New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
William Lawrence Saunders
William Lawrence Saunders was a mining engineer, chairman of the Naval Consulting Board during World War I. He was chairman of the board of Ingersoll Rand, he was born in 1856 to Eliza S. Morton in Columbus, Georgia, his family moved to Apalachicola, Florida where his father became the pastor of the Trinity Protestant Episcopal Church. He married Bertha Louise Gaston on August 3, 1886 in Rhode Island, they had Louise Saunders Perkins and Jean Saunders Lancaster. On March 24, 1904 he was made president of the Ingersoll Sergeant Drill Company after the death of William Russell Grace. In May 1905, the Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill Company and the Rand Drill Company merged into Ingersoll Rand, he became the first president of the now combined Ingersoll Rand in 1906. He resided in New Jersey, he died on June 1931 in Tenerife on the Canary Islands. He was buried in Hillside Cemetery in New Jersey. William Lawrence Saunders at Find a Grave William Lawrence Saunders Gold Medal
Benjamin Bowditch Thayer
Benjamin Bowditch Thayer was a vice president of Anaconda Copper and served on the Naval Consulting Board. He was president of the New York Society of Harvard Engineers, he was born on October 1862, in San Francisco, California. He attended the public schools in Quincy, Massachusetts the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Harvard University, he married Marie Renouard. He served on the Naval Consulting Board in 1915, he died at New York Hospital following an operation. His widow died in 1950
Everette Lee DeGolyer
Everette Lee DeGolyer, was a prominent oilman and philanthropist in Dallas. He was known as "the founder of applied geophysics in the petroleum industry", as "the father of American geophysics," and was a legendary collector of rare books. DeGolyer was born in a sod house on October 9, 1886, the son of John and Narcissa Kagy Huddle DeGolyer of Greensburg, Kansas, he was the eldest of three children. The family moved to Joplin, where Everette attended school while his father worked in lead and zinc mining in the area. In 1901 the family moved to Norman, where Everette attended the University of Oklahoma preparatory school. DeGolyer attended the University of Oklahoma beginning in the fall of 1905. During the summers of 1906–1909 he worked for the United States Geological Survey, starting as a cook and working up to field assistant. In 1909 DeGolyer began work as a field geologist for the Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company, remaining with the company for ten years, where he was involved in the discoveries of the Potrero del Llano No. 4 in 1910 and the Las Naranjas field after 1911.
DeGolyer married Nell Virginia Goodrich, a teaching assistant at the University of Oklahoma, in 1910, living in Tampico, Mexico. DeGolyer returned to the University of Oklahoma to finish his A. B. degree in geology, receiving it in 1911. DeGolyer opened a petroleum geology consultancy in 1914, moving to Montclair, New Jersey to work in New York City in 1916. In 1919, while working as a consultant to the British entrepreneur Lord Cowdray, DeGolyer negotiated the sale of the El Aguila company to Royal Dutch Shell. In the same year, DeGolyer organized the formation of the Rycade Oil Company as well as the Amerada Petroleum Corporation for Lord Cowdray, rising to become general manager and chairman from 1929 to 1932 DeGolyer left the firm in 1932, but remained with Rycade, established to explore salt dome oil deposits through 1941; as a geophysical consultant with Rycade, DeGolyer made the first torsion balance survey in the United States at the Spindletop oilfield. An oilfield found by DeGolyer on behalf of Rycade at Nash, Texas was the first oilfield anywhere to be discovered using geophysics.
From 1925 DeGolyer established the Geophysical Research Corporation as a subsidiary of Amerada to develop reflection seismology techniques originated by J. Clarence Karcher and Eugene McDermott, leaving in 1932 to move to Dallas, Texas. DeGolyer provided financial support for the 1930 establishment of GRC's successor, Geophysical Service Incorporated. GSI went on to spin off Texas Instruments. In 1936 with Lewis MacNaughton, DeGolyer established the petroleum exploration consulting firm DeGolyer and MacNaughton, Core Laboratories, Incorporated the same year to provide drilling core and fluids analysis. DeGolyer was associated with the Atlatl Royalty Company from 1932 to 1950 and the Felmont Corporation in 1934. In 1956 he established Isotopes, Incorporated to provide radioactive isotopes for oilfield and industrial purposes. During World War II, DeGolyer served as director of conservation with the Office of the Coordinator for National Defense from 1941 to 1942, he was assistant deputy of the Petroleum Administration for War in 1942–43, was in charge of the Petroleum Reserves Corporation mission to the Middle East in 1943–44 He was president of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers in 1927, was a director of the American Petroleum Institute for twenty years.
In 1946, working on behalf of the Office of Strategic Services, the forerunner to the Central Intelligence Agency, DeGolyer recruited Jack Crichton of Dallas, to operate a group of companies which were given new names to make it more difficult to trace their operations. Crichton became a prominent oil and gas industrialist and was the 1964 Republican gubernatorial nominee. In non-petroleum-related activities, DeGolyer was active in publishing, where he had controlling interest and was chairman of the editorial board of the Saturday Review of Literature. DeGolyer was associate editor of New Colophon and the Southwest Review. A regent of the Smithsonian Institution, he was distinguished professor of geology at the University of Texas at Austin in 1940 and held seven honorary doctorates. DeGolyer served on numerous boards of directors, including the Texas Eastern Gas Transmission Corporation, Dresser Industries and the Southern Pacific Railroad. DeGolyer was the first recipient, in 1966, of the DeGolyer Distinguished Service Medal awarded by the Society of Petroleum Engineers, which recognizes "distinguished service to SPE, the profession of engineering and geology, to the petroleum industry."
He received the Sidney Powers Memorial Award from the American Association of Petroleum Geologists in 1950. Everette L. DeGolyer Elementary School in Dallas, located at 3453 Flair Drive, is named after DeGolyer; the DeGolyer Library at Southern Methodist University was established in 1957 by gifts from DeGolyer and his wife and from bequests in his will. DeGolyer served on the boards of the Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas Arboretum, Dallas Public Library; the DeGolyers lived at Rancho Encinal in Dallas. The 1940 estate, located on the shores of White Rock Lake and across from H L Hunt's Mt Vernon Estate on the Lake, would become the permanent location of the Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden; the DeGolyer Estate is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Everette and Nell DeGolyer had four children: Nell Virginia, born in Norman, Dorothy Margaret, Cecilia Jeanne and Everett Lee Jr, all born in Montclair, New Jersey. Cecilia married George C. McGhee, a protégé of Everette's, who would go on the become a U.
S. Undersecretary of State and U. S. Ambassad
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Robert Gilmour Leckie
Robert Gilmour Leckie was a Scottish-born Canadian major who may be described as the father of mining engineering in Canada. He had a long and professional career as a mining engineer in the Canadian provinces of Quebec, Nova Scotia and Ontario, during which time he had contributed technical articles to mining publications. Leckie was born to Robert Leckie and Margaret Gilmour in Renfrewshire, Scotland on August 23, 1833, he attended the High School of Glasgow Technical College. In 1856, he came to Montreal, Quebec where he was associated with a shipbuilding enterprise for a time. Leckie took a great interest in military affairs during his years in life and held a commission as lieutenant in a rifle company raised in the Eastern Townships during the 1866–1871 Fenian raids. In 1882, he was gazetted major in the 53rd Battalion, with which regiment he remained for several years. By 1894, Leckie became well-known to Montreal businessmen and financiers as a businessman of ability and energy. Robert Gilmore Leckie was an ardent imperialist, a stalwart conservative in politics and a member of the Church of England.
He was an absolute sportsman and participated in curling, cricketing and hunting. Leckie, in co-operation with Charles Fergie and John Hardman, was chiefly responsible for the organization of the Mining Society of Nova Scotia, of which he was a vice-president, he was the first president of the Federated Canadian Mining Institute and a charter member of the Canadian Mining Institute, the latter of, a reorganization of the original society. Only once in 20 years had he failed to be present at the annual meetings of the Canadian Mining Institute. In 1879, Leckie joined the American Institute of Mining Engineers and was a vice-president of that society in 1893–1894. Leckie married his first wife Sarah Jane Plimsoll Edwards in 1866, with whom he had eight children: Robert Gilmour Edwards Leckie, Alice Anges Leckie, John Edward Leckie, Margaret Amy Gilmour Leckie, Edith Lydia Louise Leckie, Marion Annie Urquhart Leckie, Florence Sarah Plimsoll Leckie and Dorothy Frances Worthington Leckie. Edwards died in 1893 and Leckie subsequently married his second wife Margaret Harriet Potter in 1910.
They had Phyllis Gilmour Leckie. Robert Gilmour Leckie died at the age of 81 on November 1914 in Sudbury, Ontario. Leckie became interested in mining in the Eastern Townships of Quebec shortly after his association with the Montreal shipbuilding enterprise. In the Eastern Townships he was associated with an early copper mining effort and held an interest in nickel properties in the Township of Orford, which were acquired subsequently by Boston capitalists who organized the Orford Nickel Company. Leckie was for some time managing director of the Orford Nickel Company. In Nova Scotia, he was associated with several coal and gold mining enterprises and around 1880, was responsible, in association with the late William Hedley of Halifax and Senator Senecal of Springhill, in Cumberland County, with the Springhill and Parrsborough Railway Company, thus forming the Cumberland Railway and Coal Company, of which he became managing director. Under his direction, this undertaking from modest beginnings grew to great importance, attaining an output of 500,000 tons of coal per year.
During Leckie's regime at Springhill, the Provincial Workmen's Association was organized in Nova Scotia. In 1890, Leckie became general manager of the Londonderry Iron Company, a post he held for three years. At this time he was successful in consolidating several smaller coal undertakings in Cumberland County, including the Joggins Mining Company and the Milner under the title of the Canada Coal and Railway Company, which became the Maritime Coal Power and Railway Company. Before his departure from Nova Scotia in 1898, Leckie acquired the Torbrook iron mines, which he worked until they were purchased by the Drummonds of Montreal. After leaving Torbrook, he acted in the capacity of examining engineer for Robert Means Thompson of New York and in this connection reported on nickel and other mines in New Caledonia, Norway and Australia. For many years Leckie was a consulting engineer at Sudbury for the Canadian Copper Company. After retiring from consulting practice, he focused his activities on acquiring and developing promising prospects in Northern Ontario.
This included the Leckie and Northland mines in Temagami, under development by him in 1904, the Long Lake Mine near Sudbury, worked by the Canadian Exploration Company from 1909 to 1916. In 1909, Leckie was arrested in Sudbury on a charge of fraud for securing a payment under false pretences. "Major Robert Gilmour Leckie, (Mining Engineer, Leckie Gold Mine, ON". Geni.com. 2017-05-13. Retrieved 2018-03-30
Alexander Lyman Holley
Alexander Lyman Holley was an American mechanical engineer and founding member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. He was considered the foremost steel and plant engineer and designer of his time in regard to applying research to modern steel manufacturing processes. Born in Lakeville, Connecticut in 1832, Holley attended Brown University. During his early 20s, Holley was a close friend of Zerah Colburn, the well-known locomotive engineer and journalist/publisher. In 1857, the two visited Britain and France and compiled a report for the presidents of American railroads, The Permanent Way published in 1858. In 1860, the two traveled together on the maiden voyage of Isambard Kingdom Brunel's Great Eastern. Holley's most famous book, A treatise on ordnance and armor published in 1865, followed a visit he made to Britain in 1863 when he again met Zerah Colburn. Holley was a creative inventor, who received 15 patents in the US. Ten of those fifteen were for improvements in the Bessemer process, of which he had purchased the rights in England in 1863 and brought to the United States.
He soon designed and built Bessemer plants in Troy, New York, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. He was consulted on a dozen others. Holley has been president of the American institute of mining engineers, vice-president of the American society of civil engineers. In 1880 Holley chaired the first meeting of the founders of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in the offices of the American Machinist on 16 February. Afterwards he served as vice-president of the American society of mechanical engineers; the Holley medal is given out by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in his honor. He received many honors, including being made an honorary member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1892. Zerah Colburn, Julius Bien and A. L. Holley, The permanent way and coal-burning locomotive boilers of European railways. New York, Holley & Colburn, 1858. A. L. Holley and J. K. Fisher, The economy of steam power on common roads... with its history and practice in Great Britain.... and its progress in the United States, 1860 A. L. Holley, A treatise on ordnance and armor: embracing descriptions and professional opinions concerning the material, requirements and endurance of European and American guns for naval, sea-coast, iron-clad warfare, their rifling and breech-loading.
1865 A. L. Holley and European railway practice in the economical generation of steam. David Van Nostrand, 1867. A. L. Holley and Lenox Smith; the works of the Cambria Iron Company. London: Offices of "Engineering", 1878. A. L. Holley, Report of the United States board appointed to test iron and other metals. 1881 Joseph Barba & A. L. Holley, The use of steel for constructive purposes, 1885. Publications about Alexander Lyman Holley, his life and workAmerican Institute of Mining and Petroleum Engineers. Memorial of Alexander Lyman Holley, C. E. LL. D. president of the American institute of mining engineers, vice-president of the American society of civil engineers, vice-president of the American society of mechanical engineers...etc. etc. Born July 20, 1832. Died January 29, 1882. 1884. Thomas J. Misa, A Nation of Steel: The Making of Modern America, 1865-1925: chapter on Holley and Bessemer process online John Mortimer, Zerah Colburn: The Spirit of Darkness Arima Publishing ISBN 1-84549-024-X Alexander Lyman Holley, ASME by Michael MacRae, 2012