American Numismatic Society
The American Numismatic Society is a New York City-based organization dedicated to the study of coins and medals. The American Numismatic Society is an organization dedicated to the study of coins, medals and related objects from all cultures and present; the Society's headquarters in New York City houses the foremost research collection and library specialized in numismatics in the United States. These resources are used to support research and education in numismatics, for the benefit of academic specialists, serious collectors, professional numismatists, the interested public, it is one of a number of numismatic associations. The ANS is a constituent member of the American Council of Learned Societies. ANS should not be confused with the Colorado Springs-based American Numismatic Association; the ANS was located at Audubon Terrace on West 155th and Broadway in New York before relocating to Fulton Street. In 2008, the ANS moved to its current location is at 75 Varick Street by Canal Street in downtown Manhattan.
The collection of coins and paper currency consists of over 800,000 objects drawn from all periods and cultures. In many fields the ANS' collections are the most comprehensive anywhere in the world; the collection includes early numismatic items from Ancient Greece and the Roman Republic, has a strong representation of coins of American, Far Eastern, Islamic origin. These coinages range from 700 BC to the present. In addition, the collection contains paper and primitive money, as well as medals and decorations dating back to as early as 4000 BC; the curatorial department of the ANS preserves and documents the extensive collection. This work includes keeping the collection's database MANTIS up-to-date, which involves adding images; this online database is a major asset to the study of numismatics, because it is one of the largest of its kind and accessible to everyone. The ANS collaborates with other institutions to make numismatics accessible online. In collaboration with the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, the ANS is creating OCRE, an abbreviation for "Online Coins of the Roman Empire."
This project aspires to record every published type of Roman Imperial Coinage and link them with examples in major collections published online. The ANS participates in Nomisma.org, which "is a collaborative project to provide stable digital representations of numismatic concepts according to the principles of Linked Open Data." Further the ANS maintains the website of “The Jewish Museum in Cyberspace.” At its headquarters in Manhattan, the ANS has a small exhibition, open to the public. The ANS loans objects from its collections to other institutions and exhibitions. While the largest number of objects from the ANS can be found at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, there are exhibitions with ANS objects all over the world; the library of the ANS houses over 100,000 items and is one of the most comprehensive collections of numismatic literature including books, auction catalogs, manuscripts and pamphlets. A special part of the library is the Rare Books Room with its unique collection of antique numismatic literature.
The ANS is an active disseminator of research. As the largest non-profit numismatic publishing house in the world, ANS issues books, monographs, conference papers, conference proceedings in a variety of series and special issues; the ANS publishes three periodicals: the annual American Journal of Numismatics, the triannual Colonial Newsletter, the quarterly ANS Magazine. Electronic publications are the "Pocket Change" blog; the ANS publishes books on coins and medals. Past publications have included the Numismatic Literature journal; the ANS gives multiple awards to people contributing to the Society. The Huntington Medal Award is conferred annually in honor of Archer M. Huntington, an important contributor to the ANS at the beginning of the 20th century; this award recognizes outstanding career contributions to numismatic scholarship. The first such award was conferred to Edward T. Newell in 1918; the Saltus Medal Award is named after J. Sanford Saltus, who initiated this award in 1913; this award is given to sculptors “for distinguished achievement in the field of the art of the medal”.
While this medal was at first only given to Americans, since 1983 foreign artists are eligible to receive this award. The 2011 award recipient was Portuguese artist João Duarte and previous winners are on the List of Saltus Award winners. In 1952, the American Numismatic Society established the Eric P. Newman Graduate Seminar in Numismatics; this training program in numismatics takes places each summer and many of its alumni are now in academic positions. The ANS was formed by a group of collectors in New York City in 1858, at a time when many learned societies were created. Although the initial meeting of the collectors occurred in March 1858, the Society looks back to April 6, 1858 as its date of creation; that same month, the Society accessioned its first coin. In 1865, it was incorporated as the American Numismatic and Archaeological Society or ANAS. In 1907, the name was changed back to the original one.“The founders were Edward Groh, James Oliver, Dr. Isaac H. Gibbs, Henry Whitmore, James D. Foskett, Alfred Boughton, Ezra Hill, Augustus B.
Sage, Asher D. Atkinson, M. D. John Cooper Vail, W. H. Morgan, Thomas Dunn English, M. D. LL. D. and Theophilus W. Lawrence; the corporators were Frank H. Norton, Isaac J. Greenwood, John Ha
American Society of International Law
The American Society of International Law, founded in 1906, was chartered by the United States Congress in 1950 to foster the study of international law, to promote the establishment and maintenance of international relations on the basis of law and justice. ASIL holds Category II Consultative Status to the United Nations Economic and Social Council, is a constituent society of the American Council of Learned Societies. Among the Society's publications are The American Journal of International Law, International Legal Materials, Benchbook on International Law, Proceedings of the ASIL Annual Meeting. Grotius Lectures American Society of Comparative Law Official website Electronic Information System for International Law an ASIL tool
Beijing romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast. Beijing is an important world capital and global power city, one of the world's leading centers for politics and business, education, culture and technology, architecture and diplomacy. A megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation's political and educational center, it is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest financial institutions. It is a major hub for the national highway, expressway and high-speed rail networks.
The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic since 2010, and, as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world. Combining both modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back three millennia; as the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries, was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium A. D. Encyclopædia Britannica notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural center of an area as immense as China." With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital.
The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, parks, tombs and gates. It has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites—the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal— all tourist locations. Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing. Many of Beijing's 91 universities rank among the best in China, such as the Peking University and Tsinghua University. Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is known as China's Silicon Valley and a center of innovation and technology entrepreneurship. Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had numerous other names; the name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital", was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing. The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin.
An older English spelling, Peking, is the postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries. Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng, prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation. Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing Capital International Airport, with IATA Code PEK, Peking University, still use the former romanization; the single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is 京, which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabet abbreviation for Beijing is "BJ"; the earliest traces of human habitation in the Beijing municipality were found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill near the village of Zhoukoudian in Fangshan District, where Peking Man lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago.
Paleolithic Homo sapiens lived there more about 27,000 years ago. Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout the municipality, including in Wangfujing, located in downtown Beijing; the first walled city in Beijing was Jicheng, the capital city of the state of Ji and was built in 1045 BC. Within modern Beijing, Jicheng was located around the present Guang'anmen area in the south of Xicheng District; this settlement was conquered by the state of Yan and made its capital. After the First Emperor unified China, Jicheng became a prefectural capital for the region. During the Three Kingdoms period, it was held by Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao before falling to the Wei Kingdom of Cao Cao; the AD 3rd-century Western Jin demoted the town, placing the prefectural seat in neighboring Zhuozhou. During the Sixteen Kingdoms period when northern China was conquered and divided by the Wu Hu, Jicheng was the capital of the Xianbei Former Yan Kingdom. After China was reunified during the Sui dynasty, Jicheng known as Zhuojun, became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal.
Under the Tang dynasty, Jicheng as Youzhou, served as a military frontier command center. During the An-Shi Rebellion and again amidst the turmoil of the late Tang, local military commanders founded their own shor
American Philosophical Society
The American Philosophical Society, founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, library resources, community outreach. Considered the first learned society in the United States, it has played an important role in American cultural and intellectual life for over 270 years. Through research grants, published journals, the American Philosophical Society Museum, an extensive library, regular meetings, the society continues to advance a variety of disciplines in the humanities and the sciences. Philosophical Hall, now a museum, is located just east of Independence Hall in Independence National Historical Park; the Philosophical Society, as it was called, was founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin, James Alexander, Francis Hopkinson, John Bartram, Philip Syng, Jr. and others as an offshoot of an earlier club, the Junto.
It was founded two years after the University of Pennsylvania, with which it remains tied. Since its inception, the society attracted America's finest minds. Early members included George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, James McHenry, Thomas Paine, David Rittenhouse, Nicholas Biddle, Owen Biddle, Benjamin Rush, James Madison, Michael Hillegas, John Marshall, John Andrews; the society recruited members from other countries, including Alexander von Humboldt, the Marquis de Lafayette, Baron von Steuben, Tadeusz Kościuszko, Princess Dashkova. By 1746 the society had lapsed into inactivity. In 1767, however, it was revived, on January 2, 1769, it united with the American Society for Promoting Useful Knowledge under the name American Philosophical Society Held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge. Benjamin Franklin was elected the first president. During this time, the society maintained a standing Committee on American Improvements; the canal, proposed by Thomas Gilpin, Sr. would not become reality until the 1820s.
After the American Revolution, the society looked for leadership to Francis Hopkinson, one of the signatories of the Declaration of Independence. Under his influence, the society received land from the government of Pennsylvania, along with a plot of land in Philadelphia where Philosophical Hall now stands. Illustrious names have continually been added to the membership roster, reflecting the society's scope. Charles Darwin, Robert Frost, Louis Pasteur, Elizabeth Cabot Agassiz, John James Audubon, Linus Pauling, Margaret Mead, Maria Mitchell, Thomas Edison became members of the society; the society continues to attract names of high renown today, with a current membership list of 920 members, including 772 resident members and 148 foreign members representing more than two dozen countries. Many members of the Society of the Cincinnati were among the APS's first board members and contributors. In 1786, the society established the Magellanic Premium, a prize for achievement in "navigation, astronomy, or natural philosophy," the oldest scientific prize awarded by an American institution, which it still awards.
Other awards include the Barzun Prize for cultural history, Judson Daland Prize for Outstanding Achievement in Clinical Investigation, the Benjamin Franklin Medal, the Lashley Award for neurobiology, the Lewis Award, the Thomas Jefferson Medal for distinguished achievement in the arts, humanities, or social sciences. The APS has published the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society since 1771. Five issues appear each year; the Proceedings have appeared since 1838: they publish the papers delivered at the biannual meetings of the society. The society has published the collected papers of Benjamin Franklin, Joseph Henry, William Penn, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Jane Aitken bound some 400 volumes for the society. Philosophical Hall, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at 104 South Fifth Street, between Chestnut and Walnut Streets south of Old City Hall, was built in 1785–89 to house the society and was designed by Samuel Vaughan in the Federal style. A third floor was added in 1890, to accommodate the expanding library, but was removed in 1948–50 when the building was restored to its original appearance for the creation of Independence National Historical Park.
In 2001, it was opened to the public as The American Philosophical Society Museum, hosting revolving, thematic exhibitions that explore the intersections of history and science. The museum features works of art, scientific instruments, original manuscripts, rare books, natural history specimens, curiosities of all kinds from the APS's own collections, along with objects on loan from other institutions. In 1789–90, the Library Company of Philadelphia built its headquarters directly across 5th Street from APS. LCP sold its building in 1884, demolished for the expansion of the Drexel & Company Building in 1887; this building itself was demolished in the mid-1950s, during the creation of Independence National Historical Park. APS built a library on the site in 1958, recreated the facade of the old LCP building. According to historical ghost stories, Benjamin Franklin's spirit haunts the library, his statue at the front of the building "comes to life and dances in the streets." APS restored the former Farmers' & Mechanics' Bank building at 425–29 Chestnut Street, built in 1854–
Digital humanities is an area of scholarly activity at the intersection of computing or digital technologies and the disciplines of the humanities. It includes the systematic use of digital resources in the humanities, as well as the reflection on their application. DH can be defined as new ways of doing scholarship that involve collaborative, transdisciplinary, computationally engaged research and publishing, it brings digital tools and methods to the study of the humanities with the recognition that the printed word is no longer the main medium for knowledge production and distribution. By producing and using new applications and techniques, DH makes new kinds of teaching and research possible, while at the same time studying and critiquing how these impact cultural heritage and digital culture. Thus, a distinctive feature of DH is its cultivation of a two-way relationship between the humanities and the digital: the field both employs technology in the pursuit of humanities research and subjects technology to humanistic questioning and interrogation simultaneously.
The definition of the digital humanities is being continually formulated by scholars and practitioners. Since the field is growing and changing, specific definitions can become outdated or unnecessarily limit future potential; the second volume of Debates in the Digital Humanities acknowledges the difficulty in defining the field: "Along with the digital archives, quantitative analyses, tool-building projects that once characterized the field, DH now encompasses a wide range of methods and practices: visualizations of large image sets, 3D modeling of historical artifacts,'born digital' dissertations, hashtag activism and the analysis thereof, alternate reality games, mobile makerspaces, more. In what has been called'big tent' DH, it can at times be difficult to determine with any specificity what digital humanities work entails."Historically, the digital humanities developed out of humanities computing and has become associated with other fields, such as humanistic computing, social computing, media studies.
In concrete terms, the digital humanities embraces a variety of topics, from curating online collections of primary sources to the data mining of large cultural data sets to topic modeling. Digital humanities incorporates both digitized and born-digital materials and combines the methodologies from traditional humanities disciplines and social sciences, with tools provided by computing, digital publishing. Related subfields of digital humanities have emerged like software studies, platform studies, critical code studies. Fields that parallel the digital humanities include new media studies and information science as well as media theory of composition, game studies in areas related to digital humanities project design and production, cultural analytics. Berry and Fagerjord have suggested that a way to reconceptualise digital humanities could be through a "digital humanities stack", they argue that "this type of diagram is common in computation and computer science to show how technologies are'stacked' on top of each other in increasing levels of abstraction.
Here, use the method in a more illustrative and creative sense of showing the range of activities, skills and structures that could be said to make up the digital humanities, with the aim of providing a high-level map." Indeed, the "diagram can be read as the bottom levels indicating some of the fundamental elements of the digital humanities stack, such as computational thinking and knowledge representation, other elements that build on these. " Digital humanities descends from the field of humanities computing, whose origins reach back to the 1930s and 1940s in the pioneering work of English professor Josephine Miles and Jesuit scholar Roberto Busa and the women they employed. In collaboration with IBM, they created a computer-generated concordance to Thomas Aquinas' writings known as the Index Thomisticus. Other scholars began using mainframe computers to automate tasks like word-searching and counting, much faster than processing information from texts with handwritten or typed index cards.
In the decades which followed archaeologists, historians, literary scholars, a broad array of humanities researchers in other disciplines applied emerging computational methods to transform humanities scholarship. As Tara McPherson has pointed out, the digital humanities inherit practices and perspectives developed through many artistic and theoretical engagements with electronic screen culture beginning the late 1960s and 1970s; these range from research developed by organizations such as SIGGRAPH to creations by artists such as Charles and Ray Eames and the members of E. A. T.. The Eames and E. A. T. Explored nascent computer culture and intermediality in creative works that dovetailed technological innovation with art; the first specialized journal in the digital humanities was Computers and the Humanities, which debuted in 1966. The Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing and the Association for Computers and the Humanities were founded in 1977 and 1978, respectively. Soon, there was a need for a standardized protocol for tagging digital texts, the Text Encoding Initiative was developed.
The TEI project was launched in 1987 and published the first full version of the TEI Guidelines in May 1994. TEI helped shape the field of electronic textual schol
Arthur Oncken Lovejoy
Arthur Oncken Lovejoy was an American philosopher and intellectual historian, who founded the discipline known as the history of ideas with his book The Great Chain of Being, on the topic of that name, regarded as'probably the single most influential work in the history of ideas in the United States during the last half century'. Lovejoy was born in Germany while his father was doing medical research there. Eighteen months his mother committed suicide, whereupon his father gave up medicine and became a clergyman. Lovejoy studied philosophy, first at the University of California at Berkeley at Harvard under William James and Josiah Royce. In 1901, he resigned from his first job, at Stanford University, to protest the dismissal of a colleague who had offended a trustee; the President of Harvard vetoed hiring Lovejoy on the grounds that he was a known troublemaker. Over the subsequent decade, he taught at Washington University, Columbia University, the University of Missouri, he never married. As a professor of philosophy at Johns Hopkins University from 1910 to 1938, Lovejoy founded and long presided over that university's History of Ideas Club, where many prominent and budding intellectual and social historians, as well as literary critics, gathered.
In 1940 he founded the Journal of the History of Ideas. Lovejoy insisted. Abstract nouns like'pragmatism"idealism','rationalism' and the like were, in Lovejoy's view, constituted by distinct, analytically separate ideas, which the historian of the genealogy of ideas had to thresh out, show how the basic unit ideas combine and recombine with each other over time; the idea has, according to Simo Knuuttila, exercised a greater attraction on literary critics than on philosophers. Lovejoy was active in the public arena, he helped found the American Association of University Professors and the Maryland chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union. However, he qualified his belief in civil liberties to exclude what he considered threats to a free system. Thus, at the height of the McCarthy Era Lovejoy stated that, since it was a "matter of empirical fact" that membership in the Communist Party contributed "to the triumph of a world-wide organization", opposed to "freedom of inquiry, of opinion and of teaching," membership in the party constituted grounds for dismissal from academic positions.
He published numerous opinion pieces in the Baltimore press. He died in Baltimore on December 30, 1962. In the domain of epistemology, Lovejoy is remembered for an influential critique of the pragmatic movement in the essay "The Thirteen Pragmatisms", written in 1908. William F. Bynum, looking back at Lovejoy's Great Chain of Being after 40 years, describes it as "a familiar feature of the intellectual landscape", indicating its great influence and "brisk" ongoing sales. Bynum argues that much more research is needed into how the concept of the great chain of being was replaced, but he agrees that Lovejoy was right that the crucial period was the end of the 18th century when "the Enlightenment's chain of being was dismantled". Primitivism and Related Ideas in Antiquity.. Johns Hopkins U. Press. 1997 edition: ISBN 0-8018-5611-6 The Great Chain of Being: A Study of the History of an Idea. Harvard University Press. Reprinted by Harper & Row, ISBN 0-674-36150-4, 2005 paperback: ISBN 0-674-36153-9. Essays in the History of Ideas.
Johns Hopkins U. Press; the Revolt Against Dualism. Open Court Publishing. ISBN 0-87548-107-8 The Reason, the Understanding, Time. Johns Hopkins U. Press. ISBN 0-8018-0393-4 Reflections on Human Nature. Johns Hopkins U. Press. ISBN 0-8018-0395-0 The Thirteen Pragmatisms and Other Essays. Johns Hopkins U. Press. ISBN 0-8018-0396-9 "The Entangling Alliance of Religion and History," The Hibbert Journal, Vol. V, October 1906/ July 1907. "The Desires of the Self-Conscious," The Journal of Philosophy and Scientific Methods, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jan. 17, 1907. "The Place of Linnaeus in the History of Science," The Popular Science Monthly, Vol. LXXI, 1907. "The Origins of Ethical Inwardness in Jewish Thought," The American Journal of Theology, Vol. XI, 1907. "Kant and the English Platonists." In Essays and Psychological, Green & Co. 1908. "Pragmatism and Theology," The American Journal of Theology, Vol. XII, 1908. "The Theory of a Pre-Christian Cult of Jesus," The Monist, Vol. XVIII, No. 4, October 1908. "The Thirteen Pragmatisms," The Journal of Philosophy and Scientific Methods, Vol. V, January/December, 1908.
"The Argument for Organic Evolution Before the'Origin of Species'," Part II, Popular Science Monthly, Vol. LXXV, July/December, 1909. "Schopenhauer as a Evolutionist," The Monist, Vol. XXI, 1911. "Kant and Evolution," Popular Science Monthly, Vol. LXXVII, 1910. "The Problem of Time in Recent French Philosophy," Part II, Part III, The Philosophical Review, Vol. XXI, 1912. "Pragmatism Versus the Pragmatist." In: Essays in Critical Realism. London: Macmillan & Co. 1920. "Professional Ethics and Social Progress," The North American Review, March 1924. "Plans for the Future," Free World, November 1943. "Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm, Freiherr Von," A Cyclopedia of Education, ed. by Paul Monroe, The Macmillan Company, 1911. "The Unity of Science," The University of Missouri Bulletin: Science Series, Vol. I, N°. 1, January 1912. Bergson & Romantic Evolutionism.