A commemorative stamp is a postage stamp, often issued on a significant date such as an anniversary, to honor or commemorate a place, person, or object. The subject of the stamp is usually spelled out in print, unlike definitive stamps which normally depict the subject along with the denomination. Many postal services issue several commemorative stamps each year, sometimes holding first day of ceremonies at locations connected with the subjects. Commemorative stamps can be used alongside ordinary stamps, there are several candidates for the title of first commemorative. A 17-cent stamp issued in 1860 by New Brunswick, showing the Prince of Wales in anticipation of his visit is one possibility. The United States 15-cent black stamp of 1866 depicts Abraham Lincoln, and was the first stamp issued after his assassination in 1865, the U. S. issued a 5-cent stamp in 1882 showing the recently murdered President James A. Garfield. In addition, the United States issued stamped envelopes for the Centennial Exposition in 1876, although technically these are postal stationery and not stamps.
In 1870 Peru issued a 5¢ scarlet Locomotive and Arms stamp and is regarded as the first commemorative postage stamp, other premier commemorative stamps were issued by New South Wales in 1888 to mark its 100th anniversary, the six types all include the inscription ONE HUNDRED YEARS. Commemoratives followed in 1891 for Hong Kong and Romania, in 1892 and 1893 a half-dozen nations of America and Spain issued commemoratives for the 400th anniversary of the Wests discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. The organization broke up after attempts at getting collectors at large to comply with their wishes. Today the early commemoratives are still prized by collectors, definitive stamp Airmail stamp Stamp collecting Postage stamp Commemoration of the American Civil War on postage stamps Territories of the United States on stamps
Lost Cause of the Confederacy
The beliefs endorse the virtues of the antebellum South, viewing the American Civil War as an honorable struggle for the Southern way of life, while minimizing or denying the central role of slavery. While it was not taught in the North, aspects of it did win acceptance there, all these, while quickly enveloped in a golden haze, became very real to the people of the South, who found the symbols useful in the reconstituting of their shattered civilization. They perpetuated the ideals of the Old South and brought a sense of comfort to the New, the Lost Cause belief system synthesized numerous ideas into a coherent package. They believed any state had the right to secede, a point strongly denied by the North, the Lost Cause portrayed the South as more profoundly Christian than the greedy North. It portrayed the system as more benevolent than cruel, emphasizing that it taught Christianity. Historians, including Gaines Foster, generally agree that the Lost Cause narrative helped preserve white supremacy, in recent decades Lost Cause themes have been widely promoted by the Neo-Confederate movement in books and op-eds, and especially in one of the movements magazines, the Southern Partisan.
The Lost Cause theme has been an element in defining gender roles in the white South, in terms of honor, tradition. The Lost Cause has inspired many prominent Southern memorials and even religious attitudes, many white Southerners were devastated economically and psychologically by the defeat of the Confederacy in 1865. Before the war, many Southerners proudly felt that their military tradition. When this did not happen, white Southerners sought consolation in attributing their loss to factors beyond their control, such as physical size, University of Virginia Professor Gary Gallagher wrote, The architects of the Lost Cause acted from various motives. They collectively sought to justify their own actions and allow themselves and they wanted to provide their children and future generations of white Southerners with a correct narrative of the war. The Lost Cause became a key part of the process between North and South around 1900, and formed the basis of many white Southerners postbellum war commemorations.
The United Daughters of the Confederacy is a organization that has been associated with the Lost Cause for over a century. The white South, most agree, dedicated effort to celebrating the leaders and common soldiers of the Confederacy, emphasizing that they had preserved their. The term Lost Cause first appeared in the title of an 1866 book by the historian Edward A. Pollard, The Lost Cause, however, it was the articles written by General Jubal A. Early in the 1870s for the Southern Historical Society that firmly established the Lost Cause as a long-lasting literary, Davis blamed the enemy for whatever of bloodshed, of devastation, or shock to republican government has resulted from the war. He charged that the Yankees fought with a ferocity that disregarded all the laws of civilized warfare, the book remained in print and was often used to justify the Southern position and to distance it from slavery. Earlys original inspiration for his views may have come from General Robert E. Lee, when Lee published his farewell order to the Army of Northern Virginia, he consoled his soldiers by speaking of the overwhelming resources and numbers that the Confederate army fought against
American Civil War reenactment
Although most common in the United States, there are American Civil War reenactors in Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia and Sweden. Reenacting the American Civil War began even before the fighting had ended. Civil War veterans recreated battles as a way to remember their fallen comrades, Modern reenacting is thought to have begun during the 1961–1965 Civil War Centennial commemorations. That year, Time magazine estimated there were more than 50,000 reenactors in the U. S, in 1998, the 135th anniversary re-enactment of the Battle of Gettysburg took place near the original battlefield. This event was watched by about 50,000 spectators, participants may even attend classes put on by event sponsors where they learn how to dress, cook and even die just as real Civil War soldiers would have. Most reenactments have anywhere from 100 to thousands of participants, portraying either Union or Confederate infantry, some people, though uncommon, may portray Engineers or Marines. The 135th anniversary Gettysburg reenactment is generally believed to be the most-attended reenactment, reasons given for participating in such activities vary.
Some participants are interested in getting a historical perspective on the turbulent times that gripped the nation, in some cases, if there are not enough reenactors present on one side, reenactors from the other side are asked to change sides, or galvanize, for the day/event. Although many periods are reenacted around the world, Civil War reenactment is, by far, the most popular in the US. In 2000, the number of Civil War reenactors was estimated at 50,000, though the number of participants declined sharply through the ensuing decade, possible reasons for the decline include the cost of participating and the variety of other entertainment options. The 150th anniversary of the war has regenerated interest and stimulated growth in the hobby, the numbers of reenactors steadily climbed to past levels. Although women and children participate in reenactments as civilians, some women take part in military portrayals. This is controversial within the reenactment community, although there are documented cases of women who disguised their gender to fight in the war, Lee Taylor Middleton, author of Hearts of Fire, Soldier Women of the American Civil War has documented hundreds of such female soldiers.
DeAnne Blanton and Lauren M. Cook, authors of They Fought Like Demons, deAnne Blanton, a Senior Military Archivist at the National Archives in Washington, D. C. is currently updating her book and believes the number may be closer to seven hundred women. Almost all of the women did so disguised as men, attitudes on this topic seem to vary widely. Reenactors are commonly divided into three categories, based on the level of concern for authenticity, called Farbs or polyester soldiers are reenactors who spend relatively little of their time or money maintaining authenticity with regard to uniforms, accessories, or even period behavior. The Good Enough attitude is pervasive among farbs, although even casual observers may be able to point out flaws, blue jeans, tennis shoes, zippers, velcro and modern cigarettes are common issues. The origin of the word farb is unknown, though it appears to date to early centennial reenactments in 1960 or 1961, an alternative definition is Far Be it for me to question/criticise, or Fast And Researchless Buying
South Carolina State House
The South Carolina State House is the building housing the government of the U. S. state of South Carolina. The building houses the South Carolina General Assembly and the offices of the Governor, until 1971, it housed the Supreme Court. It is located in the city of Columbia near the corner of Gervais. The State House is in the Greek Revival style, it is approximately 180 feet tall,300 feet long,100 feet wide and it weighs more than 70,000 short tons and has 130,673 square feet of space. The South Carolina State House was designed first by architect P. H. Hammarskold, construction began in 1851, but the original architect was dismissed for fraud and dereliction of duty. Soon thereafter, the structure was dismantled because of defective materials. John Niernsee redesigned the structure and work began on it in 1855, slowed during the Civil War, several public buildings were put to the torch when United States troops entered the city. The capitol building was damaged by shells and set afire by U. S.
Army troops under Shermans command. Building work was completed in 1907. The reconstruction era poverty slowed progress, the buildings main structure was finally completed in 1875. From 1888 to 1891, Niernsee’s son, Frank McHenry Niernsee, served as architect, in 1900 Frank Pierce Milburn began as architect, but was replaced in 1905 by Charles Coker Wilson who finally finished the exterior in 1907. Additional renovations were made in 1959 and 1998, the State House was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976 for its significance in the post-Civil War Reconstruction Era. The buildings grounds are home to several monuments, the monument was established after a controversy during the states 2000 presidential primary about the Confederate flag flying over the dome of the State House. It was removed from the grounds on July 10,2015 by order of Republican governor Nimrata Haley, on the east side is the African-American History Monument, authorized by Act 457 of the General Assembly and unveiled on March 26,2001. S.
Senators James F. Byrnes, Strom Thurmond and Benjamin Tillman, Dr. J. Marion Sims, christopher Werner, maker of the Iron Palmetto List of National Historic Landmarks in South Carolina South Carolina State House virtual tour Historic American Buildings Survey No. SC-319, South Carolina State House, Capitol Square, Richland County, State Senators debated whether to remove the Confederate flag from the Capitol building. They voted ultimately to move it from the Capitol dome to the Capitol grounds. South Carolina State Senate Debate on the Confederate Flag, the resolution was passed by voice vote. The South Carolina House of Representatives had passed a similar motion, as called for by Governor Nikki Haley
Historical reenactment is an educational or entertainment activity in which people follow a plan to recreate aspects of a historical event or period. Activities related to reenactment have a long history, the Romans staged recreations of famous battles within their amphitheaters as a form of public spectacle. In the Middle Ages, tournaments often reenacted historical themes from Ancient Rome or elsewhere, Military displays and mock battles and reenactments first became popular in 17th century England. It was in the century that historical reenactments became widespread. Medieval culture was admired as an antidote to the modern enlightenment. Plays and theatrical works perpetuated the romanticism of knights, the Tournament was a deliberate act of Romanticism, and drew 100,000 spectators. It was held on a meadow at a loop in the Lugton Water, the ground chosen for the tournament was low, almost marshy, with grassy slopes rising on all sides. Lord Eglinton announced that the public would be welcome, he requested medieval fancy dress, if possible, the pageant itself featured thirteen medieval knights on horseback.
The preparations, and the works of art commissioned for or inspired by the Eglinton Tournament, had an effect on public feeling. Its ambition carried over to events such as a lavish tournament in Brussels in 1905. Features of the tournament were actually inspired by Walter Scotts novel Ivanhoe, reenactments of battles became more commonplace in the late 19th century, both in Britain, and in America. Within a year of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, survivors of U. S. 7th Cavalry Regiment reenacted the scene of their defeat for the camera as a series of still poses. In 1895, members of the Gloucestershire Engineer Volunteers reenacted their famous stand at Rorkes Drift,18 years earlier,25 British soldiers beat back the attack of 75 Zulus at the Grand Military Fete at the Cheltenham Winter Gardens. Veterans of the American Civil War recreated battles as a way to remember their fallen comrades, in 1920, there was a reenactment of the 1917 Storming of the Winter Palace on the third anniversary of the event.
This reenactment inspired the scenes in Sergei Eisensteins film October, Ten Days That Shook the World, large scale reenactments began to be regularly held at the Royal Tournament, Aldershot Tattoo in the 1920s and 30s. A spectacular recreation of the Siege of Namur, an important military engagement of the Nine Years War, was staged in 1934 as part of 6-day long show, in America, modern reenacting is thought to have begun during the 1961–1965 Civil War Centennial commemorations. Most participants are amateurs who pursue history as a hobby, participants within this hobby are extremely diverse. The ages of participants range from young children whose parents bring them along to events, among adult participants, people from all different walks of life can be found, college students, lawyers, members of the armed forces and even professional historians
Racial segregation in the United States
Legal segregation of schools was stopped in the U. S. by federal enforcement of a series of Supreme Court decisions after Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. All legally enforced public segregation was abolished by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and it passed after demonstrations during the Civil Rights Movement resulted in public opinion turning against enforced segregation. De facto segregation—segregation in fact, without sanction of law—persists in varying degrees to the present day, the contemporary racial segregation seen in the United States in residential neighborhoods has been shaped by public policies, mortgage discrimination, and redlining, among other factors. Hypersegregation is a form of segregation that consists of the geographical grouping of racial groups. Most often, this occurs in cities where the residents of the city are African Americans. As a result, Federal occupation troops in the South assured blacks the right to vote, the Reconstruction amendments asserted the supremacy of the national state and the formal equality under the law of everyone within it.
However it did not prohibit segregation in schools, when the Republicans came to power in the Southern states after 1867, they created the first system of taxpayer-funded public schools. Southern Blacks wanted public schools for their children but they did not demand racially integrated schools, almost all the new public schools were segregated, apart from a few in New Orleans. After the Republicans lost power in the mid-1870s, conservative whites retained the school systems. Almost all private academies and colleges in the South were strictly segregated by race, the American Missionary Association supported the development and establishment of several historically black colleges, such as Fisk University and Shaw University. In this period, a handful of northern colleges accepted black students, Northern denominations and their missionary associations especially established private schools across the South to provide secondary education. They provided an amount of collegiate work. Tuition was minimal, so churches supported the colleges financially, in 1900 churches—mostly based in the North—operated 247 schools for blacks across the South, with a budget of about $1 million.
They employed 1600 teachers and taught 46,000 students, prominent schools included Howard University, a federal institution based in Washington, Fisk University in Nashville, Atlanta University, Hampton Institute in Virginia, and many others. Most new colleges in the 19th century were founded in northern states, Jim Crow segregation began somewhat later, in the 1880s. Disfranchisement of the began in the 1890s. By 1910, Segregation was firmly established across the South and most of the border region, the legitimacy of laws requiring segregation of blacks was upheld by the U. S. Supreme Court in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson,163 U. S.537. Plessy thus allowed segregation, which became standard throughout the southern United States, everyone was supposed to receive the same public services, but with separate facilities for each race
Battle of Appomattox Court House
The Battle of Appomattox Court House, fought on the morning of April 9,1865, was one of the last battles of the American Civil War. It was the engagement of Confederate Army general Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia before it surrendered to the Union Army under Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. Lee, having abandoned the Confederate capital of Richmond, after the ten-month Siege of Petersburg, retreated west, Union forces pursued and cut off the Confederates retreat at the village of Appomattox Court House. Lee launched an attack to break through the Union force to his front, when he realized that the cavalry was backed up by two corps of Union infantry, he had no choice but to surrender. The signing of the surrender documents occurred in the parlor of the owned by Wilmer McLean on the afternoon of April 9. On April 12, a ceremony marked the disbandment of the Army of Northern Virginia. This event triggered a series of surrenders across the South, signaling the end of the war, the final campaign for Richmond, the capital of the Confederate States, began when the Union Army of the Potomac crossed the James River in June 1864.
The armies under the command of Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant laid siege to Petersburg and Richmond, intending to cut the two cities supply lines and force the Confederates to evacuate. In the spring of 1865 Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee waited for an opportunity to leave the Petersburg lines, aware that the position was untenable, on April 1,1865, Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridans cavalry turned Lees flank at the Battle of Five Forks. The next day Grants army achieved a breakthrough, effectively ending the Petersburg siege. With supply lines cut, Lees men abandoned the trenches they had held for ten months, Lees first objective was to reassemble and supply his men at Amelia Courthouse. His plan was to link up with Gen. Joseph E. Johnstons Army of Tennessee, when the troops arrived at Amelia on April 4, they found no provisions. Lee sent wagons out to the country to forage. The army headed west to Appomattox Station, where a supply train awaited him, Lees army was now composed of the cavalry corps and two small infantry corps.
En route to the station, on April 6 at Sailors Creek, nearly one fourth of the retreating Confederate army was cut off by Sheridans cavalry and elements of the II, two Confederate divisions fought the VI Corps along the creek. The Confederates attacked but were back, and soon after the Union cavalry cut through the right of the Confederate lines. Most of the 7,700 Confederates were captured or surrendered, including Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell and eight other general officers. The delay prevented Lee from reaching the station until late afternoon on April 8, allowing Sheridan to reach the station that evening, where he captured Lees supplies and obstructed his path
Ulysses S. Grant III
Ulysses Simpson Grant III was a United States Army officer and planner. He was the son of Frederick Dent Grant, and the grandson of General of the Army, Grant was born in Chicago, as a grandson of famous American Civil Wars General Ulysses S. Grant and educated in Austria, where his father was an American diplomat. He attended Columbia University until 1898 when he received an appointment to West Point and he graduated sixth in his class in 1903. After his graduation from West Point, Grant was assigned to the Corps of Engineers of the United States Army and he served in the General Staff Corps from 1917 to 1920 and again from 1936 to 1940. In 1904 Grant served as an aide to President Theodore Roosevelt, Grant met his future wife while he was at the White House. In 1907, Grant married Edith Root, the daughter of Elihu Root and they had three daughters, Clara Frances, and Julia. During World War I, Grant was promoted to major, from 1918–19, Major Grant served on the staff of General Tasker H. Bliss, the United States representative at the Supreme War Council at Versailles.
Grant was the secretary of the American section, in 1918, he assisted in the treaty negotiations with Germany regarding the treatment of prisoners of war. In 1919, Grant served on President Woodrow Wilsons commission to negotiate peace in Paris, after the war, Grant returned to the United States and was the district engineer of the 2nd Engineer District in San Francisco. While in California, Grant served on the California Debris Commission, on August 28,1923, Grant made his first visit to the Sierra Nevada. The superintendent of General Grant National Park invited Grant to see the park named after Grants grandfather, Grant visited the General Grant Grove and the General Grant tree, a Giant Sequoia. By 1923, Grant went to Washington, D. C. and was the officer of the Arlington Memorial Bridge Commission. In 1925, he was director of the newly created Office of Public Buildings, by 1927 he was promoted to lieutenant colonel, and was appointed as a co-director of the bicentennial celebration of the birth of George Washington.
As the director of the parks in Washington, Grant supervised the United States Park Police, Grant expanded the police, instituted plain-clothes patrols, and modernized the force with the addition of motorcycles and automobiles. Later, in 1928, Grant ordered the police to crack down on late-night petters in the parks, in 1934, he graduated from the Army War College. He commanded the 1st Engineer Regiment at Fort DuPont, Delaware and he was a full colonel by this time. While in New York, his wife, and her siblings and their spouses were present at the bedside of his father-in-law, Elihu Root, in 1940, Grant was division engineer for the Great Lakes Engineer Division, headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio. He was promoted to brigadier general, from 1941 to mid 1942, he commanded the Engineer Replacement Training Center at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Louisiana State University Press
The Louisiana State University Press is a university press that was founded in 1935. It publishes works of scholarship as well as general interest books, LSU Press is a member of the Association of American University Presses. LSU Press publishes approximately 70 new books each year and has a backlist of over 2000 titles, in 2010, LSU Press merged with The Southern Review, LSUs literary magazine, and the company now oversees the operations of this publication. A Confederacy of Dunces by John Kennedy Toole was published in 1980, three titles have won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, The Flying Change by Henry S. Taylor, Alive Together and Selected Poems by Lisel Mueller, and Late Wife by Claudia Emerson. Lisel Muellers 1981 The Need to Hold Still won the National Book Award for Poetry that year
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David Ike Eisenhower was an American politician and Army general who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He was a general in the United States Army during World War II. He was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43, in 1951, he became the first Supreme Commander of NATO. Eisenhower was of mostly Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry and was raised in a family in Kansas by parents with a strong religious background. He graduated from West Point in 1915 and married Mamie Doud, after World War II, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff under President Harry S. Truman and accepted the post of President at Columbia University. Eisenhower entered the 1952 presidential race as a Republican to counter the non-interventionism of Senator Robert A. Taft, campaigning against communism, Korea and he won in a landslide, defeating Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson and temporarily upending the New Deal Coalition.
Eisenhower was the first U. S. president to be constitutionally term-limited under the 22nd Amendment, Eisenhowers main goals in office were to keep pressure on the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. He ordered coups in Iran and Guatemala, Eisenhower gave major aid to help the French in the First Indochina War, and after the French were defeated he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam. Congress agreed to his request in 1955 for the Formosa Resolution, after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA, which led to the space race. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Eisenhower condemned the Israeli and French invasion of Egypt and he condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but took no action. Eisenhower sent 15,000 U. S. troops to Lebanon to prevent the government from falling to a Nasser-inspired revolution during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a meeting with the Soviets collapsed because of the U-2 incident.
On the domestic front, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by openly invoking executive privilege and he otherwise left most political activity to his Vice President, Richard Nixon. Eisenhower was a conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security. Eisenhowers two terms saw considerable economic prosperity except for a decline in 1958. Voted Gallups most admired man twelve times, he achieved widespread popular esteem both in and out of office, since the late 20th century, consensus among Western scholars has consistently held Eisenhower as one of the greatest U. S. Presidents. The Eisenhauer family migrated from Karlsbrunn in the Saarland, to North America, first settling in York, Pennsylvania, in 1741, accounts vary as to how and when the German name Eisenhauer was anglicized to Eisenhower. Eisenhowers Pennsylvania Dutch ancestors, who were farmers, included Hans Nikolaus Eisenhauer of Karlsbrunn