The American Federation of Teachers is the second largest teacher's labor union in America. The union was founded in Chicago with Margaret Haley credited as its first leader. About 60 percent of AFT's membership works directly in education, with the remainder of the union's members composed of paraprofessionals and school-related personnel; the AFT has, since its founding, affiliated with trade union federations: until 1955 the American Federation of Labor, now the AFL-CIO. AFT was founded in Chicago, Illinois, on April 15, 1916. Charles Stillman was the first president and Margaret Haley was the national organizer. On May 9, 1916, the American Federation of Labor chartered the AFT. By 1919, AFT had 100 local affiliates and a membership of 11,000 teachers, which amounted to 1.5% of the nation's teaching force. In its early days, AFT distinguished itself from the National Education Association by its exclusion of school administrators from membership. Facing opposition from politicians and boards of education, membership in AFT declined to 7,000 by 1930.
During this period, the organization had little impact on national education policy. AFT membership climbed during the Great Depression, reaching 33,000 by 1939. During the 1930s, AFT, whose members had been primary school teachers, saw influential college professors join the union. During the 1930s, the Communist Party gained influence within the AFT. In 1941, under pressure from the AFL, the union ejected three local unions in New York City and Philadelphia for being communist-dominated; the charter revocations represented nearly a third of the union's national membership. The 1940s were marked by a series of teacher strikes, including 57 strikes that occurred from 1946 through 1949. By 1947, AFT had a membership of 42,000; the 1960s and 1970s saw numerous teacher strikes, including 1,000 strikes involving more than 823,000 teachers between 1960 and 1974. AFT membership was 59,000 in 1960, 200,000 in 1970, 550,000 in 1980. In 2017, membership was around 1.6 million, the union had due income of $35 million.
Since 1977, AFT has published a quarterly magazine for teachers covering various issues about children and education called American Educator. In 1998, the membership of the NEA rejected a proposed merger with AFT; the AFT's membership is half that of the NEA. Albert ShankerIn 1974, Albert Shanker was elected president of AFT, he served in this role until his death on February 22, 1997. For 27 years, Shanker wrote a weekly column entitled "Where We Stand" that ran as an advertisement in The New York Times. Shanker was an early advocate of charter schools, he called for a national competency test for teachers, merit pay for teachers, more rigorous requirements for high school graduation. During his tenure as AFT president, Shanker was jailed twice for leading illegal strikes. Sandra FeldmanSandra Feldman served as AFT's president from 1997 to 2004. Feldman helped craft the No Child Left Behind Act. Edward J. McElroyEdward J. McElroy, the AFT's secretary-treasurer since 1992, was elected president of the AFT in 2004, replacing Feldman.
On February 12, 2008, McElroy announced he would retire at the union's scheduled biennial convention in July. On July 14, 2008, Randi Weingarten was elected to succeed him. Randi WeingartenOn July 14, 2008, Randi Weingarten the president of the UFT, was elected to succeed McElroy as AFT president. In September 2008, she announced the launch of the AFT Innovation Fund, a union-led, private foundation-supported effort to provide grants to AFT unions to develop and implement innovations in education. In 2014, Weingarten announced that AFT was ending a five-year funding relationship between the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the AFT Innovation Fund. According to Department of Labor filings, Weingarten earned nearly $560,000 in total compensation during the 2013-2014 school year. Since 1980, AFT and the NEA have contributed nearly $57.4 million to federal campaigns, an amount, about 30 percent higher than any single corporation or other union. About 95 percent of political donations from teachers unions have gone to Democrats.
In 2008, AFT provided a campaign contribution of $1,784,808.59 to Hillary Clinton and $1,997,375.00 to Barack Obama. In July 2015, AFT endorsed Democrat Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential race. Clinton and AFT president Randi Weingarten are longtime friends. AFT's official endorsement of Clinton caused controversy among some AFT members who felt that the endorsement came too soon and did not reflect the wishes of rank-and-file AFT members, some of whom supported Bernie Sanders. Members' dues underwrite much of AFT's political activities. In 2015, four California teachers sued AFT and its California unit, the California Federation of Teachers, over the use of member dues for political activities; the plaintiffs argued that unions were violating their constitutional right to free speech by forcing them to either support union-favored causes and candidates or lose access to important job benefits such as disability and life insurance. In 2018, the landmark Supreme Court ruling in Janus v. AFSCME resolved this matter, concluding that public sector union fees violate the First Amendment, compelling nonmembers to "subsidize private speech on matters of substantial public concern".
Unions will, need to gain the affirmative consent of individual teachers before enrolling them in the union. The AFT was one of the first trade unions to allow African-Americans and minorities to become full members of their trade un
César Phoebus d'Albret, comte de Miossens, was a French soldier, a Marshal of France under Louis XIV, a court gallant. He was a cousin of the marquise de Montespan, his faithful attachment to Anne of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin during the Fronde, rather than any military talent, motivated his designation as a marshal of France. He set aside the name of Miossens for the grander name of Albret, he first took up arms in the service of the United Provinces, under Maurice of Nassau and Jean de Werth in the Eighty Years' War against the Spanish in the Low Countries. In 1635 he was made maître de camp alongside his father in a French infantry regiment in the army of Lorraine and commanded a regiment in the siege of Corbie; as a Captain in the regiment of Guards in 1639, he became successively ensign Lieutenant of the Gendarmes de la Garde ordinaire du Roi in 1644, second-in-command during the Fronde. Though on intimate terms with the young duc d'Enghien, he joined the party of Mazarin. On 19 January 1650 he was charged with escorting the arrested dukes of Conti, Condé and Longueville to the donjon at the château de Vincennes.
Mazarin's promise of the rank of Marshal was extracted only at the price of pressures brought by court intrigues, in which César Phoebus was supported by his cousin Madame de Montespan, soon to supplant the young Louise de La Vallière in the King's affections. The title of duke continued to elude him, he served as field marshal at the successful siege of Mardyck and at Dunkirk in 1646. "He was 39 years of age and had served little, never anywhere as a leader, afterwards saw no more of war," the duc de Saint-Simon wrote in his memoirs. The Abbé d'Aumont, who had taken a box at the Comédie that the maréchal commanded for his own, was heard to remark, "A fine Marshal! He has never stormed anything except my box!" He married 6 February 1645, Madeleine de Guénégaud, daughter of Gabriel de Guénégaud, seigneur du Plessis-Belleville, a Secretary of State of the Maison du Roi. With Turenne's support, he was named a chevalier of the Ordre du Saint-Esprit, 31 December 1661, continuing the honour, traditional in his family.
The favour of the marquise de Maintenon secured him the post of governor of Guyenne from November 1670 to 1676. In 1675 he conducted a veritable campaign, pursued with energy, against the public uprising at Bordeaux over taxes on timber and tobacco, demolished the Porte Sainte Croix and 500 toises of the city ramparts. Saint-Simon's incisive word portraits of the duc d'Albret were uncompromising: "He was a man of spirit, competent and more, of intrigue. "He was a man who, without having served much and never in charge, made a good account of himself by his spirit, his courage, his address and his magnificence. He kept great state everywhere and had with him at Pons the best company". In Pons, he received the title "Sire de Pons" and is known for his design of the monumental Grand Staircase, which would connect the upper city to the lower city near the Keep of Pons, was designed in the year 1665, his exploits in gallantry are more considerable than his military ones. The list of his conquests is a long one: Marion Delorme, Ninon de Lenclos, with whom he fathered a son, Marguerite de Béthune-Sully, Madame d'Olone.
He frequented the salon of Françoise d'Aubigné the future Madame de Maintenon, who said "Marshal d'Albret has always been my friend, I don't know he was my lover". Widowed by Paul Scarron she took refuge at the hôtel d'Albret, where she met Mme de Montespan, cousin by marriage of the maréchal as well as Bonne d'Heudicourt (his cousin of the Pons family, thanks to whom Mme de Montespan entrusted to her the education of the children she had with Louis XIV, who took a fancy to the widowed governess
Janaka Kumbukage ), is an award-winning, actor in Sri Lankan cinema, stage drama and television. Versatile actor engaged in television, Kumbukage is notable for the roles in films Saroja and Udumbara, he has one younger brother. His father and mother are retired teachers, he studied from more than five schools due to parent's transfers. He studied from Wadduwa Madya Maha Vidyalaya, he completed A/L education from commerce stream. Before entering drama, he entered to Technical college and studied Business Studies for four years. While involved in drama, he worked in Milk Board, he is married to Anusha, where the wedding was celebrated in 1994. The couple has one son. In 1984, Kumbukage started his drama career under the guidance of Gamini Haththotuwegama’s dramatic workshops and became a member of his Street Drama Group, he worked with Dharmasiri Bandaranayake, Somalatha Subasinghe, Asoka Handagama and German playwright Klauz Coozemberg in many stage plays while in street dramas. In 2000 he won the award for the best Stage Actor for the play Beehama Buhumi in State Drama Festival.
His maiden television acting came through Siva Rahasa Pura directed by Wimalarante Adikari. In 2009, he directed, it was staged on July 26 at Lumbini Theatre, Colombo. Kumbukage started his film career with Sihina Deshayen back in 1996, directed by Boodee Keerthisena, he has won several awards at the local stage drama and film festivals. Janaka turns to stage play
Lin McLean was an Australian professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1930s and 1940s. He played for Newtown in the New South Wales Rugby League competition. McLean made his first grade debut for Newtown against St George in Round 9 1939 at Earl Park, Arncliffe. In his first season at Newtown, McLean made 4 appearances. In 1940, Newtown had a complete form reversal finishing second on the table. Newtown reached the preliminary final against Canterbury-Bankstown but lost the match 19-11 with McLean scoring a try in the defeat. In 1942, Newtown finished second last and McLean finished the season as the club's top try scorer with 8 tries. In 1943, McLean missed the entire season as Newtown won their third and last premiership against North Sydney. In 1944, McLean was part of the Newtown side which won the minor premiership and reached the grand final. McLean played a centre as Newtown were defeated by Balmain 19-16. Due to the rules at the time, Newtown were permitted to ask for a rematch as they had finished as minor premiers and used their right to challenge.
In the grand final challenge, McLean again played at centre as Newtown were defeated for a second time by Balmain 12-8 at the Sydney Cricket Ground. McLean played with Newtown until the end of the 1948 season before retiring
The Sir G B Hunter Memorial Hospital is a health facility at Wallsend Green, Wallsend and Wear, England. It is managed by Cumbria, Northumberland and Wear NHS Foundation Trust; the facility has its origins in a private house, known as Wallsend Hall, built in the early 19th century. The hall was occupied by William Clark, a future Mayor of Wallsend, by Robert Richardson Dees, a local solicitor, before being acquired by Sir George Burton Hunter in 1914. Burton presented the hall and its grounds to Wallsend Corporation in 1919; the site was developed as a hospital in the 1920s and extended to the east in the 1940s to create the current health centre. The hospital joined the National Health Service in 1948; the hall itself was re-designated for municipal use in the 1950s
Disney's Hilton Head Island Resort is a Disney Vacation Club Resort and vacation rental accommodation, part of the Disney brand of timeshares, located in Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Designed by the firm of the 2007 Driehaus Prize winner, Robertson & Partners, it opened on March 1, 1996; this property is on a secluded 15-acre island in the Shelter Cove Harbour area of Hilton Head Island. The mid-island resort has an intentionally rustic theme and this property much caters to kids; the rooms and location accommodate a family crowd. The rooms are spacious and have kitchens and balconies. "South Carolina Lowcountry" is the style of Disney's Hilton Head Island resort. The grounds are modern, with amenities that include hammocks and grills. Disney Hilton Head is top-heavy with activities for children, including nature programs, magic shows, “Kids Night Out”, art, swimming pool & pool games, kayaking and more things to do; the Disney Hilton Head resort is on Hilton Head’s Broad Creek, technically a land locked tidal marsh.
A shuttle bus transports guests to the Disney Beach House in Palmetto Dunes, about a mile-and-a-half away. There guests enjoy a private swimming pool with bathrooms and a snack shop right on the Atlantic Ocean; the resort does not have a full service restaurant, but there are two spots to eat: Signals and Tide Me Over both serve American Casual themed lunch. Disney's Hilton Head Island Resort - Disney Vacation Club Disney's Hilton Head Island Resort - Discover South Carolina