SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

American Football League

The American Football League was a major professional American football league that operated for ten seasons from 1960 until 1969, when it merged with the older National Football League, became the American Football Conference. The upstart AFL operated in direct competition with the more established NFL throughout its existence, it was more successful than earlier rivals to the NFL with the same name, the 1926, 1936 and 1940 leagues, the All-America Football Conference. This fourth version of the AFL was the most successful, created by a number of owners, refused NFL expansion franchises or had minor shares of NFL franchises; the AFL's original lineup consisted of an Eastern division of the New York Titans, Boston Patriots, Buffalo Bills, the Houston Oilers, a Western division of the Los Angeles Chargers, Denver Broncos, Oakland Raiders, Dallas Texans. The league first gained attention by signing 75% of the NFL's first-round draft choices in 1960, including Houston's successful signing of college star and Heisman Trophy winner Billy Cannon.

While the first years of the AFL saw uneven competition and low attendance, the league was buttressed by a generous television contract with the American Broadcasting Company that broadcast the more offense-oriented football league nationwide. Continuing to attract top talent from colleges and the NFL by the mid-1960s, as well as successful franchise shifts of the Chargers from L. A. south to San Diego and the Texans north to Kansas City, the AFL established a dedicated following. The transformation of the struggling Titans into the New York Jets under new ownership further solidified the league's reputation among the major media; as fierce competition made player salaries skyrocket in both leagues after a series of "raids", the leagues agreed to a merger in 1966. Among the conditions were a common draft and a championship game played between the two league champions first played in early 1967, which would become known as the Super Bowl; the AFL and NFL operated as separate leagues until 1970, with separate regular season and playoff schedules except for the championship game.

NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle became chief executive of the AFL from July 26, 1966, through the completion of the merger. During this time the AFL expanded. After losses by the Kansas City Chiefs and Oakland Raiders in the first two AFL-NFL World Championship Game to the Green Bay Packers, the New York Jets and Chiefs won Super Bowls III and IV cementing the league's claim to being an equal to the NFL. In 1970, the AFL was absorbed into the NFL and the league reorganized with the ten AFL franchises along with three existing NFL teams: the Baltimore Colts, the Cleveland Browns, the Pittsburgh Steelers, becoming part of the newly-formed American Football Conference. During the 1950s, the National Football League had grown to rival Major League Baseball as one of the most popular professional sports leagues in the United States. One franchise that did not share in this newfound success of the league was the Chicago Cardinals – owned by the Bidwill family – who had become overshadowed by the more popular Chicago Bears.

The Bidwills hoped to move their franchise, preferably to St. Louis, but could not come to terms with the league, which demanded money before it would approve the move. Needing cash, the Bidwills began entertaining offers from would-be investors, one of the men who approached the Bidwills was Lamar Hunt and heir of millionaire oilman H. L. Hunt. Hunt offered to move them to Dallas, where he had grown up. However, these negotiations came to nothing, since the Bidwills insisted on retaining a controlling interest in the franchise and were unwilling to move their team to a city where a previous NFL franchise had failed in 1952. While Hunt negotiated with the Bidwills, similar offers were made by Bud Adams, Bob Howsam, Max Winter; when Hunt and Howsam were unable to secure a controlling interest in the Cardinals, they approached NFL commissioner Bert Bell and proposed the addition of expansion teams. Bell, wary of risking its newfound success, rejected the offer. On his return flight to Dallas, Hunt conceived the idea of an new league and decided to contact the others who had shown interest in purchasing the Cardinals.

In addition to Adams and Winter, Hunt reached out to Bill Boyer, Winter's business partner, to gauge their interest in starting a new league. Hunt's first meeting with Adams was held in March 1959. Hunt, who felt a regional rivalry would be critical for the success of the new league, convinced Adams to join and found his team in Houston. Hunt next secured an agreement from Howsam to bring a team to Denver. After Winter and Boyer agreed to start a team in Minneapolis-Saint Paul, the new league had its first four teams. Hunt approached Willard Rhodes, who hoped to bring pro football to Seattle. However, not wanting to undermine its own brand, the University of Washington was unwilling to let the fledgling league use Husky Stadium, Rhodes' effort came to nothing. Hunt sought franchises in Los Angeles and New York City. During the summer of 1959, he sought the blessings of the NFL for his nascent league, as he did not seek a costly rivalry. Within weeks of the July 1959 announcement of the league's formation, Hunt received commitments from Barron Hilton and Harry Wismer to bring teams to

Jeromy James

Jerome "Jeromy" Jaro James is a Belizean footballer who plays for Belmopan Bandits in the Premier League of Belize and the Belize national team. James made his national team debut for Belize on 22 January 2008 in a 1–0 friendly loss against El Salvador, his first competitive appearance was on 6 February 2008 in a 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification match, as a second half substitute, in a 3-1 win against Saint Kitts and Nevis. James' first, only international goal to date came in a 4-1 loss to El Salvador on 24 January 2009, in a 2009 UNCAF Nations Cup match. James is a member of the Belize national beach soccer team, represented his country at the 2018 UNCAF Beach Soccer Cup

St Cyprian's, Clarence Gate

St Cyprian's Church is a Parish Church of the Church of England in the Marylebone district of London, UK, founded in 1866 by Father Charles Gutch. It is dedicated to Saint Cyprian, a third-century martyr and Bishop of Carthage and is located by the south-western corner of Regent's Park, next to Clarence Gate Gardens just off Baker Street. Father Charles Gutch, curate at St Matthias', Stoke Newington, St Paul's, All Saints, Margaret Street, was anxious to acquire a church of his own in London, so that he could manage it in his own style, he proposed to build a mission church in a poor and neglected northeastern corner of Marylebone, which would require a portion of the parishes of St Marylebone and St Paul, Rossmore Road to be handed over. However, neither the Rector of St Marylebone nor the Vicar of St Paul's approved of the churchmanship of Father Gutch. Further, he proposed to dedicate the mission to St Cyprian of Carthage, explaining: "I was struck by his tender loving care for his people, the considerateness with which he treated them, explaining to them why he did this or that, leading them on, not driving them.

And I said,'If only I can copy him, in my poor way do as he did, I too may be able to keep my little flock in the right path, the road which leads to God and Heaven'." This caused further difficulties, only a few weeks before the mission was due to be opened Dr Tait, the Bishop of London, claiming that the dedication would be against his and his predecessor's rules, suggested that the district be named after one of the twelve Apostles, instead. Farther Gurch pointed out that a number of other churches in the Diocese had been dedicated to other saints, the dedication to St Cyprian was allowed to remain; the new church celebrated its first Eucharist on 29 March 1866. Over the next thirty years, St Cyprian Mission Church flourished, but the church building could only hold one hundred and eighty people and became overcrowded. Lord Portman, refused to make available a site which would allow the building of a larger church, as he too did not like Gutch's churchmanship. Charles Gutch died with his vision of a larger permanent church unrealised.

The Bishop of London, Mandell Creighton, appointed the Reverend George Forbes, of St Paul's Church in Truro, Cornwall, as Gutch's successor. Forbes stressed that a new permanent church was urgently required, in 1901, Lord Portman agreed to sell a site for £1000, well below market value, provided that it could be demonstrated that sufficient funds were available to build the church and be ready for consecration by 1 June 1904, it was completed with a year to spare, was dedicated to the glory of God and the memory of Charles Gutch by the new Bishop of London, Arthur Winnington-Ingram. At this time, the church interior was little more than four walls and pillars, although the altars were furnished; the completion of the interior decoration was to be left for succeeding generations. The church was designed by Ninian Comper in a Gothic Revival style and built in 1903, it was built in red brick with stone dressings. The building has a nave and clerestory, but no tower, features Perpendicular window tracery and stained glass by Comper.

St Cyprian's was designed to reflect Comper's emphasis on the Eucharist and the influence on him of the Oxford Movement, he said his church was to resemble "a lantern, the altar is the flame within it". The interior in the Perpendicular style, features a white and gold colour scheme with ornate furnishings, including a finely carved and painted rood screen and a gilded classical font cover; the timber hammerbeam roof features tie beam trusses with panelled tracery spandrels. Comper's stated aim was "to fulfil the ideal of the English Parish Church... in the last manner of English Architecture". The building is regarded as one of London's most beautiful churches. Ian Nairn described the church as "a sunburst of white and gold and all-embracing love… the moment you go in through the door you know that everything is right"; the interior http://www.stcyprians.org.uk/ – official website