award ceremony has been broadcast on U. S. national television and includes songs from the nominated musicals, has included video clips of, or presentations about, nominated plays. The American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League jointly administer the awards.
Audience size for the telecast is well below that of the Academy Awards shows, but the program reaches an affluent audience, prized by advertisers. According to a June 2003 article in The New York Times: "What the Tony broadcast does have, say CBS officials, is an all-important demographic: rich and smart. Jack Sussman, CBS's senior vice president in charge of specials, said the Tony show sold all its advertising slots shortly after CBS announced it would present the three hours.'It draws upscale premium viewers who are attractive to upscale premium advertisers,' Mr. Sussman said..." The viewership has declined from the early years of its broadcast history but has settled into between six and eight million viewers for most of the decade of the 2000s. In contrast, the 2009 Oscar telecast had 36.3 million viewers. The Tony Award medallion was designed by art director Herman Rosse and is a mix of brass and a little bronze, with a nickel plating on the outside; the face of the medallion portrays an adaptation of the tragedy masks.
The reverse side had a relief profile of Antoinette Perry. The medallion has been mounted on a black base since 1967. A larger base was introduced in time for the 2010 award ceremony; the n