An application program is a computer program designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user. Examples of an application include a processor, a spreadsheet, an accounting application, a web browser, a media player, an aeronautical flight simulator. The collective noun application software refers to all applications collectively and this contrasts with system software, which is mainly involved with running the computer. Applications may be bundled with the computer and its software or published separately. Apps built for mobile platforms are called mobile apps, in information technology, an application is a computer program designed to help people perform an activity. An application thus differs from a system, a utility. Depending on the activity for which it was designed, an application can manipulate text, graphics, some application packages focus on a single task, such as word processing, called integrated software include several applications.
User-written software tailors systems to meet the specific needs. User-written software includes templates, word processor macros, scientific simulations, graphics. Even email filters are a kind of user software, users create this software themselves and often overlook how important it is. The delineation between system software such as operating systems and application software is not exact, and is occasionally the object of controversy. As another example, the GNU/Linux naming controversy is, in part, the above definitions may exclude some applications that may exist on some computers in large organizations. For an alternative definition of an app, see Application Portfolio Management, the word application, once used as an adjective, is not restricted to the of or pertaining to application software meaning. Sometimes a new and popular application arises which only runs on one platform and this is called a killer application or killer app. There are many different ways to divide up different types of application software, web apps have indeed greatly increased in popularity for some uses, but the advantages of applications make them unlikely to disappear soon, if ever.
Furthermore, the two can be complementary, and even integrated, Application software can be seen as being either horizontal or vertical. Horizontal applications are more popular and widespread, because they are general purpose, vertical applications are niche products, designed for a particular type of industry or business, or department within an organization. Integrated suites of software will try to handle every aspect possible of, for example, manufacturing or banking systems, or accounting
The Iraqi Armys occupation of Kuwait that began 2 August 1990 was met with international condemnation, and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the UN Security Council. US President George H. W. Bush deployed US forces into Saudi Arabia, an array of nations joined the coalition, the largest military alliance since World War II. The great majority of the military forces were from the US, with Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia paid around US$32 billion of the US$60 billion cost, the war was marked by the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the US network CNN. The war has earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board US bombers during Operation Desert Storm. The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait began with an aerial and naval bombardment on 17 January 1991 and this was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was a victory for the coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait.
The coalition ceased its advance, and declared a ceasefire 100 hours after the campaign started. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Iraq launched Scud missiles against coalition military targets in Saudi Arabia and against Israel. The following names have been used to describe the conflict itself, Gulf War, a problem with these terms is that the usage is ambiguous, having now been applied to at least three conflicts, see Gulf War. The use of the term Persian Gulf is disputed, see Persian Gulf naming dispute, with no consensus of naming, various publications have attempted to refine the name. Other language terms include French, la Guerre du Golfe and German, German, Zweiter Golfkrieg, most of the coalition states used various names for their operations and the wars operational phases. Operation Desert Storm was the US name of the conflict from 17 January 1991. Operation Desert Sabre was the US name for the offensive against the Iraqi Army in the Kuwaiti Theater of Operations from 24–28 February 1991, in itself.
Operation Desert Farewell was the given to the return of US units and equipment to the US in 1991 after Kuwaits liberation. Operation Granby was the British name for British military activities during the operations, Opération Daguet was the French name for French military activities in the conflict. Operation Friction was the name of the Canadian operations Operazione Locusta was the Italian name for the operations, in addition, various phases of each operation may have a unique operational name. The US divided the conflict into three campaigns, Defense of Saudi Arabian country for the period 2 August 1990, through 16 January 1991
It is part of what Manfred Steger calls the global justice movement. The first Occupy protest to receive attention was Occupy Wall Street in New York Citys Zuccotti Park. By 9 October, Occupy protests had taken place or were ongoing in over 951 cities across 82 countries, although most active in the United States, by October 2012 there had been Occupy protests and occupations in dozens of other countries across every continent except Antarctica. For its first month, overt police repression was minimal, by the end of 2011, authorities had cleared most of the major camps, with the last remaining high profile sites – in Washington, D. C. and London – evicted by February 2012. The movement commonly uses the slogan We are the 99%, the #Occupy hashtag format, according to The Washington Post, the movement, which has been described as a democratic awakening by Cornel West, is difficult to distill to a few demands. On 12 October 2011, Los Angeles City Council became one of the first governmental bodies in the United States to adopt a resolution stating its support of the Occupy movement.
According to Dissent Magazine, It was in the context of the California student movement that the slogan Occupy Everything, Adbusters editor Micah White, who designed the original Occupy Wall Street concept, traveled to California for the protests and took part in the occupation of Wheeler Hall. He wrote enthusiastically for Adbusters about the potential of struggle. The Spanish Indignados movement began in mid-May 2011, with camps at Madrid, according to sociologist Manuel Castells, by the end of the month there were already hundreds of camps around Spain and across the world. For some journalists and commentators the camping in Spain marked the start of the occupy movement. On 30 May 2011, a leader of the Indignados, inspired by the Arab Spring,5.18 Movement of 1980, Adbusters co-founder Kalle Lasn registered the OccupyWallStreet. org web address on 9 June. One of the inspirations for the movement was the Democracy Village set up in 2010 and they promoted the protest with a poster featuring a dancer atop Wall Streets iconic Charging Bull.
The first protest was held at Zuccotti Park in New York City on 17 September 2011, the protests were preceded by a similar Occupy Dataran movement in Kuala Lumpur in July, seven weeks before Occupy Wall Street. The phrase The 99% is a slogan used by participants in the Occupy movement. It was originally launched as a Tumblr blog page in late August 2011, the report was released just as concerns of the Occupy Wall Street movement were beginning to enter the national political debate. According to the CBO, between 1979 and 2007 the incomes of the top 1% of Americans grew by an average of 275%, during the same time period, the 60% of Americans in the middle of the income scale saw their income rise by 40%. Since 1979 the average income for the bottom 90% of households has decreased by $900, while that of the top 1% increased by over $700,000. From 1992 to 2007 the top 400 income earners in the U. S. saw their income increase 392%, in 2009, the average income of the top 1% was $960,000 with a minimum income of $343,927
A hashtag is a type of label or metadata tag used on social network and microblogging services which makes it easier for users to find messages with a specific theme or content. Users create and use hashtags by placing the hash character # in front of a word or unspaced phrase, searching for that hashtag will yield each message that has been tagged with it. A hashtag archive is consequently collected into a stream under the same hashtag. For example, on the photo-sharing service Instagram, the hashtag #bluesky allows users to all the posts that have been tagged using that hashtag. Because of its use, hashtag was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in June 2014. The term hashtag can refer to the symbol itself when used in the context of a hashtag. The pound sign or hash symbol is used in information technology to highlight a special meaning. In 1970 for example, the sign was used to denote immediate address mode in the assembly language of the PDP-11 when placed next to a symbol or a number.
In 1978, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie used # in the C programming language for special keywords that had to be processed first by the C preprocessor. Since fis before the invention of the hashtag, the sign has been called the hash symbol in some countries outside of North America. The pound sign appeared and was used by people within IRC networks to label groups, channels or topics that are available across an entire IRC network are prefixed with a hash symbol #. The use of the sign in IRC inspired Chris Messina to propose a similar system to be used on Twitter to tag topics of interest on the microblogging network. He posted the first hashtag on Twitter, How do you feel about using # for groups, the hashtag “was created organically by Twitter users as a way to categorize messages. Beginning July 2,2009, Twitter began to hyperlink all hashtags in tweets to Twitter search results for the hashtagged word, in 2010, Twitter introduced Trending Topics on the Twitter front page, displaying hashtags that are rapidly becoming popular.
Twitter has an algorithm to tackle attempts to spam the trending list, in China, microblogs Sina Weibo and Tencent Weibo use a double-hashtag #HashName# format, since the lack of spacing between Chinese characters necessitates a closing tag. On microblogging or social networking sites, hashtags can be inserted anywhere within a sentence, either preceding it, following it as a postscript, the quantity of hashtags used in a post or tweet is just as important as the types of hashtags used. It is currently considered acceptable to tag a post once when contributing to a specific conversation, two hashtags are considered acceptable when adding a location to the conversation. Three hashtags are seen by some as the maximum
World Wide Web
The World Wide Web is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators, interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet. English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989 and he wrote the first web browser computer program in 1990 while employed at CERN in Switzerland. The Web browser was released outside of CERN in 1991, first to research institutions starting in January 1991. The World Wide Web has been central to the development of the Information Age and is the primary tool billions of people use to interact on the Internet, Web pages are primarily text documents formatted and annotated with Hypertext Markup Language. In addition to formatted text, web pages may contain images, audio, embedded hyperlinks permit users to navigate between web pages. Multiple web pages with a theme, a common domain name. Website content can largely be provided by the publisher, or interactive where users contribute content or the content depends upon the user or their actions, websites may be mostly informative, primarily for entertainment, or largely for commercial, governmental, or non-governmental organisational purposes.
In the 2006 Great British Design Quest organised by the BBC and the Design Museum, Tim Berners-Lees vision of a global hyperlinked information system became a possibility by the second half of the 1980s. By 1985, the global Internet began to proliferate in Europe, in 1988 the first direct IP connection between Europe and North America was made and Berners-Lee began to openly discuss the possibility of a web-like system at CERN. Such a system, he explained, could be referred to using one of the meanings of the word hypertext. At this point HTML and HTTP had already been in development for two months and the first Web server was about a month from completing its first successful test. While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the concept, WebDAV, Web 2.0. The proposal was modelled after the SGML reader Dynatext by Electronic Book Technology, a NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee as the worlds first web server and to write the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, in 1990.
By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the necessary for a working Web, the first web browser. The first web site, which described the project itself, was published on 20 December 1990, jones stored it on a magneto-optical drive and on his NeXT computer. On 6 August 1991, Berners-Lee published a summary of the World Wide Web project on the newsgroup alt. hypertext. This date is confused with the public availability of the first web servers. The first server outside Europe was installed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in Palo Alto, accounts differ substantially as to the date of this event
A dumpster is a type of mobile garbage bin designed to be brought and taken away by a special truck. The word is a trademark of Dumpster, an American brand name for a specific design. Generic usage of dumpster is common in Australia, although Dumpster is not a brand there. The containers were called Dumpsters, a portmanteau of the name with the word dump. The Dempster Dumpmaster, which became the first successful front-loading garbage truck that used this system, the word dumpster has had at least three trademarks associated with it by Dempster Brothers, but today it is often used as a genericized trademark. In British and Australian English, the wheelie bin and skip are more commonly used. In some other countries the more descriptive term frontloader container is often used, the main purpose of a dumpster is to store rubbish until it is emptied by a garbage truck and disposed of. Dumpsters can be used for all kinds of waste, or for recycling purposes, most dumpsters are emptied weekly by a hired rubbish removal service.
Many businesses, apartment buildings, schools and industrial sites have one or more dumpsters, generally ranging from 2 to 6 cubic yards, Dumpsters are emptied by front-loading garbage trucks. These trucks have large prongs on the front which are aligned and inserted into arms on the dumpster, hydraulics lift the prongs and the dumpster, eventually flipping the dumpster upside-down and emptying its contents into the trucks hopper. Other dumpsters are smaller and are emptied by rear-loading trucks, mobile construction dumpsters are 6 cubic yard dumpster trailers called Roadrunners, and are commonly used in Dallas, Texas on smaller remodeling jobs or for garage or lawn cleanouts. Roll-off dumpsters are large dumpsters from 10 to 45 cubic yards and these are used at demolition sites, renovations, construction sites and large businesses. Ninety-five gallon dumpsters are used by businesses and homes where a normal bin would be too small. Roll-off/containers/dumpsters/opentop containers are just a few of the given to these large capacity receptacles.
Dumpster diving involves persons voluntarily climbing into a dumpster to find valuables, such as discarded metal scrap, or simply useful items, including food and it can be a method of investigation. Going through garbage containers that are not strictly speaking dumpsters is nevertheless referred to as dumpster diving
Chad refers to fragments sometimes created when holes are made in a paper, card or similar synthetic materials, such as computer punched tape or punched cards. Chad has been used both as a noun and as a countable noun. These votes were not counted by the tabulating machines, the aftermath of the controversy caused the rapid discontinuance of punch card ballots in the United States. Chad is sometimes used as confetti, the origin of the term chad is uncertain. Patent documents from the 1930s and 1940s show the word chad and these patents sometimes include synonyms such as chaff and chips. A patent filing in 1930 included a receptacle or chad box. to receive the chips cut from the edge of the tape, a 1938 patent filing included a chaff or chad chute to collect the waste fragments. Both patents were assigned to Teletype Corporation, the plural chads is attested from about 1939, along with chadless, meaning without chad. Clear definitions for both terms are offered by Walter Bacon in a patent application filed in 1940 assigned to Bell Telephone Laboratories, in making these perforations, the perforator cuts small round pieces of paper, known in the art as chads, out of the tape.
Thereby leaving a movable, or hinged, lid of paper in the tape, in the New Hackers Dictionary, two unattributed and likely humorous derivations for chad are offered, a back-formation from a personal name Chadless and an acronym for Card Hole Aggregate Debris. Other etymologies claim derivation from the Scottish name for river gravel, chad, or the British slang for louse, when a chad is not fully detached, it is described by various terms corresponding to the level of modification from the unpunched state. The distinctions are of importance in counting cards used in voting, the following terms generally apply when describing a four-cornered chad, Hanging chads are attached to the ballot at only one corner. Swinging chads are attached to the ballot at two corners, tri-chads are attached to the ballot at three corners. Pregnant or dimpled chads are attached to the ballot at all four corners, bush v. Gore, two-corner chad rule Bit bucket Chinese paper cutting Confetti, recycling chad for celebratory use
September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11,2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia and it was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively. Suspicion for the attack fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks.
Although al-Qaedas leader, Osama bin Laden, initially denied any involvement, al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. Having evaded capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011. S. many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, on November 18,2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was opened on November 3,2014. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan and helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical, in 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā, calling for American soldiers to leave Saudi Arabia. Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed, Muslim legal scholars have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries, according to bin Laden.
Bin Laden, who orchestrated the attacks, initially denied but admitted involvement, in November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden is seen talking to Khaled al-Harbi, on December 27,2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said, It has become clear that the West in general and it is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, the transcript refers several times to the United States specifically targeting Muslims. He said that the attacks were carried out because, we are free, and want to regain freedom for our nation. As you undermine our security we undermine yours, Bin Laden said he had personally directed his followers to attack the World Trade Center and the Pentagon
Weapon of mass destruction
The scope and usage of the term has evolved and been disputed, often signifying more politically than technically. Who can think without horror of another widespread war would mean. At the time, nuclear weapons had not been developed, japan conducted research on biological weapons, and chemical weapons had seen wide battlefield use in World War I. They were outlawed by the Geneva Protocol of 1925, Italy used mustard gas against civilians and soldiers in Ethiopia in 1935–36. Following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that ended World War II and during the Cold War, the application of the term to specifically nuclear and radiological weapons is traced by William Safire to the Russian phrase Оружие массового поражения – oruzhiye massovogo porazheniya. That exact phrase, says Safire, was used by Bernard Baruch in 1946. The resolution created the Atomic Energy Commission, an exact use of this term was given in a lecture Atomic Energy as an Atomic Problem by J. Robert Oppenheimer. The lecture was delivered to the Foreign Service and the State Department, the lecture is reprinted in The Open Mind.
The term was used in the introduction to the hugely influential U. S. government document known as NSC-68 written in April 1950. During a speech at Rice University on 12 September 1962, President John F. Kennedy spoke of not filling space with weapons of mass destruction, but with instruments of knowledge and understanding. The following month, during a presentation about the Cuban Missile Crisis on 22 October 1962. An early use of the phrase in an international treaty was in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967. During the Cold War, the weapons of mass destruction was primarily a reference to nuclear weapons. This policy of action against real or perceived weapons of mass destruction became known as the Begin Doctrine. Reagans successor, George H. W. Bush, used the term in an 1989 speech to the United Nations, the end of the Cold War reduced U. S. reliance on nuclear weapons as a deterrent, causing it to shift its focus to disarmament. With the 1990 invasion of Kuwait and 1991 Gulf War, Iraqs nuclear, following the war, Bill Clinton and other western politicians and media continued to use the term, usually in reference to ongoing attempts to dismantle Iraqs weapons programs.
After the 11 September 2001 attacks and the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, American forces found none in Iraq. Iraq, declared a chemical weapons stockpile in 2009, the stockpile contained mainly chemical precursors, but some warheads remained usable
Year 2000 problem
The Year 2000 problem, known as the Y2K problem, the Millennium bug, the Y2K bug, or Y2K, was a computer bug related to the formatting and storage of calendar data. Problems were anticipated, and arose, because twentieth-century software often represented the year with only the final two digits—making the year 2000 indistinguishable from 1900. The assumption of a date in such programs caused various errors, such as the incorrect display of dates. It identifies two problems that may exist in computer programs. First, the practice of representing the year with two digits became problematic with logical error arising upon rollover from x99 to x00. This had caused some date-related processing to operate incorrectly for dates and times on and after 1 January 2000, without corrective action, long-working systems would break down when the. Ascending numbering assumption suddenly became invalid, years divisible by 100 are not leap years, except for years that are divisible by 400. Thus the year 2000 was a leap year and organisations worldwide checked and upgraded their computer systems to address the anticipated problem.
Very few computer failures were reported when the clocks rolled over into 2000 and it is not known how many problems went unrecorded. Y2K is a numeronym and was the abbreviation for the year 2000 software problem. The abbreviation combines the letter Y for year, and k for the SI unit prefix kilo meaning 1000, hence, 2K signifies 2000. It was named the Millennium Bug because it was associated with the popular roll-over of the millennium, the Year 2000 problem was the subject of the early book, Computers in Crisis by Jerome and Marilyn Murray. The first recorded mention of the Year 2000 Problem on a Usenet newsgroup occurred on Friday,18 January 1985, the acronym Y2K has been attributed to David Eddy, a Massachusetts programmer, in an e-mail sent on 12 June 1995. He said, People were calling it CDC, FADL, Y2K just came off my fingertips. It was therefore important for programmers to reduce usage. As space on disc and tape was expensive, this saved money by reducing the size of stored data files, many computer programs stored years with only two decimal digits, for example,1980 was stored as 80.
Some such programs could not distinguish between the year 2000 and the year 1900, other programs tried to represent the year 2000 as 19100. This could cause a failure and cause date comparisons to produce incorrect results