Serbian Orthodox Church in North and South America
The Serbian Orthodox Church in North and South America (Serbian: Српска православна црква у Северној и Јужној Америци is the name for the jurisdiction of the Serbian Orthodox Church in the Americas. It has five eparchies, that were reorganized in 2009, it has a central church council made up of diocesan bishops. With 220 churches, chapels and sketes in the United States and South America, the Serbian Orthodox Church has the largest number of monasteries per capita among all other Eastern Orthodox national churches, one for every 11 parishes; the arrival of first Serbian Orthodox Christian emigrants to the Americas began in the first half of the 19th century. Those were Serbs from the Austrian Empire, by the end of the century, from the Kingdom of Serbia and Principality of Montenegro. Emigration was directed to the United States. Among emigrants, there were several Serbian Orthodox priests, by the end of the 19th century first parish communities were established and churches built. In 1893-1894, Saint Sava Serbian Orthodox Church was built in Jackson, thanks to the efforts of priest Sebastian Dabovich, the first Eastern Orthodox priest born in the USA.
Since there was no Serbian Diocese in the USA, parishes that were formed during that period were temporary placed under the jurisdiction of the Russian Orthodox Diocese in North America. In the eave of the First World War, first steps were made towards the creation of a particular Serbian Orthodox Diocese in the United States, under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Serbian Orthodox Church, it was established as Serbian Orthodox Diocese of America and Canada, in 1921, by the Holy Synod of the Serbian Orthodox Church. In 1923, administration of the Diocese was entrusted to archimandrite Mardarije Uskoković, elected and consecrated as Serbian Orthodox bishop of America and Canada in 1926. After his death in 1935, the diocese was administered until the election of new bishop Dionisije Milivojević in 1939. By the middle of the 20th century, the network of Serbian Orthodox communities in the USA and Canada was much expanded due to constant immigration, soon after the Second World War it was proposed on several occasions to reorganize the wast continental diocese by division into two or three regional dioceses.
Those proposals were opposed by bishop Dionisije. Various administrative problems escalated and by 1963 final decisions were made by the central authorities of the Serbian Orthodox Church to reorganize and divide the diocese into three regional dioceses. Since 1963, Serbian Orthodox Church in USA and Canada consisted of: Serbian Orthodox Diocese of Eastern America and Canada Serbian Orthodox Diocese of Midwestern America Serbian Orthodox Diocese of Western AmericaReorganization was opposed by bishop Dionisije, supported by several fractions of Serbian political emigration in the USA. Conflict resulted into schism. Thus, two parallel ecclesiastical structures were created, the official "patriarchal" branch organized into three dieceses, alternative "free" branch headed by Dionisije, deposed. Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Buenos Aires and South America - administrator, metropolitan Amfilohije Radović Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Canada - bishop Mitrofan Kodić Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Eastern America - bishop Irinej Dobrijević Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of New Gračanica and Midwestern America - bishop Longin Krčo Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Western America - bishop Maksim Vasiljević St. Sava Serbian Orthodox Monastery, located at the Episcopal headquarters of the Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Eastern America, Illinois New Gračanica Monastery, located at the Episcopal headquarters of the Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of New Gračanica and Midwestern America, Third Lake, Illinois Episcopal headquarters of the Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Western America, located at Saint Steven's Serbian Orthodox Cathedral, California Holy Transfiguration Serbian Orthodox Monastery, located at the Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Canada, Ontario, Canada Episcopal headquarters of the Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Buenos Aires and South America, Buenos Aires, Argentina Monastery of St. Paisius, Safford St. Sava Serbian Orthodox Seminary St. Sava Orthodox School St. Sava Academy Trinity Chapel Complex Saints Constantine and Helen Serbian Orthodox Church Saint Sava Serbian Orthodox Church St. Sava Serbian Orthodox Cathedral Saint Petka Serbian Orthodox Church Serbs in USA Serbs in Canada Serbs in South America Radić, Radmila.
"Serbian Christianity". The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Pp. 231–248. Vuković, Sava. History of the Serbian Orthodox Church in America and Canada 1891–1941. Kragujevac: Kalenić. "Website of the Serbian Orthodox Church in North and South America". Bishop Mardarije The annual meeting of the Executive board of the Central Council for the Serbian Orthodox Church in North and South America Text of the Constitution of the Serbian Orthodox Church for North and South America established Communique of the Holy Assembly of Bishops of the Serbian Orthodox Church on Tuesday, May 21, 2009
Hellenic College Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology
Hellenic College Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology is an Orthodox Christian liberal arts college and seminary in Brookline, Massachusetts. The institution was founded in 1937 as Holy Cross Theological School in Connecticut. In 1946, the school was moved to Massachusetts. In 1966, Holy Cross expanded its undergraduate division into a full four-year liberal arts college named Hellenic College, which opened in 1968. Holy Cross became an accredited theological school and has become one of the most important institutions of the Eastern Orthodox Church in the Western Hemisphere. Hellenic College offers programs leading to the Bachelor of Arts degree. Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology offers graduate programs of study leading to the degrees of Master of Divinity, Master of Theological Studies, Master of Theology. Hellenic College Holy Cross has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1974; the School of Theology has been accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada since 1974.
Holy Cross is a member of the Boston Theological Institute. Hellenic College is located on a 59-acre campus in Brookline, Massachusetts just outside Boston, the former Weld estate, it is notable for having been the longtime practice site of the Boston Celtics. "Crossroad" is a ten-day, vocational exploration program for Orthodox Christian high school graduates and rising seniors. Two sessions are held on the HCHC campus each summer; the "Pappas Patristic Institute" is a seminar based program that focuses on readings in the Early Church Fathers. This program is geared towards graduate students. Bruce Beck is the director. 1966-1971: The Rev. Leonidas C. Contos 1971-1976: Metropolitan Iakovos of Chicago 1976-1986: Thomas C. Lelon 1987-1989: Metropolitan Silas of New Jersey 1989-1995: Metropolitan Methodios of Boston 1995-1997: The Rev. Alkividias C. Calivas 1997-1998: Metropolitan Isaiah of Denver 1998-1999: Very Rev. Archimandrite Damaskinos V. Ganas 2000-2015: Very Rev. Nicholas Triantafilou 2015–Present: The Very Rev. Christopher T. Metropulos Georges Florovsky John Romanides Nomikos Michael Vaporis Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology: Archbishop Demetrios of America, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Hellenic College and Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology Archbishop Iakovos of North and South America Bishop Gerasimos of Abydos Bishop Silas of New Jersey Official website
East Village, Manhattan
The East Village is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is defined as the neighborhood east of the Bowery and Third Avenue, between 14th Street on the north and Houston Street on the south; the area was once considered to be part of the Lower East Side, with a large Russian and Jewish population, but changed and by the late 1960s, many artists, musicians and hippies began to move into the area, attracted by cheap rents and the base of Beatniks who had lived there since the 1950s. The neighborhood became a center of the counterculture in New York, is known as the birthplace and historical home of many artistic movements, including punk rock and the Nuyorican literary movement, it has been the site of protests and riots. Since at least the 2000s, some have argued that gentrification has changed the character of the neighborhood. East Village is part of Manhattan Community District 3 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10003 and 10009, it is patrolled by the 9th Precinct of the New York City Police Department.
The area, today known as the East Village was a farm owned by Dutch Governor-General Wouter van Twiller. Peter Stuyvesant received the deed to this farm in 1651, his family held on to the land for over seven generations, until a descendant began selling off parcels of the property in the early 19th century. Wealthy townhouses dotted the dirt roads for a few decades until the great Irish and German immigration of the 1840s and 1850s. Speculative land owners began building multi-unit dwellings on lots meant for single family homes, began renting out rooms and apartments to the growing working class, including many immigrants from Germany. From the 1850s to first decade of the 20th century, the neighborhood has the third largest urban population of Germans outside of Vienna and Berlin, known as Klein Deutschland, it was America's first foreign language neighborhood. However, the vitality of the community was sapped by the General Slocum disaster on June 15, 1904, in which over a thousand German-Americans died.
Waves of immigration brought many Poles and Ukrainians to the area, creating a Ukrainian enclave in the city. Since the 1890s there has been a large concentration from 10th Street to 5th Street, between 3rd Avenue and Avenue A; the post-World War II diaspora, consisting of Western Ukrainian intelligentsia settled down in the area. Several churches, including St. George's Catholic Church; the area ended at the East River, to the east of where Avenue D was located, until landfill – including World War II debris and rubble shipped from London – was used to extend the shoreline to provide foundation for the Franklin D. Roosevelt Drive; until the mid-1960s, the area was the northern part of the Lower East Side, with a similar culture of immigrant, working class life. In the 1950s, the migration of Beatniks into the neighborhood attracted hippies and artists well into the 1960s; the area was dubbed the "East Village", to dissociate it from the image of slums evoked by the Lower East Side. According to The New York Times, a 1964 guide called Earl Wilson's New York wrote that "artists and promoters of coffeehouses from Greenwich Village are trying to remelt the neighborhood under the high-sounding name of'East Village.'"Newcomers and real estate brokers popularized the new name, the term was adopted by the popular media by the mid-1960s.
In 1966 a weekly newspaper, The East Village Other and The New York Times declared that the neighborhood "had come to be known" as the East Village in the edition of June 5, 1967. In 1966, Andy Warhol promoted a series of multimedia shows, entitled "The Exploding Plastic Inevitable", featuring the music of the Velvet Underground, in a Polish ballroom on St. Marks Place. On June 27, 1967, the Electric Circus opened in the same space with a benefit for the Children's Recreation Foundation whose chairman was Bobby Kennedy; the Grateful Dead, The Chambers Brothers and the Family Stone, the Allman Brothers Band were among the many rock bands that performed there before it closed in 1971. On March 8, 1968, Bill Graham opened the Fillmore East in what had been a Yiddish Theatre on Second Avenue at East 6th Street in the Yiddish Theater District; the venue became known as "The Church of Rock and Roll", with two-show concerts several nights a week. While booking many of the same bands that had played the Electric Circus, Graham used the venue, as well as its West Coast counterpart, to establish in the US British bands such as The Who, Pink Floyd, The Jimi Hendrix Experience and Led Zeppelin.
The Fillmore East closed in 1971. CBGB, the nightclub considered by some to be the birthplace of punk music, was located in the neighborhood, as was the early punk standby A7. No Wave and New York hardcore emerged in the area's clubs. Among the many important bands and singers who got their start at these clubs and other venues in downtown Manhattan were Patti Smith, Arto Lindsay, the Ramones, Richard Hell and the Voidoids, Talking Heads, the Plasmatics, Glenn Danzig, Sonic Youth, the Beastie Boys and The Strokes. Few icons of the punk scene remain in the neighborhood. Richard Hell lives in the same apartment he has lived in since the 1970s, Handsome Dick Manitoba of The Dictators owns Manitoba's bar on Avenue B. Over the last
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361-363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit.
Nonetheless, these courts were popular. Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 A. D; as the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction.
This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century. Most archdioceses are metropolitan sees. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See. While the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" are applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop, a bishop in charge of an archdiocese thereby holds the rank of archbishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopē in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition.
After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop.
Some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above. Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory; the Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America. Its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term "bishopric" is used to describe the bishop himself, together with his two counselors, not the ward or congregation of which a bishop has charge. In the United Methodist Church, a bishop is given oversight over a geographical area called an episcopal area; each episcopal area contains one or more an
St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery
St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery is a parish of the Episcopal Church located at 131 East 10th Street, at the intersection of Stuyvesant Street and Second Avenue in the East Village neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City; the property has been the site of continuous Christian worship for more than three and a half centuries. In 1651, Petrus Stuyvesant, Director General of New Netherland, purchased land for a bowery or farm from the Dutch West India Company and by 1660 built a family chapel at the present day site of St. Mark's Church. Stuyvesant was interred in a vault under the chapel. Stuyvesant's great-grandson, sold the chapel property to the Episcopal Church for $1 in 1793, stipulating that a new chapel be erected to serve Bowery Village, the community which had coalesced around the Stuyvesant family chapel. In 1795 the cornerstone of the present day St. Mark's Church was laid, the fieldstone Georgian style church, built by the architect and mason John McComb Jr. was completed and consecrated on May 9, 1799.
Alexander Hamilton provided legal aid in incorporating St. Mark's Church as the first Episcopal parish independent of Trinity Church in the United States. By 1807 the church had as many as two hundred worshipers at its summer services, with 70 during the winter. In 1828, the church steeple, the design of, attributed to Martin Euclid Thompson and Ithiel Town, in Greek Revival style, was erected. More changes came about beginning in 1835, when John C. Tucker's stone Parish Hall was constructed, the next year the church itself was renovated, with the original square pillars being replaced with thinner ones in Egyptian Revival style. In addition, the current cast- and wrought iron fence was added in 1838. At around the same time, the two-story fieldstone Sunday School was completed, the church established the Parish Infant School for poor children. In 1861, the church commissioned a brick addition to the Parish Hall, designed and supervised by architect James Renwick, Jr. and the St. Mark's Hospital Association was organized by members of the congregation.
Outside the church, the cast iron portico, was added around 1858. At the start of the 20th century, leading architect Ernest Flagg designed the rectory, overall, while the 19th century saw St Mark's Church grow through its many construction projects the 20th century was marked by community service and cultural expansion. Rector William Guthrie was known to incorporate Native American, Hindu and Bahá'í ceremonies and guest speakers into services. Today, the rectory houses the Neighborhood Preservation Center, the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation and the Historic Districts Council, as well as other preservation and community organizations. In 1966, the Poetry Project and The Film Project, which became the Millennium Film Workshop, were founded. Furthermore, in 1975, the Danspace Project was founded by Larry Fagin. On July 27, 1978, a fire nearly destroyed the church; the Citizens to Save St Mark's was founded to raise funds for its reconstruction and the Preservation Youth Project undertook the reconstruction supervised by architect Harold Edelman and craftspeople provided by preservation contractor I.
Maas & Sons. The Landmark Fund emerged from the Citizens to Save St Mark's and continues to exist to help maintain and preserve St. Mark's Church for future generations; the restoration was completed with new stained-glass windows designed by Edelman. Over the years, several Dutch dignitaries visited the church. In 1952, Queen Juliana of the Netherlands visited the church and laid a wreath given by her mother, Queen Wilhelmina, at the bust of Petrus Stuyvesant, given to the church by Wilhelmina and the Dutch government in 1915. In 1981 and 1982, Princess Margriet and Queen Beatrix, both of the Netherlands visited. St Mark's has supported an active artistic community since the 19th century. In 1919 poet Kahlil Gibran was appointed a member of the St. Mark's Arts Committee, the next year, the two prominent Indian statues, "Aspiration" and "Inspiration" by sculptor Solon Borglum, which flank the church entry, were unveiled. Gibran presented readings of his famous written works, some of which became annual affairs for a while, as well as an exhibition of his drawings.
Isadora Duncan danced in the church in 1922, Martha Graham in 1930. In 1926, poet William Carlos Williams lectured at the St. Mark's Sunday Symposium, which over the years featured such artists as Amy Lowell, Edward Steichen, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Ruth St. Denis and Carl Sandburg. Theatre Genesis was founded by director Ralph Cook in 1964 and, in the same year, Sam Shepard had his first two plays and Rock Garden produced at the church. In 1969, St. Mark's innovated a fusion of liturgy and experimental rock music, the Electric Liturgy given by the Mind Garage, the first work of its kind to be nationally televised. St. Mark's hosts modern artistic endeavors, including the Poetry Project, Danspace Project, which stage events throughout the year. A November 1971 Poetry Project reading by Patti Smith, accompanied by Lenny Kaye on guitar, launched their rock and roll careers and marked the founding of the
Rusyns, sometimes referred to as Rusnaks known as Carpatho-Ruthenians or Carpatho-Russians, are an East Slavic people, who speak an East Slavic language known as Rusyn. As a distinctive people, Rusyns descend from an East Slavic population that inhabited the northern regions of the Eastern Carpathians since the Early Middle Ages. Together with other East Slavs from neighboring regions, they were labeled by the common exonym Ruthenians, or by the regionally more specific designation Carpathian Ruthenians. Unlike their eastern neighbors, who adopted the use of the ethnonym "Ukrainians" in the early 20th century, Rusyns kept and preserved their original name; as residents of northeastern regions of the Carpathian Mountains, Rusyns are connected to, sometimes associated with, other Slavic communities in the region, like the Slovak highlander community of Gorals. The main regional designations for Rusyns are: Carpatho-Rusyns, Carpatho-Ruthenians and Carpatho-Russians, with the Carpathian prefix referring to Carpathian Ruthenia, a historical cross-border region encompassing south-western parts of modern Ukraine, north-eastern regions of Slovakia, south-eastern parts of Poland.
In official Ukrainian contexts, the various subgroups of Carpatho-Rusyns are known collectively as Verkhovyntsi meaning "Highlanders". The endonym Rusyn has gone unrecognised by various governments, has in other cases been prohibited. Today, Poland, the Czech Republic and Croatia recognize contemporary Rusyns as an ethnic minority. In 2007, Carpatho-Rusyns were recognized as a separate ethnicity in Ukraine by the Zakarpattia Regional Council, in 2012 the Rusyn language gained official regional status in certain areas of the province, as well as nationwide based on the 2012 Law of Ukraine, "On the principles of the state language policy". Most contemporary self-identified ethnic Rusyns live outside of Ukraine. Of the estimated 1.2 million people of Rusyn origins, as few as 90,000 individuals have been identified as such in recent national censuses. This is due, in part, to the refusal of some governments to count Rusyns and/or allow them to self-identify on census forms in Ukraine; the ethnic classification of Rusyns as a separate East Slavic ethnicity distinct from Russians, Ukrainians, or Belarusians is politically controversial.
The majority of scholars on the topic consider Rusyns to be an ethnic subgroup of the Ukrainian people. This is disputed by some non-mainstream scholars, as well as other scholars from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and the United States. According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, about a third of Rusyns in Ukraine speak the Ukrainian language, while others stick to their native language; the terms "Rusyn," "Ruthenes," "Rusniak," "Lemak," "Lyshak," and "Lemko" are considered by some scholars to be historic and synonymical names for Carpathian Ukrainians. Those who use the ethnonym Rusyn for self-identification are people living in the mountainous Transcarpathian region of western Ukraine and adjacent areas in Slovakia who use it to distinguish themselves from Ukrainians living in the central regions of Ukraine; those Rusyns who self-identify today have traditionally come from or had ancestors who came from the Eastern Carpathian Mountain region. This region is referred to as Carpathian Rus'. There are resettled Rusyn communities located in the Pannonian Plain, parts of present-day Serbia, as well as present-day Croatia.
Rusyns migrated and settled in Prnjavor, a town in the northern region of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. Many Rusyns emigrated to the United States and Canada. With the advent of modern communications such as the Internet, they are able to reconnect as a community. Concerns are being voiced regarding the preservation of their unique cultural legacy; the region of Carpathian Ruthenia and Prykarpattia since the Early Middle Age was inhabited by the tribes of White Croats and Dulebes. There existed different theories to explain Rusyns origin. According to Paul Robert Magocsi, the origin of the present-day Carpatho-Rusyns is complex and not related to the Kievan Rus'; the ancestors are the early Slavs whose movement to the Danubian Basin was influenced by Huns and Pannonian Avars between the 5th and 6th century, the White Croats who lived in both slopes of the Carpathians and built many hill-forts in the region including Uzhhorod ruled by mythical ruler Laborec, the Rusyns of Galicia and Podolia, Vlachian shepherds of Transylvania.
The 2006 mitochondrial DNA study of Carpathian Highlanders - Lemkos and Boykos people - showed a common ancestry with other modern Europeans. A 2009 analysis of maternal lineages found that Hutsuls have the highest frequency of the haplogroup H1 found in Central and Eastern populations to that date. Lemkos shared the highest frequency of haplogroup I, identical to 2005 sampled population of the island of Krk in Croatia indicating a founder effect, the highest frequency of haplogroup Haplogroup M* in the region. However, the haplogroup frequencies in Boykos were different as had atypically low frequencies of haplogroup H and J for a European population. Comparison of eight other Central and Eastern European populations, showed that the three groups had a greater distance between themselves than these p