The Siberian Intervention or Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan and China to support White Russian forces against Soviet Russia and its allies during the Russian Civil War. The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia after other Allied forces withdrew in 1920. Following the Russian October Revolution of 1917, the new Bolshevik government signed a peace treaty with Germany; the collapse of the Russian front presented a tremendous problem to the Entente powers, since it allowed Germany to shift troops and war material from its eastern front to the west. 50,000 man Czechoslovak Legion, fighting on the side of the Allied Powers, was now behind enemy lines, was attempting to fight its way out through the east to Vladivostok along the Bolshevik-held Trans-Siberian Railway. Faced with these concerns, the United Kingdom and France decided to intervene in the Russian Civil War against the Bolsheviks.
They had three objectives: to prevent the Allied war material stockpiles in Russia from falling into German or Bolshevik hands to help the Czechoslovak Legion and return it to the European front to resurrect the Eastern Front by installing a White Russian-backed governmentThe British and French asked the United States to furnish troops for both the North Russia Campaign and the Siberian Campaign. In July 1918, against the advice of the United States Department of War, President Wilson agreed to send 5,000 US troops as the American North Russia Expeditionary Force and 10,000 US troops as the American Expeditionary Force Siberia. In the same month, the Beiyang government of the Republic of China accepted an invitation by the Chinese community in Russia and sent 2,000 troops by August; the Chinese occupied Outer Mongolia and Tuva and sent a battalion to the North Russian Campaign as part of their anti-Bolshevik efforts. The British, short on personnel, only deployed 1,500 troops to Siberia; these men came from the 1/9th Battalion, Hampshire Regiment and the 25th Battalion, Middlesex Regiment.
The Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force, commanded by Major General James H. Elmsley and authorised in August 1918, was sent to Vladivostok to bolster the Allied presence there. Composed of 4,192 soldiers, the force returned to Canada between April and June 1919. During this time, the Canadians saw little fighting, with fewer than 100 troops proceeding "up country" to Omsk, to serve as administrative staff for 1,500 British troops aiding the White Russian government of Admiral Alexander Kolchak. Most Canadians remained in Vladivostok, undertaking routine drill and policing duties in the volatile port city. At the request of Chinese merchants, 2,300 Chinese troops were sent to Vladivostok to protect Chinese interests there; the Chinese army fought against both Cossacks. The "Corpo di Spedizione Italiano in Estremo Oriente" was made of Alpini troops, supported by 2,500 Italian ex-POWs who had fought in the Austro-Hungarian Army and enrolled in the Legione Redenta; the Italians played a small but important role during the intervention, fighting together with the Czechoslovak Legion and other allied forces using armed and armoured trains to control large sections of the Siberian railway.
The main areas of operation were the Irkutsk and Vladivostok regions. The Japanese were asked in 1917 by the French to intervene in Russia but declined the request. However, the army general staff came to view the Tsarist collapse as an opportunity to free Japan from any future threat from Russia by detaching Siberia and forming an independent buffer state; the Japanese government in the beginning refused to undertake such an expedition and it was not until the following year that events were set in motion that led to a change in this policy. In July 1918, President Wilson asked the Japanese government to supply 7,000 troops as part of an international coalition of 25,000 troops, including an American expeditionary force, planned to support the rescue of the Czechoslovak Legions and securing the Allied war material stockpiles. After heated debate in the Diet, the administration of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake agreed to send 12,000 troops, but under the command of Japan, rather than as part of an international coalition.
Once the political decision had been reached, the Imperial Japanese Army took over full control under Chief of Staff Yui Mitsue and extensive planning for the expedition was conducted. The American Expeditionary Force Siberia was commanded by Major General William S. Graves and totaled 7,950 officers and enlisted men; the AEF Siberia included the U. S. Army's 27th and 31st Infantry Regiments, plus large numbers of volunteers from the 13th and 62nd Infantry Regiments along with a few from the 12th Infantry Regiment. To operate the Trans-Siberian railroad, the Russian Railway Service Corps was formed of US personnel. Although General Graves did not arrive in Siberia until September 4, 1918, the first 3,000 American troops disembarked in Vladivostok between August 15 and August 21, 1918, they were assigned guard duty along segments of the railway between Vladivostok and Nikolsk-Ussuriski in the north. Unlike his Allied counterparts, General Graves believed their mission in Siberia was to provide protection for American-supplied property and to help the Czechoslovak Legions evacuate Russia, that it did not include fighting against the Bolsheviks.
Calling for restraint, Graves was at odds with commanders of British and Japanese forces who wanted the Americans to take a more active part in the military intervention in Siberia. The joint Allied intervention began in August 1918; the Japanese entered through Vladivostok an
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
The 3-line rifle M1891, colloquially known in the West as Mosin–Nagant is a five-shot, bolt-action, internal magazine–fed, military rifle developed from 1882 to 1891, used by the armed forces of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and various other nations. It is one of the most mass-produced military bolt-action rifles in history with over 37 million units having been made since its inception in 1891, and, in spite of its age, it has been used in various conflicts around the world up to the modern day. During the Russo-Ottoman War of 1877–1878, Russian troops armed with Berdan single-shot rifles suffered heavy casualties against Turkish troops equipped with Winchester repeating rifles at the bloody Siege of Pleven; this showed Russian commanders the need to modernize the general infantry weapon of the army. Various weapons were acquired and tested by GAU of the Ministry of Defence of Russian Empire, in 1889 the Lebel M1886 was obtained through semi-official channels from France, it was supplied together with a model of the cartridge and bullet but without the primer and the smokeless powder.
Those problems were solved by Russian engineers. In 1889, three rifles were submitted for evaluation: Captain Sergei Ivanovich Mosin of the imperial army submitted his "3-line" caliber rifle; when trials concluded in 1891, the evaluators were split in their assessment. The main disadvantages of Nagant's rifle were a more complicated mechanism and a long and tiresome procedure of disassembling. Mosin's rifle was criticized for its lower quality of manufacture and materials, due to "artisan pre-production" of his 300 rifles; the commission voted 14 to 10 to approve Nagant's rifle. At this point the decision was made to rename the existing commission and call it Commission for creation of the small-bore rifle, to put on paper the final requirements for such a rifle; the inventors obliged by delivering their final designs. Head of the commission, General Chagin, ordered subsequent tests held under the commission's supervision, after which the bolt-action of Mosin's design was ordered into production under the name of 3-line rifle M1891.
Like the Gewehr 98, the 1891 Mosin uses two front-locking lugs to lock up the action. However, the Mosin's lugs lock in the horizontal position; the Mosin bolt body is multi-piece. The Mosin uses interchangeable bolt heads like the Lee–Enfield. Unlike the Mauser, which uses a "controlled feed" bolt head in which the cartridge base snaps up under the fixed extractor as the cartridge is fed from the magazine, the Mosin has a "push feed" recessed bolt head in which the spring-loaded extractor snaps over the cartridge base as the bolt is closed similar to the Gewehr 1888 and M91 Carcano or modern sporting rifles like the Remington 700. Like the Mauser, the Mosin uses a blade ejector mounted in the receiver; the Mosin bolt is removed by pulling it to the rear of the receiver and squeezing the trigger, while the Mauser has a bolt stop lever separate from the trigger. Like the Mauser, the bolt lift arc on the Mosin–Nagant is 90 degrees, versus 60 degrees on the Lee–Enfield; the Mauser bolt handle is at the rear of the bolt body and locks behind the solid rear receiver ring.
The Mosin bolt handle is similar to the Mannlicher: it is attached to a protrusion on the middle of the bolt body, which serves as a bolt guide, it locks protruding out of the ejection/loading port in front of a split rear receiver ring serving a similar function to Mauser's "third" or "safety" lug. The rifling of the Mosin barrel is right turning 4-groove with a twist of 1:9.5" or 1:10". The 5-round fixed metallic magazine can either be loaded by inserting the cartridges singly, or more in military service, by the use of 5-round stripper clips; the 3-line rifle, Model 1891, its original official designation, was adopted by the Russian military in 1891. There have been several variations from the original rifle, the most common being the M1891/30, a modernized design introduced in 1930; some details were borrowed from Nagant's design. One such detail is the attachment of the magazine spring to the magazine base plate. In Mosin's original design the spring was not attached to the base plate and, according to the Commission, could be lost during cleaning.
Another detail is the form of the clip that could hold five cartridges to be loaded into the magazine. Another detail is the form of the "interrupter", a specially designed part within the receiver, which helps prevent double feeding; the initial rifle proposed by Mosin lacked an interrupter. This detail was introduced in the rifle borrowing from Nagant's rifle. Although the form of the interrupter was changed, this alteration was subsequently borrowed back by the Commission for the Model 1891 Mosin–Nagant. During the modernization of 1930, the form of the interrupter was further changed, from a single piece to a two-piece design, as the part had turned out to be one of the least reliable parts of the action. Only the clip loading
Czechoslovakism is a concept which underlines reciprocity of the Czechs and the Slovaks. It is best known as an ideology which holds that there is one Czechoslovak nation, though it might appear as a political program of two nations living in one common state; the climax of Czechoslovakism fell on 1918-1938, when as a one-nation-theory it became the official political doctrine of Czechoslovakia. Today Czechoslovakism as political concept or ideology is defunct. Except some 70 years of Great Moravia in the early Medieval era, until the 20th century the peoples in the basins of Upper Elbe, Morava, Váh, Nitra and Hornad have never lived in a common state. Throughout ages they were developing various and not conflicting identities, like Czechs, Moravians, Slovaks, Czechoslavs and other hybrid concepts; these identities might have been constructed along dynastic, cultural, religious or territorial lines and might have been embraced by various groupings, from few intellectuals to large rural masses.
The current which emphasized some sort of general commonality between Slavic people living West and East of the White Carpathians was based on language. In the late 16th century the Bible was first translated into Czech and its vernacular version came to be known as Bible of Kralice. In the early 17th century Bible kralická and its linguistic standard known as bibličtina, was accepted for religious use in Protestant Slavic communities both West and East of the White Carpathians. In the late 18th century the Slavic Protestant circles centered in Preßburg went beyond the purely religious usage of bibličtina and elaborated on a broader concept of common culture, shared by all Czech-related people. In 1793 Juraj Ribay worked out Projekt ústavu alebo spoločnosti slovensko-českej medzi Slovákmi v Uhorsku, a draft of educational institution to be based on Czech language; these initiatives did not advocate a common Czech and Slovak cause. The current of building a common Slavic community centered upon Czech culture climaxed in mid-19th century thanks to activity of Jozef Šafárik and Jan Kollár, the latter graduate of the Preßburg Lyceum himself.
A poet and politician, as ideologue he advanced the cause of Pan-Slavism. His monumental opus was written in archaic Czech, though in the 1840s he tried to merge it with some Slovak features. However, he was opposed from two different angles; the trend towards buildup of Slovak literary language, commenced by Bernolák to counter Protestantism in the late 18th century, diverted from religious issues and assumed a decisively national flavor. On other hand, Prague-based representatives of purely Czech cultural vision like Jungmann or Palacký considered Kollár’s efforts harmful; the result was that with death of Šafárik and Kollár the idea of Czech-based linguistic unity was dying out. In the late 19th century the concept of Czech-focused affinity was reduced to general cultural sphere. Institutional outposts advocating a common cause were few and with limited impact. In 1882 the Slovak students in Prague set up Detvan, organization which raised funds to send Slovaks to Czech gymnasia and to the Charles University in Prague.
Some one-off events, e.g. a 1895 Czech-Slavic ethnographic exhibition in Prague generated much interest, though they were not focused on a joint Czech and Slovak cause. Among periodicals the key one was Hlas, established in 1892 in Szakolca. Another periodical, far less important, was Prúdy, since 1909 issued in Prague; the level of social integration was marginal, with few hundred Slovak students in Prague and much lower number of Czechs in Preßburg. The rate of Czech-Slovak intermarriage was low, lower than the Czech-German and the Slovak-Hungarian one. There were no common Czecho-Slovak political parties, sporting, leisure or social organizations. However, a number of Czech prints, including high-quality periodicals, were popular in Slovak-populated areas. Except the 1848 proposal of Palacký politicians on both sides did not go beyond the state borders when drafting their own designs; the Czechs focused on gaining some sort of political autonomy within Austria intended for the provinces of Bohemia and Silesia.
Their demands were based on historical arguments related to the so-called lands of the Czech crown. The Slovaks struggled to cope with state-sponsored Magyarization and aimed to build an institutional network of cultural and education outposts within Hungary.
31st Infantry Regiment (United States)
The 31st Infantry Regiment of the United States Army was formed on 13 August 1916, was part of USAFFE's Philippine Division during World War II. The unit is rare in that it has spent most of its life on non-American soil; the regiment is the third to bear the designation. The second was created from the 3rd Battalion of the 13th Infantry on 28 July 1866, in the reorganization of the U. S. Army following the American Civil War; the second organization to be called the 31st Infantry was consolidated with its sister regiment the 22nd Infantry in an 1869 reorganization. Because the lineage of the previous regiments called the 31st were passed down to their successor units, the current 31st Infantry Regiment does not share their history or honors; the third organization called the 31st Infantry Regiment was formed at Fort William McKinley, Philippine Islands on 13 August 1916 using cadre from the 8th, 13th, 15th, 27th Infantry Regiments. The 1st Battalion was formed at Regan Barracks, the 2nd at Camp McGrath, the 3rd at Fort William McKinley.
It bears the distinction of being the first organization created under expansion of the US Army under the National Defense Act of 1916. During the Russian Revolution, on 13 August 1918, the 31st moved from Manila's tropics to the bitter cold of Siberia as part of the American Expeditionary Force Siberia, its mission was to prevent allied war material left on Vladivostok's docks from being looted. The 31st moved from Fort William McKinley to Manila, there set sail for Vladivostok, arriving on 21 August; the regiment was broken into various detachments and used to guard the Trans-Siberian railway, as well as 130 km of a branch line leading to the Suchan mines. For the next 2 years, the 31st and its sister, the 27th Infantry Regiment, fought off bands of Red revolutionaries and White counter-revolutionaries that were plundering the Siberian countryside and trying to gain control of the Trans-Siberian Railroad, they dissuaded their 40,000 Japanese allies from taking control of Russian territory.
The regiment suffered its first battle casualties on 29 August 1918, in action near Ugolnaya. During the Siberian deployment, 30 soldiers of the 31st Infantry were killed and some 60 troops were wounded in action. In addition, a large number of troops lost limbs due to frostbite. During this deployment, the regiment recommended one Medal of Honor and 15 Distinguished Service Crosses. For its service in Siberia, the 31st Infantry became known as "the Polar Bear regiment", adopting a silver polar bear as its insignia. In April 1920, the regiment returned to Fort McKinley and, in December, was moved to the Post of Manila; the 31st garrisoned the old walled city of Manila. On 1 February 1932, the regiment was ordered to Shanghai, arriving on 4 February. There, the unit guarded a section of the International Settlement, during a period of considerable fighting between Japanese and Chinese troops. Reinforcing the 4th Marine Regiment and a predominantly British International Force, the 31st Infantry deployed hastily by sea to protect Shanghai's International Settlement.
Although adjacent parts of Shanghai were demolished by fierce fighting between Japanese and Chinese troops, the International Settlement remained an island of security. By April, some officers sent for their families from Manila and billeted them at a hotel in the International Settlement. On 5 July 1932, when the crisis passed, the unit returned to the Philippines. For their service in Shanghai, they received the Yangtze Service Medal. On 8 December 1941, Japanese planes attacked U. S. military installations in the Philippines. A 31st Infantry sergeant on detail at Camp John Hay became the campaign's first fatality. After landing in northern and southern Luzon, the Japanese pushed toward Manila, routing hastily formed Philippine Army units that had little training and few heavy weapons; the 31st Infantry covered the withdrawal of Philippine forces to the Bataan Peninsula. The peninsula had not been provisioned with food and medicine and no help could come in from the outside after much of the Pacific fleet was destroyed at Pearl Harbor and mid-ocean bases at Guam and Wake Island were lost.
Despite starvation, disease, no supplies, obsolete weapons, inoperative ammunition, the peninsula's defenders fought the Japanese to a standstill for 4 months, upsetting Japan's timetable for Asia's conquest. When MG King announced he would surrender the Bataan Defense Force on 9 April 1942, the 31st Infantry buried its colors and the cherished Shanghai Bowl to keep them out of enemy hands; some of the 31st's survivors escaped to continue resisting, but most underwent brutal torture and humiliation on the Bataan Death March and nearly three years of captivity. Twenty-nine of the regiment's members earned the Distinguished Service Cross and one was recommended for the Medal of Honor, but the entire chain of command died in captivity before the medal recommendation could be formally submitted. Half of the 1600 members of the 31st Infantry who surrendered at Bataan perished while prisoners of the Japanese. Of note, the Shanghai Bowl was recovered due to the efforts of Cpt. Earl R. Short after his release from a POW camp, Col. Niederpreum.
He returned to Corregidor Island under the orders of Major General Marshall in September 1945 to retrieve the bowl from its hidden location. While he was able to pinpoint the area, others had to continue the excavation until it was located in December 1945; the Bowl and Cups were found a half from where Cpt. Short had remembered them to be, and so the trophy and symbol of the 31
Upton Beall Sinclair Jr. was an American writer who wrote nearly 100 books and other works in several genres. Sinclair's work was well known and popular in the first half of the 20th century, he won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1943. In 1906, Sinclair acquired particular fame for his classic muck-raking novel The Jungle, which exposed labor and sanitary conditions in the U. S. meatpacking industry, causing a public uproar that contributed in part to the passage a few months of the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act. In 1919, he published The Brass Check, a muck-raking exposé of American journalism that publicized the issue of yellow journalism and the limitations of the "free press" in the United States. Four years after publication of The Brass Check, the first code of ethics for journalists was created. Time magazine called him "a man with every gift except humor and silence", he is well remembered for the line: "It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends upon his not understanding it."
He used this line in speeches and the book about his campaign for governor as a way to explain why the editors and publishers of the major newspapers in California would not treat his proposals for old age pensions and other progressive reforms. Many of his novels can be read as historical works. Writing during the Progressive Era, Sinclair describes the world of industrialized America from both the working man's and the industrialist's points of view. Novels such as King Coal, The Coal War, Oil!, The Flivver King describe the working conditions of the coal and auto industries at the time. The Flivver King describes the rise of Henry Ford, his "wage reform", the company's Sociological Department to his decline into antisemitism as publisher of The Dearborn Independent. King Coal confronts John D. Rockefeller Jr. and his role in the 1913 Ludlow Massacre in the coal fields of Colorado. Sinclair was an outspoken socialist and ran unsuccessfully for Congress as a nominee from the Socialist Party.
He was the Democratic Party candidate for Governor of California during the Great Depression, running under the banner of the End Poverty in California campaign, but was defeated in the 1934 elections. Sinclair was born in Maryland, to Upton Beall Sinclair Sr. and Priscilla Harden Sinclair. His father was a liquor salesman. Priscilla Harden Sinclair was a strict Episcopalian who disliked alcohol and coffee; as a child, Sinclair slept either on cross-ways on his parents' bed. When his father was out for the night, he would sleep alone in the bed with his mother. Sinclair did not get along with her when he became older because of her strict rules and refusal to allow him independence. Sinclair told his son, that around Sinclair's 16th year, he decided not to have anything to do with his mother, staying away from her for 35 years because an argument would start if they met, his mother's family was affluent: her parents were prosperous in Baltimore, her sister married a millionaire. Sinclair had wealthy maternal grandparents with whom he stayed.
This gave him insight into how both the poor lived during the late 19th century. Living in two social settings affected him and influenced his books. Upton Beall Sinclair, Sr. was from a respected family in the South, but the family was financially ruined by the Civil War, disruptions of the labor system during the Reconstruction era, an extended agricultural depression. As he was growing up, Upton's family moved as his father was not successful in his career, he developed a love for reading. He read every book his mother owned for a deeper understanding of the world, he did not start school. He was deficient in math and worked hard to catch up because of his embarrassment. In 1888, the Sinclair family moved to New York, where his father sold shoes. Upton entered the City College of New York five days before his 14th birthday, on September 15, 1892, he wrote jokes, dime novels, magazine articles in boys' weekly and pulp magazines to pay for his tuition. With that income, he was able to move his parents to an apartment.
He studied for a time at Columbia University. His major was law, but he was more interested in writing, he learned several languages, including Spanish and French, he paid the one-time enrollment fee to be able to learn a variety of things. He would sign up for a class and later drop it, he again supported himself through college by writing boys' adventure jokes. He sold ideas to cartoonists. Using stenographers, he wrote up to 8,000 words of pulp fiction per day, his only complaint about his educational experience was that it failed to educate him about socialism. After leaving Columbia, he wrote four books in the next four years. Upton became close with Reverend William Wilmerding Moir. Moir taught his beliefs to Sinclair, he was taught to "avoid the subject of sex." Sinclair was to report to Moir monthly regarding his abstinence. Despite their close relationship, Sinclair identified as agnostic. Upton Sinclair dedicated his time to writing poetry. In 1904, Sinclair spent seven weeks in disguise, working undercover in Chicago's meatpacking plants to research his novel, The Jungle, a political exposé t
Imperial Japanese Army
The Imperial Japanese Army was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. An Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters, an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, the Inspector General of Military Training. In the mid-19th century, Japan had no unified national army and the country was made up of feudal domains with the Tokugawa shogunate in overall control, which had ruled Japan since 1603; the bakufu army, although large force, was only one among others, bakufu efforts to control the nation depended upon the cooperation of its vassals' armies.
The opening of the country after two centuries of seclusion subsequently led to the Meiji Restoration and the Boshin War in 1868. The domains of Satsuma and Chōshū came to dominate the coalition against the shogunate. On 27 January 1868, tensions between the shogunate and imperial sides came to a head when Tokugawa Yoshinobu marched on Kyoto, accompanied by a 15,000-strong force consisting of troops, trained by French military advisers, they were opposed by 5,000 troops from the Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa domains. At the two road junctions of Toba and Fushimi just south of Kyoto, the two forces clashed. On the second day, an Imperial banner was given to the defending troops and a relative of the Emperor, Ninnajinomiya Yoshiaki, was named nominal commander in chief, in effect making the pro-imperial forces an Imperial army; the bafuku forces retreated to Osaka, with the remaining forces ordered to retreat to Edo. Yoshinobu and his closest advisors left for Edo by ship; the encounter at Toba–Fushimi between the imperial and shogunate forces marked the beginning of the conflict.
With the court in Kyoto behind the Satsuma-Chōshū-Tosa coalition, other domains that were sympathetic to the cause—such as Tottori and Hizen —emerged to take a more active role in military operations. Western domains that had either supported the shogunate or remained neutral quickly announced their support of the restoration movement; the nascent Meiji state required a new military command for its operations against the shogunate. In 1868, the "Imperial Army" being just a loose amalgam of domain armies, the government created four military divisions: the Tōkaidō, Tōsandō, San'indō, Hokurikudō, each of, named for a major highway. Overseeing these four armies was a new high command, the Eastern Expeditionary High Command, whose nominal head was prince Arisugawa-no-miya, with two court nobles as senior staff officers; this connected the loose assembly of domain forces with the imperial court, the only national institution in a still unformed nation-state. The army continually emphasized its link with the imperial court: firstly.
To supply food and other supplies for the campaign, the imperial government established logistical relay stations along three major highways. These small depots held stockpiled material supplied by local pro-government domains, or confiscated from the bafuku and others opposing the imperial government. Local villagers were impressed as porters to move and deliver supplies between the depots and frontline units; the new army fought under makeshift arrangements, with unclear channels of command and control and no reliable recruiting base. Although fighting for the imperial cause, many of the units were loyal to their domains rather than the imperial court. In March 1869, the imperial government created various administrative offices, including a military branch; the imperial court told the domains to restrict the size of their local armies and to contribute to funding a national officers' training school in Kyoto. However, within a few months the government disbanded both the military branch and the imperial bodyguard: the former was ineffective while the latter lacked modern weaponry and equipment.
To replace them, two new organizations were created. One was the military affairs directorate, composed of two bureaus, one for the army and one for the navy; the directorate drafted an army from troop contributions from each domain proportional to each domain's annual rice production. This conscript army integrated samurai and commoners from various domains into its ranks; as the war continued, the military affairs directorate expected to raise troops from the wealthier domains and, in June, the organization of the army was fixed, where each domain was required to send ten men for each 10,000 koku of rice produced. However, this policy put the imperial government in direct competition with the domains for military recruitment, not rectified until April 1868, when the government banned the domains from enlisting troops; the quota system never worked as intended an