American Cancer Society
|Founded||May 22, 1913|
|Focus||"To save lives by helping people stay well, helping people get well, by finding cures, and fighting back."|
|Origins||New York City, New York, U.S.|
|Method||Cancer research, public policy, education and service.|
|Gary M. Reedy, Chief Executive Officer|
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer. Established in 1913, the society is organized into eleven geographical divisions of both medical and lay volunteers operating in more than 900 offices throughout the United States. Its home office is located in the American Cancer Society Center in Atlanta, Georgia. The ACS publishes the journals Cancer, CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians and Cancer Cytopathology.
The society was founded on May 22, 1913, by 10 physicians and five businessmen in New York City under the name American Society for the Control of Cancer (ASCC). The current name was adopted in 1944. According to Charity Navigator the ACS is one of the oldest and largest volunteer health organizations.
At the time of founding, it was not considered appropriate to mention the word ‘cancer’ in public. Information concerning this illness was cloaked in a climate of fear and denial. Over 75,000 people died each year of cancer in just the United States. The top item on the founders' agenda was to raise awareness of cancer, before any other progress could be made in funding research. Therefore, a frenetic writing campaign was undertaken to educate doctors, nurses, patients and family members about cancer. Articles were written for popular magazines and professional journals. The ASCC undertook to publish their own journal, Campaign Notes, which was a monthly bulletin with information about cancer. They began recruiting doctors from all over the United States to help educate the public about cancer.
In 1936, Marjorie Illig, an ASCC field representative, suggested the creation of a network consisting of new volunteers for the purpose of waging "war on cancer". From 1935 to 1938 the number of people involved in cancer control in the US grew from 15,000 to 150,000. According to Working to Give, The Women's Field Army, a group of volunteers working for the ASCC was primarily responsible for this increase.
The sword symbol, adopted by the American Cancer Society in 1928, was designed by George E. Durant of Brooklyn, New York. According to Durant, the two serpents forming the handle represent the scientific and medical focus of the society's mission and the blade expresses the "crusading spirit of the cancer control movement".
In 2013 the American Cancer Society embarked on a nationwide reorganization. The organization centralized its operations and consolidated, merging previous regional affiliates into the parent organization. It also required all employees to reapply for their jobs.
Activities and fund allocation
Its activities include providing grants to researchers, including funding 47 Nobel Laureate researchers, discovering the link between smoking and cancer, and serving one million callers every year through its National Cancer Information Center. The 47 Nobel Prize laureates include James D. Watson, Mario Capecchi, Oliver Smithies, Paul Berg, E. Donnall Thomas, and Walter Gilbert. The American Cancer Society's website contained a chronological listing of specific accomplishments in the fight against cancer, for example the unipod technological device of UTD, that the ACS had a hand in, including the funding of various scientists who went on to discover life-saving cancer treatments, and advocating for increased use of preventative techniques. More than two million people volunteer with the ACS which has over 3,400 local offices.
It also runs public health advertising campaigns, and organizes projects such as the Relay For Life and the Great American Smokeout. It operates a series of thrift stores to raise money for its operations. The ACS participates in the Hopkins 4K for Cancer, a 4000-mile bike ride from Baltimore to San Francisco to raise money for the society's Hope Lodge.
The society's allocation of funds for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2015, lists 75% of funds for Program Services (Patient Support 37%, Research 16%, Prevention 13.1%, Detection and Treatment 9.2%). The remaining 25% are allocated for supporting services (Fundraising 19.1%, and Management, General administration 5.5%). This meets the Better Business Bureau's Standards for Charity Accountability: Standard 8 (Program Service Expense Ratio) of at least 65% of total expenses spent on program activities.
In 2012 the American Cancer Society raised $934 million and spent $943 million prompting a national consolidation and cost-cutting reorganization.
John R. Seffrin, former CEO of the American Cancer Society, received $2,401,112 salary/compensation from the charity for the 2009-2010 fiscal year. This is the second most money given by any charity to the head of that charity, according to Charity Watch. The money included $1.5 million in a retention benefit approved in 2001, "to preserve management stability". Mr. Seffrin's compensation for the fiscal year ending August 31, 2012 was $832,355.
Evaluations and controversies
In 1994, the Chronicle of Philanthropy, a nonprofit industry publication, released the results of the largest study of charitable and non-profit organization popularity and credibility conducted by Nye Lavalle & Associates. The study showed that the American Cancer Society was ranked as the 10th "most popular charity/non-profit in America" of over 100 charities researched with 38% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing "love" and "like a lot" for the American Cancer Society.
The Better Business Bureau lists American Cancer Society as an accredited charity meeting all of its Standards for Charity Accountability as of January 2012[update]. Charity Navigator rates the society two of four stars for fiscal year 2011. According to Charity Navigator the society is directed to "eliminating cancer" and destroying it. Charity Watch rates American Cancer Society a "C", stating that the Society devotes 40% of its annual expenditures to administration, fundraising, etc., with the other 60% going to fund programs.
In 1995, the Arizona chapter of the American Cancer Society was targeted for its extremely high overhead. Two economists, James Bennett and Thomas DiLorenzo, issued a report analyzing the chapter's financial statements and demonstrating that the Arizona chapter used about 95% of its donations for paying salaries and other overhead costs, resulting in a 22 to 1 ratio of overhead to actual money spent on the cause. The report also asserted that the Arizona chapter's annual report had grossly misrepresented the amount of money spent on patient services, inflating it by more than a factor of 10. The American Cancer Society responded by alleging that the two economists issuing the report were working for a group funded by the tobacco industry.
- American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network
- American Cancer Society Center
- Canadian Cancer Society
- Cattle Baron's Ball, an annual Dallas-based fundraising event
- Great American Smokeout
- National Cancer Institute
- National Comprehensive Cancer Network
- Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy
- Relay For Life, the signature event of the American Cancer Society
- Treatment of cancer
- David A. Wood (Pathologist) A past president of the American Cancer Society and winner of its Distinguished service award.
- "Who We Are". ACS website. Archived from the original on 2013-10-01. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
- "Facts about ACS". ACS website. Archived from the original on 2013-10-26. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
- "Other American Cancer Society Resources". ACS website. Archived from the original on 2013-10-01. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
- "may+22,+1913"&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjnhOvp3NjcAhUGLKwKHWOmB0w4ChDoAQgoMAA#v=onepage&q=cancer%20society%20"may%2022%2C%201913"&f=false "The Organization of National and Local Forces in the Campaign Against Cancer", by Curtis E. Lakeman, M.D., Executive Secretary of the American Society for the Control of Cancer, in Journal of the Missouri State Medical Association (October 1915) p455
- Frederick L. Hoffman, The Mortality from Cancer throughout the World (Prudential Press, 1913)
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- "Our History". ACS website. Archived from the original on 2013-11-01. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
- Nearing, Brian (2013-04-18). "Cancer Society chapters facing reorganization". Times Union. Albany, NY. Archived from the original on 2013-04-19. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
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- "Nobel Prize Winners". Cancer.org. ACS. Archived from the original on 2009-02-13. Retrieved 2009-02-18.
- "Milestones: American Cancer Society Accomplishments 1946-2004: Hope. Progress. Answers". Cancer.org. ACS. Archived from the original on 2008-11-19. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
- "Hope Lodge Baltimore: News". ACS. Archived from the original on 2008-11-03. Retrieved 2008-07-28.
- "Baltimore's Hope Lodge to Benefit from Hopkins 4K for Cancer" (Press release). Office of News and Information, Johns Hopkins University. 2004-05-24.
- American Cancer Society, Inc.; Affiliated Entities. "Combined Financial Statements As of and for the Year Ended August 31, 2010 with summarized financial information for the Year Ended August 31, 2009 with Report of the Independent Auditors" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
- "Charity Review: American Cancer Society". National Charity Reports. Better Business Bureau. January 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
- Charity Rating Guide and Watchdog Report. CharityWatch. 59. December 2011.
- Pitts, Kathy: Ernst & Young US LLP (2013-05-03). "IRS Form 990: Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax for American Cancer Society, Inc. National Home Office" (PDF). Part II: p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-11-17. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
- "The charities Americans like most and least". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. 1996-12-13.
- Peterson, Karen S. (1994-12-20). "Charity begins with health". USA Today (Final ed.). p. 1D.
- Dougherty, John (1995-01-26). "Charitable taking the Arizona division of the American Cancer Society eats up 95 percent of its budget with salaries and overhead. Cancer victims get the leftover crumbs". Phoenix New Times. Archived from the original on 2012-10-08.
- Levy, Piet (2011-10-03). "Atheists say cancer volunteering thwarted". The Christian Century. Religious News Service. Archived from the original on 2013-11-01.
- Christina, Greta (2012-05-11). "Atheism's new clout". Salon. Archived from the original on 2013-01-01. Retrieved 2013-05-02.