A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of its properties. Chemists describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists measure substance proportions, reaction rates, other chemical properties; the word'chemist' is used to address Pharmacists in Commonwealth English. Chemists use this knowledge to learn the composition and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful occurring substances and create new artificial substances and useful processes. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry. Materials scientists and metallurgists share skills with chemists; the work of chemists is related to the work of chemical engineers, who are concerned with the proper design and evaluation of the most cost-effective large-scale chemical plants and work with industrial chemists on the development of new processes and methods for the commercial-scale manufacture of chemicals and related products.
The roots of chemistry can be traced to the phenomenon of burning. Fire was a mystical force that transformed one substance into another and thus was of primary interest to mankind, it was fire. After gold was discovered and became a precious metal, many people were interested to find a method that could convert other substances into gold; this led to the protoscience called alchemy. The word chemist is derived from an abbreviation of alchimista. Alchemists discovered many chemical processes. Chemistry as we know it today, was invented by Antoine Lavoisier with his law of conservation of mass in 1783; the discoveries of the chemical elements has a long history culminating in the creation of the periodic table by Dmitri Mendeleev. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry created in 1901 gives an excellent overview of chemical discovery since the start of the 20th century. Jobs for chemists require at least a bachelor's degree, but many positions those in research, require a Master of Science or a Doctor of Philosophy.
Most undergraduate programs emphasize mathematics and physics as well as chemistry because chemistry is known as "the central science", thus chemists ought to have a well-rounded knowledge about science. At the Master's level and higher, students tend to specialize in a particular field. Fields of specialization include biochemistry, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, theoretical chemistry, quantum chemistry, environmental chemistry, thermochemistry. Postdoctoral experience may be required for certain positions. Workers whose work involves chemistry, but not at a complexity requiring an education with a chemistry degree, are referred to as chemical technicians; such technicians do such work as simpler, routine analyses for quality control or in clinical laboratories, having an associate degree. A chemical technologist has more education or experience than a chemical technician but less than a chemist having a bachelor's degree in a different field of science with an associate degree in chemistry or having the same education as a chemical technician but more experience.
There are degrees specific to become a chemical technologist, which are somewhat distinct from those required when a student is interested in becoming a professional chemist. A Chemical technologist is more involved in the management and operation of the equipment and instrumentation necessary to perform chemical analyzes than a chemical technician, they are part of the team of a chemical laboratory in which the quality of the raw material, intermediate products and finished products is analyzed. They perform functions in the areas of environmental quality control and the operational phase of a chemical plant. In addition to all the training given to chemical technologists in their respective degree, a chemist is trained to understand more details related to chemical phenomena so that the chemist can be capable of more planning on the steps to achieve a distinct goal via a chemistry-related endeavor; the higher the competency level achieved in the field of chemistry, the higher the responsibility given to that chemist and the more complicated the task might be.
Chemistry, as a field, have so many applications that different tasks and objectives can be given to workers or scientists with these different levels of education or experience. The specific title of each job varies from position to position, depending on factors such as the kind of industry, the routine level of the task, the current needs of a particular enterprise, the size of the enterprise or hiring firm, the philosophy and management principles of the hiring firm, the visibility of the competency and individual achievements of the one seeking employment, economic factors such as recession or economic depression, among other factors, so this makes it difficult to categorize the exact roles of these chemistry-related workers as standard for that given level of education; because of these factors affecting exact job titles with distinct responsibilities, some chemists might begin doing technician tasks while other chemists might begin doing more complicated tasks than those of a technician, such as tasks th
Atlantic City, New Jersey
Atlantic City is a resort city in Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, known for its casinos and beaches. In 2010, the city had a population of 39,558, it was incorporated on May 1854, from portions of Egg Harbor Township and Galloway Township. It borders Absecon, Pleasantville, Ventnor City, Egg Harbor Township, the Atlantic Ocean. Atlantic City inspired the U. S. version of the board game Monopoly the street names. Since 1921, Atlantic City has been the home of the Miss America pageant. In 1976, New Jersey voters legalized casino gambling in Atlantic City; the first casino opened two years later. Because of its location in South Jersey, hugging the Atlantic Ocean between marshlands and islands, Atlantic City was viewed by developers as prime real estate and a potential resort town. In 1853, the first commercial hotel, the Belloe House, was built at the intersection of Massachusetts and Atlantic Avenues; the city was incorporated in 1854, the same year in which the Camden and Atlantic Railroad train service began.
Built on the edge of the bay, this served as the direct link of this remote parcel of land with Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. That same year, construction of the Absecon Lighthouse, designed by George Meade of the Corps of Topographical Engineers, was approved, with work initiated the next year. By 1874 500,000 passengers a year were coming to Atlantic City by rail. In Boardwalk Empire: The Birth, High Times, Corruption of Atlantic City, "Atlantic City's Godfather" Nelson Johnson describes the inspiration of Dr. Jonathan Pitney to develop Atlantic City as a health resort, his efforts to convince the municipal authorities that a railroad to the beach would be beneficial, his successful alliance with Samuel Richards to achieve that goal, the actual building of the railroad, the experience of the first 600 riders, who "were chosen by Samuel Richards and Jonathan Pitney": After arriving in Atlantic City, a second train brought the visitors to the door of the resort's first public lodging, the United States Hotel.
The hotel was owned by the railroad. It was a sprawling, four-story structure built to house 2,000 guests, it opened while it was still under construction, with only one wing standing, that wasn't completed. By year's end, when it was constructed, the United States Hotel was not only the first hotel in Atlantic City but the largest in the nation, its rooms totaled more than 600, its grounds covered some 14 acres. The first boardwalk was built in 1870 along a portion of the beach in an effort to help hotel owners keep sand out of their lobbies. Businesses were restricted and the boardwalk was removed each year at the end of the peak season; because of its effectiveness and popularity, the boardwalk was expanded in length and width, modified several times in subsequent years. The historic length of the boardwalk, before the destructive 1944 Great Atlantic Hurricane, was about 7 miles and it extended from Atlantic City to Longport, through Ventnor and Margate; the first road connecting the city to the mainland at Pleasantville was completed in 1870 and charged a 30-cent toll.
Albany Avenue was the first road to the mainland available without a toll. By 1878, because of the growing popularity of the city, one railroad line could no longer keep up with demand. Soon, the Philadelphia and Atlantic City Railway was constructed to transport tourists to Atlantic City. At this point massive hotels like The United States and Surf House, as well as smaller rooming houses, had sprung up all over town; the United States Hotel took up a full city block between Atlantic, Pacific and Maryland Avenues. These hotels were not only impressive in size, but featured the most updated amenities, were considered quite luxurious for their time. In the early part of the 20th century, Atlantic City went through a radical building boom. Many of the modest boarding houses that dotted the boardwalk were replaced with large hotels. Two of the city's most distinctive hotels were the Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel and the Traymore Hotel. In 1903, Josiah White III bought a parcel of land near Ohio Avenue and the boardwalk and built the Queen Anne style Marlborough House.
The hotel was a success and, in 1905–06, he chose to expand the hotel and bought another parcel of land adjacent to his Marlborough House. In an effort to make his new hotel a source of conversation, White hired the architectural firm of Price and McLanahan; the firm made use of reinforced concrete, a new building material invented by Jean-Louis Lambot in 1848. The hotel's Spanish and Moorish themes, capped off with its signature dome and chimneys, represented a step forward from other hotels that had a classically designed influence. White merged the two hotels into the Marlborough-Blenheim. Bally's Atlantic City was constructed at this location; the Traymore Hotel was located at the corner of the boardwalk. Begun in 1879 as a small boarding house, the hotel grew through a series of uncoordinated expansions. By 1914, the hotel's owner, Daniel White, taking a hint from the Marlborough-Blenheim, commissioned the firm of Price and McLanahan to build an bigger hotel. Rising 16 stories, the tan brick and gold-capped hotel would become one of the city's best-known landmarks.
The hotel made use of ocean-facing hotel rooms by jutting its wings farther from the main portion of the hotel along Pacific Avenue. One by one, additional large hotels were constructed along the boardwalk, including the Brighton, Shelburne, Ritz Carlton, Madison House, the Breakers. The
Citizendium is an English-language wiki-based free encyclopedia project launched by Larry Sanger, who had co-founded Wikipedia in 2001. It was first announced in September 2006 as a fork of the English Wikipedia, but that idea was abandoned prior to its March 2007 public launch in favor of emphasizing original articles; the project aims to improve on the Wikipedia model by providing increased reliability. It hopes to achieve this by requiring all contributors to use their real names, by moderating the project for unprofessional behavior, by providing what it calls "gentle expert oversight" of everyday contributors, through its "approved articles". Approved articles have undergone a form of peer-review by topic experts with credentials, are closed to real-time editing. Active contributors increased through the first quarter of 2008 and declined; as of January 2019, it had 16,978 articles, of which 166 had achieved editorial approval, around 2 contributors who made at least 1 edit in the previous month.
The last managing editor was Anthony Sebastian, until the office was vacated in 2016. Sanger said in a 17 October 2006 press release that Citizendium "will soon attempt to unseat Wikipedia as the go-to destination for general information online". In August 2007, he captioned its pages: "The world needs a more credible free encyclopedia." The project began its pilot phase in October and November 2006. On 18 January 2007, a change of plans was announced. Sanger announced on the CZ mailing list that only articles marked "CZ Live", those which have been or will soon be worked on by Citizendium contributors, would remain on the site, all other articles forked from Wikipedia would be deleted. Not all Citizendium contributors were supportive of this change, but Sanger emphasized that this deletion was "an experiment" and a new set of Wikipedia articles could be uploaded if the experiment were deemed unsuccessful. In May 2009, Sanger reduced his direct activity at Citizendium, and, in a message on 30 July 2009, he reminded those on the Citizendium-l mailing list of his declared intention not to serve as editor-in-chief for more than two or three years after the start of the project.
Sanger has reiterated his call for the Citizendium community to prepare an orderly process for choosing a new editor-in-chief. Sanger said that he was spending more time on his WatchKnow project because he needs to earn an income—he said the "Citizendium project doesn't earn me a dime"—and because the Citizendium community had demonstrated that it could function without his close, daily involvement, because "there are squeakier wheels in my life just now", he added that stepping aside may "precipitate something of a constitutional crisis, considering that we never adopted a proper charter". Citizendium ratified its charter in September 2010. On 22 September 2010, Sanger stepped down as editor-in-chief and subsequently gave up editorial powers and rights to the project. Sanger did not appoint a successor or interim editor-in-chief, the project's financial position did not become clear until after his departure. According to statements and essays on Citizendium, the project was intended to begin as a fork of Wikipedia, carrying a copy of each article—under the rules of the GNU Free Documentation License—as it existed on Wikipedia at the time of Citizendium's launch.
However, after initiating the idea of not forking, soliciting comments on the matter from Citizendium mailing list and web forum members, Sanger said that a complete fork at launch was not a "foregone conclusion". On 18 January 2007, Sanger announced that the pilot would, as an experiment, only carry articles that had been, or would soon be, worked on by Citizendium contributors, instead of a complete set of Wikipedia articles, he stated that the experiment "represents a reconception of our project's basic aim". No announcement was made on Citizendium editions in languages other than English, but Sanger stated that they may be forthcoming after the English-language version was established and working. In a review of Andrew Keen's book The Cult of the Amateur, Sanger comments on Keen's favorable treatment of Citizendium: "The first example of a'solution' he offers is the Citizendium, or the Citizens' Compendium, which I like to describe as Wikipedia with editors and real names, but how can Citizendium be a solution to the problems he raises, if it has experts working without pay, the result is free?
If it succeeds, won't it contribute to the decline of reference publishing?" The stated aim of the project is to create a "new compendium of knowledge" based on the contributions of "intellectuals", defined as "educated, thinking people who read about science or ideas regularly". Citizendium aimed to foster an expert culture and a community that encourages participants to "respect" the expert contributions. Experts are required to verify their qualifications for transparency and publicly accepted authority; this contrasts with the open and anonymous nature of Wikipedia, where subject specialists have neither any verifiable special knowledge of their subject nor agreed special status. Sanger stated that editors would not have pre-approval rights over edits by ordinary authors, though editors would have somewhat undefined authority over articles that fall within their specific area of expertise. Unlike Wikipedia, Citizendium does not allow anonymous editing. Participants must register under their real names with a working email address.
Sanger decided that Citizendium admi
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
The Chem-E-Car Competition is an annual college competition for students majoring in Chemical Engineering. According to the competition's official rules, students must design small-scale automobiles that operate by chemical means, along with a poster describing their research. During the competition, they must drive their car a fixed distance down a wedge-shaped course in order to demonstrate its capabilities. In addition to driving a specified distance, they must hold a payload of 0-500 mL of water; the exact distance and payload is revealed to the participants one hour before the competition. The size of designed cars cannot exceed certain specifications and cars must operate using "green" methods, which do not release any pollution or waste in the form of a visible liquid or gas, such as exhaust; the dimensions of the car are to be within 20x30x40 cm. This competition is hosted in the United States by the AIChE, winners of the competitions receive various awards, depending on how they placed.
Poster Competition Ribbons for 1st, 2nd, 3rd place Ribbon for Most Creative Drive System Ribbon for Most Creative Vehicle Design Performance Competition 1st place: $200 and Ribbon 2nd place: $100 and Ribbon 3rd place: Honorable mention and Ribbon Ribbons for 4th and 5th place finishers Ribbon for Spirit of Competition 1st place: $2,000 and a trophy 2nd place: $1,000 and a trophy 3rd place: $500 and a trophy Best Use of a Biological Reaction to Power a Car - $1,000 Prize: Sponsored by the Society for Biological Engineering SAChE Safety Award for the best application of the principles of chemical process safety to the Chem-E-Car competition. Most Consistent Performance - This award is based on the best average score for the two runs that the vehicle makes, it has been created to recognize the team that has designed and most understands the performance of the reaction that powers the vehicle. Award consists of a plaque. Spirit of the Competition - This award is given to the team displaying the most team spirit as decided by a panel of judges.
Award consists of a plaque. Most Creative Drive System - Recognition is awarded to the team that has designed and installed the most creative propulsion system; the winner is decided by a panel of judges during the poster competition. Award consists of a plaque. Golden Tire Award - In 2002, Northeastern University team members created this award to recognize the team with the most creative vehicle design; the national committee has adopted this as an annual award. The winning entry is decided by a ballot cast by each team entered in the competition. Award consists of a plaque. 2018 - Georgia Institute of Technology 2017 - Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember 2016 - Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 2015 – Cornell University and McGill University 2014 - University of Utah 2013 - University of Tulsa 2012 – Cornell University 2011 – University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez 2010 – Cornell University 2009 – Northeastern University 2008 – Cornell University 2007 – Cooper Union 2006 – University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez 2005 – Tennessee Tech University 2004 – University of Tulsa 2003 – University of Dayton 2002 – University of Kentucky, Paducah 2001 – Colorado State University 2000 – University of Akron 1999 – University of Michigan The competition has various rules: The only energy source for the propulsion of the car is a chemical reaction.
No liquid discharge is allowed. No obnoxious odor discharge is allowed. No commercial batteries are allowed as the power source; the stopping mechanism has to be controlled by a chemical reaction. No brakes, mechanical or electronic timing devices are allowed. All components of the car must fit into a box of dimensions no larger than 40 cm x 30 cm x 20 cm; the car may be disassembled to meet this requirement. The cost of the contents of the "shoe box" and the chemicals must not exceed $2,000; the vehicle cost includes the donated cost of any equipment. The time donated by university machine shops and other personnel will not be included in the total price of the car, it is expected. The cost of pressure testing is not included in the capital cost of the car; each car is required to have a poster board explaining how the car runs, some of its specific features, how it's environmentally friendly. Judges score these posters on four different things: the description of the chemical reaction and power source, the creativity of the design and its unique features and safety features, the overall quality of the poster, along with the team's presentation.
Only posters judged with a score of 70% or above may move on to the performance competition. Some ideas for chemical reactions have been using pressurized air or using electricity created by the dissolving of metals in certain acids. One pedantic idea by Cooper Union was to use a fuel cell to power their car. Winners in this competition aren't determined by whether their car is faster or more powerful, but how accurate their chemical reaction to stop their vehicle is; this is quite difficult when the load the car must carry and distance it has to travel are unknown until the day of the competition. So teams must find a method, flexible enough to fit a range of payloads and distances, reliable enough so it doesn't fail with real world variables. Winners in the past have had a variety of ways of dealing with this problem, such as an iodine cloc
Sustainability is the process of maintaining change in a balanced environment, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations. For many in the field, sustainability is defined through the following interconnected domains or pillars: environment and social, which according to Fritjof Capra is based on the principles of Systems Thinking. Sub-domains of sustainable development have been considered also: cultural and political. While sustainable development may be the organizing principle for sustainability for some, for others, the two terms are paradoxical. Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Brundtland Report for the World Commission on Environment and Development introduced the term of sustainable development.
Sustainability can be defined as a socio-ecological process characterized by the pursuit of a common ideal. An ideal is by definition unattainable in space. However, by persistently and dynamically approaching it, the process results in a sustainable system. Healthy ecosystems and environments are necessary to the survival of other organisms. Ways of reducing negative human impact are environmentally-friendly chemical engineering, environmental resources management and environmental protection. Information is gained from green computing, green chemistry, earth science, environmental science and conservation biology. Ecological economics studies the fields of academic research that aim to address human economies and natural ecosystems. Moving towards sustainability is a social challenge that entails international and national law, urban planning and transport, supply chain management and individual lifestyles and ethical consumerism. Ways of living more sustainably can take many forms from reorganizing living conditions, reappraising economic sectors, or work practices, using science to develop new technologies, or designing systems in a flexible and reversible manner, adjusting individual lifestyles that conserve natural resources."The term'sustainability' should be viewed as humanity's target goal of human-ecosystem equilibrium, while'sustainable development' refers to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead us to the end point of sustainability."
Despite the increased popularity of the use of the term "sustainability", the possibility that human societies will achieve environmental sustainability has been, continues to be, questioned—in light of environmental degradation, climate change, population growth and societies' pursuit of unlimited economic growth in a closed system. The name sustainability is derived from the Latin sustinere. Sustain can mean "maintain", "support", or "endure". Since the 1980s sustainability has been used more in the sense of human sustainability on planet Earth and this has resulted in the most quoted definition of sustainability as a part of the concept sustainable development, that of the Brundtland Commission of the United Nations on March 20, 1987: "sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"; the 2005 World Summit on Social Development identified sustainable development goals, such as economic development, social development and environmental protection.
This view has been expressed as an illustration using three overlapping ellipses indicating that the three pillars of sustainability are not mutually exclusive and can be mutually reinforcing. In fact, the three pillars are interdependent, in the long run none can exist without the others; the three pillars have served as a common ground for numerous sustainability standards and certification systems in recent years, in particular in the food industry. Standards which today explicitly refer to the triple bottom line include Rainforest Alliance, Fairtrade and UTZ Certified; some sustainability experts and practitioners have illustrated four pillars of sustainability, or a quadruple bottom line. One such pillar is future generations, which emphasizes the long-term thinking associated with sustainability. There is an opinion that considers resource use and financial sustainability as two additional pillars of sustainability. Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global efforts to meet basic human needs without destroying or degrading the natural environment.
The question becomes how to represent the relationship between those needs and the environment. A study from 2005 pointed out. Ecological economist Herman Daly asked, "what use is a sawmill without a forest?" From this perspective, the economy is a subsystem of human society, itself a subsystem of the biosphere, a gain in one sector is a loss from another. This perspective led to the nested circles figure of'economics' inside'society' inside the'environment'; the simple definition that sustainability is something that improves "the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting eco-systems", though vague, conveys the idea of sustainability having quantifiable limits. But sustainability is a call to action, a task in progress or "journe
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, engineering mathematics, materials science principles to design, analyze and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the broadest of the engineering disciplines; the mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery and cooling systems, transport systems, watercraft, medical devices and others, it is the branch of engineering that involves the design and operation of machinery. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science.
The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements. It overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may work in the field of biomedical engineering with biomechanics, transport phenomena, bionanotechnology, modelling of biological systems; the application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives of various ancient and medieval societies. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria created the first steam engine. In China, Zhang Heng improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, Ma Jun invented a chariot with differential gears; the medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two centuries before escapement devices were found in medieval European clocks.
He invented the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive. During the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim inventors made remarkable contributions in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and presented many mechanical designs. Al-Jazari is the first known person to create devices such as the crankshaft and camshaft, which now form the basics of many mechanisms. During the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering occurred in England. Sir Isaac Newton formulated Newton's Laws of Motion and developed Calculus, the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his works for years, but he was persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Sir Edmond Halley, much to the benefit of all mankind. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is credited with creating Calculus during this time period. During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools were developed in England and Scotland.
This allowed mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the engines to power them; the first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first such professional society Institution of Civil Engineers. On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, Germany in 1848. In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers was formed in 1880, becoming the third such professional engineering society, after the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Institute of Mining Engineers; the first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. Education in mechanical engineering has been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science.
Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at various universities worldwide. Mechanical engineering programs take four to five years of study and result in a Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science Engineering, Bachelor of Technology, Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering, or Bachelor of Applied Science degree, in or with emphasis in mechanical engineering. In Spain and most of South America, where neither B. Sc. nor B. Tech. Programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is "Mechanical Engineer", the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, training, but in order to qualify as an Engineer one has to pass a state exam at the end of the course. In Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a'Diploma' Thesis, which upon completion a'Diploma' is awarded rather than a B. Sc. In the United States, most undergraduate mechanical engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology to ensure similar course requirements and standards a