The Wyandot people or Wendat called the Huron Nation and Huron people, are an Iroquoian-speaking peoples of North America who emerged as a tribe around the north shore of Lake Ontario. They traditionally spoke the Wyandot language, a Northern Iroquoian language, were believed to number over 30,000 at the time of European encounter in the second decade of the 17th century. By the 15th century, the pre-contact Wyandot had settled in the large area from the north shores of most of present-day Lake Ontario, northwards up to Georgian Bay. From this homeland, they encountered the French explorer Samuel de Champlain in 1615; the historical Wyandot emerged in the late 17th century from the remnants of two earlier groups: the Wyandot Confederacy and the Tionontati. They were located in the southern part of what is now the Canadian province of Ontario around Georgian Bay. Drastically reduced in number by epidemic diseases after 1634, they were dispersed by war in 1649 from the Iroquois based in New York.
Today the Wyandot have a First Nations reserve in Canada. They have three major settlements in the United States, two of which are organized as independently governed, federally recognized tribes. Due to differing development of the groups, they speak distinct forms of Wendat and Wyandot languages; the Huron Range spanned the region from downriver of the source of the St. Lawrence River, along three-quarters of the northern shore of Lake Ontario, to the territory of the related Neutral people, extending north from both ends to wrap around Georgian Bay—which became their territorial center after their 1649 defeat and dispossession. Early theories placed Huron origin in the St. Lawrence Valley, with some arguing for a presence near present-day Montreal and former sites of the historic St. Lawrence Iroquoian peoples. Wendat is an Iroquoian language. Early 21st-century research in linguistics and archaeology confirm an historical connection between the Huron and the St. Lawrence Iroquois, but all of the Iroquoian-speaking peoples shared some aspects of their culture, including the Erie people, any or all of the Six Nations of the Iroquois, or the defunct Susquehannock tribe.
In 1975 and 1978, archeologists excavated a large 15th-century Huron village, now called the Draper Site, in Pickering, Ontario near Lake Ontario. In 2003 a larger village was discovered five kilometres away in Whitchurch-Stouffville; the sites each had been surrounded by a palisade. The Mantle Site had more than 70 multi-family longhouses. Canadian archeologist James F. Pendergast states: Indeed, there is now every indication that the late precontact Huron and their immediate antecedents developed in a distinct Huron homeland in southern Ontario along the north shore of Lake Ontario. Subsequently they moved from there to their historic territory on Georgian Bay, where they were encountered by Champlain in 1615. In the early 17th century, this Iroquoian people called themselves the Wendat, an autonym which means "Dwellers of the Peninsula" or "Islanders"; the Wendat historic territory was bordered on three sides by the waters of Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe. Early French explorers referred to these natives as the Huron, either from the French huron, or from hure.
According to tradition, French sailors thought that the bristly hairstyle of Wendat warriors resembled that of a boar. French fur traders and explorers called them the "bon Iroquois". An alternate etymology from Russell Errett in 1885 is that the name is from the Iroquoian name Irri-ronon, a name applied to the Erie nation, they pronounced the name as Hirri-ronon in French, known as Hirr-on, spelled in its present form, Huron. William Martin Beauchamp concurred in 1907 that Huron was at least related to the Iroqouian root ronon. Other etymological possibilities come from the Algonquin words tu-ron; the Wendat were not a tribe, but a confederacy of four or more tribes who had mutually intelligible languages. According to tradition, this Wendat Confederacy was initiated by the Attignawantans and the Attigneenongnahacs, who made their alliance in the 15th century, they were joined by the Arendarhonons about 1590, the Tahontaenrats around 1610. A fifth group, the Ataronchronons, may not have attained full membership in the confederacy, may have been a division of the Attignawantan.
The largest Wendat settlement, capital of the confederacy, was located at Ossossane. Modern-day Elmvale, Ontario developed near that site, they called their traditional territory Wendake. Related to the people of the Huron Confederacy were the Tionontate, a group whom the French called the Petun, for their cultivation of that crop, they were divided into two groups: the Deer and the Wolves. Considering that they formed the nucleus of the tribe known as the Wyandot, they too may have called themselves Wendat. Tuberculosis was endemic among the Huron, aggravated by the close and smoky living conditions in the longhouses. Despite this, the Huron on the whole were healthy; the earliest written accounts of the Huron were made by the French, who began exploring North America in the 16th century. News of the Europeans reached the Huron when Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River in the early 17th century; some Hur
The Pawnee are a Plains Indian tribe who are headquartered in Pawnee, Oklahoma. Pawnee people are enrolled in the federally recognized Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma, they lived in Nebraska and Kansas. In the Pawnee language, the Pawnee people refer to themselves as Chatiks si chatiks or "Men of Men."Historically, the Pawnee lived in villages of earth lodges with adjacent farmlands near the Loup and South Platte rivers. The Pawnee tribal economic activities throughout the year alternated between farming crops and hunting buffalo. In the early 19th century, the Pawnee numbered more than 10,000 people and were one of the largest and most powerful tribes in the west. Although dominating the Loup and Platte river areas for centuries, they suffered from increasing encroachment and attrition by their numerically superior, nomadic enemies: the Sioux (or Lakota and Arapaho; the Pawnee were at war with the Comanche and Kiowa farther south. They had suffered many losses due to Eurasian infectious diseases brought by the expanding Europeans, by 1860, the Pawnee population was reduced to 4,000.
It further decreased, because of disease, crop failure, warfare, to 2,400 by 1873, after which time the Pawnee were forced to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Many Pawnee warriors enlisted to serve as Indian scouts in the US Army to track and fight their tribal enemies resisting European-American expansion on the Great Plains. There are 3,200 enrolled Pawnee and nearly all reside in Oklahoma, their tribal headquarters is in Pawnee and their tribal jurisdictional area is in parts of Noble and Pawnee counties. The tribal constitution establishes the government of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma; this government consists of the Resaru Council, the Pawnee Business Council, the Supreme Court. Enrollment into the tribe requires a minimum 1⁄8th blood quantum; the Resaru Council known as the "Chiefs Council" consists of eight members, each serving four-year terms. Each band has two representatives on the Resaru Council selected by the members of the tribal bands, Kitkahaki and Ckiri; the Resaru Council has the right to review all acts of the Pawnee Business Council regarding the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma membership and Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma claims or rights growing out of treaties between the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma and the United States according to provision listed in the Pawnee Nation Constitution.
2013–2017Morgan Littlesun, 1st Chief Kitkehahki Band Ralph Haymond, 2nd Chief Kitkehahki Band, 2nd Nasharo Council Chief Matt Reed, 2nd Chief Chaui Band Pat Leading Fox, Sr. 1st Chief Skidi Band Jimmy Horn, 1st Chief Chaui Band, Nasharo Council Treasurer Warren Pratt, Jr. 2nd Chief Skidi Band, Nasharo Council 1st Chief Francis Morris, 1st Chief Pitahauirata Band Lester Moon Eagle, 2nd Chief Pitahauirata Band, Nasharo Council SecretaryCurrentMorgan Littlesun, 2nd Chief Kitkahaki Band Ralph Haymond, Jr. 1st Chief Kitkahaki Band Matt Reed, 1st Chief Cawi Band Jimmy Horn, 2nd Chief Cawi Band Pat Leading Fox, Sr. 2nd Chief, Ckiri Band Warren Pratt, Jr. 1st Chief, Ckiri Band Ron Rice, Sr. 1st Chief, Pitahawirata Band Tim Jim, 2nd Chief, Pitahawirata BandThe Pawnee Business Council is the supreme governing body of the Pawnee Tribe of Oklahoma. Subject to the limitations imposed by the Constitution and applicable Federal law, the Pawnee Business Council shall exercise all the inherent and treaty powers of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma by the enactment of legislation, the transaction of business, by otherwise speaking or acting on behalf of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma on all matters which the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma is empowered to act, including the authority to hire legal counsel to represent the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma.
Current Pawnee Business Council Bruce Pratt, President Darrell Wildcat, Vice President Phammie N. Littlesun, Treasurer Angela Thompson, Secretary Council Seat #1 Council Seat #2 Council Seat #3 Council Seat #4The new Council members were voted in by the people; the Pawnee operate two gaming casinos, three smoke shops, two fuel stations, one truck stop. Their estimated economic impact for 2010 was $10.5 million. Increased revenues from the casinos have helped them provide for education and welfare of their citizens, they operate their housing authority. The Pawnee were divided into two large groupings: the Skidi / Skiri-Federation living in the north and the South Bands. While the Skidi / Skiri-Federation were the most populous group of Pawnee, the Cawi / Chaui Band of the South Bands were the politically leading group, although each band was autonomous; as was typical of many Native American tribes, each band saw to its own. In response to pressures from the Spanish and Americans, as well as neighboring tribes, the Pawnee began to draw closer together.
South Bands called Tuhaáwit by the Skidi-FederationCáwiiʾi, Cawií, variants: Cawi, Chawi, or Tsawi Kítkehahki, Kítkahaahki, variants: Kitkahaki,Kitkehahki, or Kitkehaxki Kitkehahkisúraariksisuʾ or Kítkahaahkisuraariksisuʾ (Kitkahahki band proper ‘real Kitkahahki’ – the larger of two late 19th century divisions
Guillaume Delisle spelled Guillaume de l'Isle, was a French cartographer known for his popular and accurate maps of Europe and the newly explored Americas. Deslile was the son of Claude Delisle, his mother died after his father married again, to Charlotte Millet de la Croyère. Delisle and his second wife had as many as 12 children. Although the senior Delisle had studied law, he taught history and geography, he served as a tutor to lords. Among them was the duke Philippe d’Orléans, who became regent for the crown of France, collaborated with Nicolas Sanson, a well-known cartographer. Guillaume and two of his half-brothers, Joseph Nicolas and Louis, ended up pursuing similar careers in science. While his father has to be given credit for educating Guillaume, the boy showed early signs of being an exceptional talent, he soon contributed to the family workshop by drawing maps for his father's historical works. Some have questioned the authorship of these first maps, saying that Delisle only copied what his father had done before him.
In order to perfect his skills, Guillaume Delisle became the student of the astronomer Jean-Dominique Cassini. Early on he produced high-quality maps, the first being his Carte de la Nouvelle-France et des Pays Voisins in 1696. At 27, Delisle was admitted into the French Académie Royale des Sciences, an institution financed by the French state. After that date, he signed his maps with the title of "Géographe de l’Académie". Five years he moved to the Quai de l’Horloge in Paris, a true publishing hub where his business prospered. Delisle's progress culminated in 1718, he was appointed to teach geography to the Dauphin, King Louis XIV’s son, a task for which he received a salary. Again, his father's reputation as a man of science helped the younger Delisle. Historian Mary Sponberg Pedley says, "once authority was established, a geographer's name might retain enough value to support two or three generations of mapmakers". In Delisle's case, it could be said. Up to that point, he had drawn maps not only of European countries, such as Italy, Germany, Great Britain and regions such as the Duchy of Burgundy, but he had contributed to the empire's claims to explored continents of Africa and the Americas.
Like many cartographers of his day, Delisle did not travel with the explorers. He drew maps in his office, relying on a variety of data; the quality of his maps depended on a solid network to provide him first-hand information. Given his family's and his own reputation, Delisle had access to recent accounts of travellers who were returning from the New World, which gave him an advantage over his competitors. Being a member of the Académie, he kept current with recent discoveries in astronomy and measurement; when he could not confirm the accuracy of a source, he would indicate it on his maps. For instance, his Carte de la Louisiane shows a river that the baron of Lahontan claimed he discovered; as no one else could validate it, Delisle noted a warning to the viewer. Delisle's search for exactitude and intellectual honesty entangled him in a legal dispute in 1700 with Jean-Baptiste Nolin, a fellow cartographer. Noticing Nolin had used details that were considered original from his Map of the World, Delisle took Nolin to court to prove his plagiarism.
In the end, Delisle convinced the jury of scientists that Nolin knew only the old methods of cartography and must have stolen the information from Delisle's own manuscript. Nolin's maps were confiscated and he was forced to pay the court costs of the case; the high scientific quality of the work produced by the Delisle family contrasted with the workshop of Sanson. While Sanson knowingly published outdated facts and mistakes, Delisle worked to present up-to-date knowledge. After Guillaume Delisle's death in 1726, his widow tried to preserve the workshop and protect the family, she appealed to the king with the help of the abbot Bignon, the king's librarian and president of the academies. By that time, Guillaume's brothers Joseph-Nicolas and Louis had left France to serve Peter the Great in Russia; the youngest Delisle, Simon Claude, lacked practical knowledge in cartography. The Delisle workshop was bequeathed to Philippe Buache. Dutch cartographer Jan Barend Elwe reissued maps by Delisle in the late 18th century.
Historian David Buisseret has traced the roots of the flourishing of cartography in the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe. He noted five distinct reasons: 1) admiration of antiquity the rediscovery of Ptolemy, considered to be the first geographer; the reign of Louis XIV is considered to represent the beginning of cartography as a science in France. The evolution of cartography during the transition between the 17th and 18th centuries involved advancements on a technical level, as well as those on a representative level. According to Marco Petrella, the map developed "from a tool used to affirm the administrative borders of the reign and its features…into a tool, necessary to intervene in territory and thus establish control of it." Because unification of the
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
The Mandan are a Native American tribe of the Great Plains who have lived for centuries in what is now North Dakota. They are enrolled in the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation. About half of the Mandan still reside in the area of the reservation; the Mandan lived along both banks of the Upper Missouri River and two of its tributaries—the Heart and Knife rivers— in present-day North and South Dakota. Speakers of Mandan, a Siouan language, they developed a agrarian culture, they established permanent villages featuring large, earth lodges, some 40 feet in diameter, surrounding a central plaza. Matrilineal families lived in the lodges; the Mandan were a great trading nation, trading their large corn surpluses with other tribes in exchange for bison meat and fat. Food was the primary item, but they traded for horses and other trade goods; the Mandan population was 3,600 in the early 18th century. It is estimated to have been 10,000-15,000 before European encounter. Decimated by a widespread smallpox epidemic in 1781, the people had to abandon several villages, remnants of the Hidatsa gathered with them in a reduced number of villages.
In 1836, there were more than 1,600 full-blood Mandans but, following another smallpox epidemic in 1836-37, this number was estimated to have dropped to 125 by 1838. In the 20th century, the people began to recover. In the 1990s, 6,000 people were enrolled in the Three Affiliated Tribes. In the 2010 Census, 1,171 people reported Mandan ancestry; some 365 of them identified as full-bloods, 806 had partial Mandan ancestry. The English name Mandan is derived from the French-Canadian explorer Pierre Gaultier, Sieur de la Verendrye, who in 1738 heard it as Mantannes from his Assiniboine guides, which call the Mandan Mayádąna, he had heard the earth lodge peoples referred to by the Cree as Ouachipouennes, "the Sioux who go underground". The Assiniboine are Siouan speakers. Nearby Siouan speakers had exonyms similar to Mantannes in their languages, for instance, Teton Miwáthaŋni or Miwátąni, Yanktonai Miwátani, Yankton Mawátani or Mąwátanį, Dakota Mawátąna or Mawátadą, etc; the Mandan have used differing autonyms to refer to themselves: Numakaki was inclusive and not limited to a specific village or band.
This name was used before the smallpox epidemic of 1837-1838. Nueta, the name used after this epidemic was the name of Mandan villagers living on the west bank of the Missouri River; the Mandan used Nųmą́khų́·ki / Rųwą́ʔka·ki to refer to a general tribal entity. This word fell to disuse and instead two divisions' names were used, Nuweta or Ruptare; the term Nų́ʔetaa / Rų́ʔeta was extended to refer to a general tribal entity. The name Mi-ah´ta-nēs recorded by Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden in 1862 means "people on the river bank", but this may be a folk etymology. Various other terms and alternate spellings that occur in the literature including: Mayátana, Mayátani, Mąwádanį, Mąwádąδį, Mandani, Mantannes, Mendanne, Mandians, Maw-dân, les Mandals, Me-too´-ta-häk, Numakshi, Rųwą́'kši, Wíhwatann, Mevataneo. Gloria Jahoda in Trail of Tears states that they call themselves the "Pheasant people." George Catlin said the Mandans The Mandan language or Nų́ų́ʔetaa íroo belongs to the Siouan language family. It was thought to be related to the languages of the Hidatsa and the Crow.
However, since the Mandan language has been in contact with Hidatsa and Crow for many years, the exact relationship between Mandan and other Siouan languages has been obscured. For this reason, linguists classify Mandan most as a separate branch of the Siouan family. Mandan has two main dialects: Nuetare. Only the Nuptare variety survived into the 20th century, all speakers were bilingual in Hidatsa. Linguist Mauricio Mixco of the University of Utah has been involved in fieldwork with remaining speakers since 1993; as of 1999, there were only six fluent speakers of Mandan still alive. As of 2010, programs in local schools encourage students' learning the language; the Mandan and their language received much attention from European Americans, in part because their lighter skin color caused speculation they were of European origin. In the 1830s, Prince Maximilian of Wied spent more time recording Mandan over all other Siouan languages and additionally prepared a comparison list of Mandan and Welsh words.
The theory of the Mandan/Welsh connection, was supported by George Catlin, but researchers have found no evidence of such ancestry. Mandan has different grammatical forms. Questions asked of men must use the suffix -oʔša while the suffix -oʔrą is used when asking of women; the indicative suffix is -oʔs when addressing men and -oʔre when addressing women, for imperatives: -ta, -rą. Mandan, like many other North American languages, has elements of sound symbolism in their vocabulary. A /s/ sound denotes smallness/less intensity, /ʃ/ denotes medium-ness, /x/ denotes largeness/greater intensity: síre "yellow" šíre "tawny" xíre "brown" sró "tinkle" xró "rattle" The exact origins and early history of the Mandan is unknown. Early studies by linguists gave evidence that the Mandan language may have been related to the language of the Ho-Chunk or Winnebago people of present-day Wisconsin. Scholars theorize the Mandan ance
The Missouria or Missouri are a Native American tribe that originated in the Great Lakes region of United States before European contact. The tribe belongs to the Chiwere division of the Siouan language family, together with the Iowa and Otoe; the tribe lived in bands near the mouth of the Grand River at its confluence with the Missouri River. Since Indian removal, today they live in Oklahoma, they are federally recognized as the Otoe-Missouria Tribe based in Red Rock, Oklahoma. French colonists adapted a form of the Illinois language-name for the people: Wimihsoorita, their name means "One who has dugout canoes". In their own Siouan language, the Missouri call themselves Niúachi spelled Niutachi, meaning "People of the River Mouth." The Osage called them the Waçux¢a, the Quapaw called them the Wa-ju'-xd¢ǎ. The state of Missouri and the Missouri River are named for the tribe; the tribe's oral history tells. They began migrating south in the 16th century. By 1600, the Missouria lived near the confluence of the Grand and Missouri rivers, where they settled through the 18th century.
Their tradition says that they split from the Otoe tribe, which belongs to the same Chiwere branch of the Siouan language, because of a love affair between the children of two tribal chiefs. The 17th century brought hardships to the Missouria; the Sauk and Fox attacked them. Their society was more disrupted by the high fatalities from epidemics of smallpox and other Eurasian infectious diseases that accompanied contact with Europeans; the French explorer Jacques Marquette contacted the tribe in 1673 and paved the way for trade with the French. The Missouria migrated west of the Missouri River into Osage territory. During this time, they acquired hunted buffalo; the French explorer Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont visited the people in the early 1720s. He married the daughter of a Missouria chief, they settled nearby, Veniard created alliances with the people. He built Fort Orleans in 1723 as a trading post near Missouri, it was occupied until 1726. In 1730 an attack by the Sauk/Fox tribe nearly destroyed the killing hundreds.
Most survivors reunited with the Otoe, while some joined the Kansa. After a smallpox outbreak in 1829, fewer than 100 Missouria survived, they all joined the Otoe, they signed treaties with the US government in 1854 to cede their lands in Missouri. They relocated to the Otoe-Missouria reservation, created on the Big Blue River at the Kansas-Nebraska border; the US pressured the two tribes into ceding more lands in 1876 and 1881. In 1880 the tribes split into two factions, the Coyote, who were traditionalists, the Quakers, who were assimilationists; the Coyote settled on the Iowa Reservation in Indian Territory. The Quakers negotiated a small separate reservation in Indian Territory. By 1890 most of the Coyote band rejoined the Quakers on their reservation. Under the Dawes Act, by 1907 members of the tribes were registered and allotted individual plots of land per household; the US declared any excess communal land of the tribe as "surplus" and sold it to European-American settlers. The tribe merged with the Otoe tribe.
The Curtis Act required the disbanding of tribal courts and governments in order to assimilate the people and prepare the territory for statehood, but the tribe created their own court system in 1900. The Missouria were farmers in the early 20th century. After oil was discovered on their lands in 1912, the US government forced many of the tribe off their allotments. According to the enthnographer James Mooney, the population of the tribe was about 200 families in 1702. Since their population numbers are combined with those of the Otoe. Pritzer, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1Dickey, Michael; the people of the river's mouth: in search of the Missouria Indians. Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 9780826272447. OCLC 781854373. History of Missouri Indian Tribes, Access Genealogy, extracts for Missouria from John R. Swanton, The Indian Tribes of North America, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 145, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1953.
Otoe-Missouria Genealogy "Missouris". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. Soodalter, Ron. "The Tribes of Missouri Part 1: When the Osage & Missouria Reigned". Missouri Life. Archived from the original on 2019-03-14. Retrieved 2019-03-14. Soodalter, Ron. "The Tribes of Missouri Part 2: Things Fall Apart". Missouri Life. Archived from the original on 2019-03-14. Retrieved 2019-03-14. Soodalter, Ron. "The Tribes of Missouri Part 3: Homecoming". Missouri Life. Archived from the original on 2019-03-14. Retrieved 2019-03-14. Soodalter, Ron. "The Otoe-Missouria Tribe Today". Missouri Life. Archived from the original on 2019-03-14. Retrieved 2019-03-14