Bruce Edward Babbitt is an American politician from the state of Arizona. A member of the Democratic Party, Babbitt served as the 16th governor of Arizona from 1978 to 1987, Babbitt was born in Flagstaff, the son of Frances B. and Paul James Babbitt, Sr. He graduated from the University of Notre Dame, attended Newcastle University in the United Kingdom on a Marshall Scholarship and he married Harriet Coons in 1968. She has worked as an attorney in Arizona and Washington, D. C, in the state election of November 1974, Babbitt overcame Republican incumbent Warner Lee to become Attorney General of Arizona. He succeeded Wesley Bolin as governor when Bolin died in office on March 4,1978, Arizona does not have a lieutenant governor, the Arizona Secretary of State, if holding office by election, stands first in line in case the governor vacates his or her post. However, Rose Mofford, secretary of state, had appointed to her post. Babbitt, as general, was next in the line of succession. Babbitt was elected for a full term in 1978.
He did not run for a term in 1986. The church, which had been implicated in bomb-making, would play a role in the Miracle Valley shootout that year. In 1983, Babbitt sent the Arizona National Guard to the strike against the Phelps Dodge mining company in Morenci, with the retirement of Republican Barry Goldwater from the U. S. Senate in 1986, many in Arizona expected Babbitt to oppose Representative John McCain for the seat. In a surprise press conference in 1985, Babbitt instead announced he would forgo the Senate race to concentrate on a White House bid in 1988, Babbitt is the only Arizona governor to have completed two four-year terms with nine years of service. George W. P. Hunt is Arizonas longest-serving governor, with 17 years of total service, Babbitt spoke at the 1980 Democratic National Convention, which nominated incumbent Jimmy Carter as the Democratic candidate for president. Among his proposals was a sales tax to remedy the then-record budget deficits piled up during the several past administrations.
He enjoyed positive press attention, but after finishing out of the top tier of candidates in the Iowa caucuses and New Hampshire primary, he dropped out of the race. In an intentional reference to Richard Nixon, Babbitt joked in his last campaign press conference that the media wont have Bruce Babbitt to puff up anymore, the Washington Post reported that Babbitt dropped this line from the prepared text of his withdrawal speech. After leading the League of Conservation Voters, Babbitt served for eight years, 1993–2001, Babbitt worked to protect scenic and historic areas of Americas federal public lands. In 1993, Babbitt was seriously considered by President Clinton to replace retiring United States Supreme Court Justice Byron White, due to his lead on environmental issues, Clinton nominated Ruth Bader Ginsburg instead
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the largest drainage system on the North American continent. Flowing entirely in the United States, it rises in northern Minnesota, with its many tributaries, the Mississippis watershed drains all or parts of 31 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains. The Mississippi ranks as the fourth longest and fifteenth largest river in the world by discharge, the river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans long lived along the Mississippi River and its tributaries, most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies. The arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the way of life as first explorers, settlers. The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, and the early United States, and as a vital transportation artery and communications link.
Formed from thick layers of the silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile agricultural regions of the country. In recent years, the river has shown a shift towards the Atchafalaya River channel in the Delta. The word itself comes from Messipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, see below in the History section for additional information. In addition to historical traditions shown by names, there are at least two measures of a rivers identity, one being the largest branch, and the other being the longest branch. Using the largest-branch criterion, the Ohio would be the branch of the Lower Mississippi. Using the longest-branch criterion, the Middle Mississippi-Missouri-Jefferson-Beaverhead-Red Rock-Hellroaring Creek River would be the main branch and its length of at least 3,745 mi is exceeded only by the Nile, the Amazon, and perhaps the Yangtze River among the longest rivers in the world. The source of this waterway is at Browers Spring,8,800 feet above sea level in southwestern Montana and this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St.
Louis and the phrase Trans-Mississippi as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. It is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, the New Madrid Seismic Zone along the river is noteworthy. These various basic geographical aspects of the river in turn underlie its human history and present uses of the waterway, the Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca,1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation. The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river
The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in the U. S. state of Arizona in North America. President Theodore Roosevelt was a proponent of preservation of the Grand Canyon area. The Grand Canyon is 277 miles long, up to 18 miles wide, since that time, the Colorado River has driven the down-cutting of the tributaries and retreat of the cliffs, simultaneously deepening and widening the canyon. For thousands of years, the area has been inhabited by Native Americans. The Pueblo people considered the Grand Canyon a holy site, the first European known to have viewed the Grand Canyon was García López de Cárdenas from Spain, who arrived in 1540. It is not the deepest canyon in the world, the Grand Canyon is known for its visually overwhelming size and its intricate and colorful landscape. Geologically, it is significant because of the sequence of ancient rocks that are well preserved and exposed in the walls of the canyon. These rock layers record much of the geologic history of the North American continent.
Uplift associated with mountain formation moved these sediments thousands of feet upward, the higher elevation has resulted in greater precipitation in the Colorado River drainage area, but not enough to change the Grand Canyon area from being semi-arid. The uplift of the Colorado Plateau is uneven, and the Kaibab Plateau that Grand Canyon bisects is over a one thousand feet higher at the North Rim than at the South Rim. Almost all runoff from the North Rim flows toward the Grand Canyon, the result is deeper and longer tributary washes and canyons on the north side and shorter and steeper side canyons on the south side. Temperatures on the North Rim are generally lower than those on the South Rim because of the greater elevation, heavy rains are common on both rims during the summer months. Access to the North Rim via the route leading to the canyon is limited during the winter season due to road closures. The Grand Canyon is part of the Colorado River basin which has developed over the past 40 million years, a recent study places the origins of the canyon beginning about 17 million years ago.
Previous estimates had placed the age of the canyon at 5–6 million years, the study, which was published in the journal Science in 2008, used uranium-lead dating to analyze calcite deposits found on the walls of nine caves throughout the canyon. There is an amount of controversy because this research suggests such a substantial departure from prior widely supported scientific consensus. In December 2012, a study published in the journal Science claimed new tests had suggested the Grand Canyon could be as old as 70 million years, the canyon is the result of erosion which exposes one of the most complete geologic columns on the planet. The major geologic exposures in the Grand Canyon range in age from the 2-billion-year-old Vishnu Schist at the bottom of the Inner Gorge to the 230-million-year-old Kaibab Limestone on the Rim
Santa Monica Mountains
The Santa Monica Mountains is a coastal mountain range in Southern California, paralleling the Pacific Ocean. It is part of the Transverse Ranges, because of its proximity to densely populated regions, it is one of the most visited natural areas in California. Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area is located in this mountain range, the range extends approximately 40 miles east-west from the Hollywood Hills in Los Angeles to Point Mugu in Ventura County. The mountain range contributed to the isolation of this vast coastal plain before regular transportation routes reached western Ventura County, the eastern mountains form a barrier between the San Fernando Valley and the Los Angeles Basin, separating the Valley on the north and west-central Los Angeles on the south. The Santa Monica Mountains are parallel to Santa Susana Mountains, which are located north of the mountains across the San Fernando Valley. The range is of height, with no particularly craggy or prominent peaks outside the Sandstone Peak.
While often rugged and wild, the hosts a substantial amount of human activity. Houses, roads and recreational centers are dotted throughout the Santa Monica Mountains, a number of creeks in the Santa Monica Mountains are part of the Los Angeles River watershed. Beginning at the end of the San Fernando Valley the river runs to the north of the mountains. After passing between the range and the Verdugo Mountains it flows south around Elysian Park defining the easternmost extent of the mountains, the Santa Monica Mountains have more than 1,000 archeology sites of significance, primarily from the Californian Native American cultures of the Tongva and Chumash people. The mountains were part of their homelands for over eight thousand years before the arrival of the Spanish. The Spanish mission system had a impact on their culture and by 1831. Geologists consider the northern Channel Islands to be an extension of the Santa Monicas into the Pacific Ocean. The range was created by repeated episodes of uplifting and submergence by the Raymond Fault that created complex layers of sedimentary rock, volcanic intrusions have been exposed, including the poorly named, Sandstone Peak the highest in the range at 3,111 feet.
Malibu Creek, which eroded its own channel while the mountains were slowly uplifted, the Santa Monica Mountains have dry summers with frequent coastal fog on the ocean side of the range and wet, cooler winters. In the summer, the climate is dry, which makes the range prone to wildfires. Snow is unusual in the Santa Monica Mountains, since they are not as high as the nearby San Gabriel Mountains. The highest slopes of the central and western Santa Monica Mountains average as much as 27 inches of rain per year, the bulk of the rain falls between November and March
Martin Litton (environmentalist)
Clyde Martin Litton was a Grand Canyon river runner and a longtime conservationist, best known as a staunch opponent of the construction of Glen Canyon Dam and other dams on the Colorado River. Litton grew up in Gardena, mono Lake is a gem-among Californias greatest scenic attractions. He ran the river again in 1956, rowing one of Pats fiberglass Cataract boats, Litton continued to run the Colorado for decades afterward, founding Grand Canyon Dories in 1971 and running commercial river trips through the 1970s and 1980s. Litton showed a preference for using small wooden boats, known as dories. These boats were used in Oregon, and it was Litton who adapted their use to the Colorado River commercial river trips. He sold the business in 1988, Litton was a close friend of David Brower, Edward Abbey, and other major figures in the conservation movement. Brower first recruited him in 1952 for a campaign to oppose the construction of two dams in Dinosaur National Monument, congress voted down approval for the dams in 1956.
This began an association with the Sierra Club and a lifelong opposition to dam-building on the Colorado. He was active in the fight to stop dams from being constructed within Grand Canyon National Park, between 1954 and 1968 he was the travel editor for Sunset magazine. In 1960, Sunset ran a story entitled The Redwood Country. Litton was the author of the 1968 book The Life and Death of Lake Mead and he has been featured in documentary films including Monumental, David Browers Fight for Wild America and River Runners of the Grand Canyon. Litton served on the Board of Directors of the Sierra Club from 1964 to 1973, in 1990 he convinced Harriet Burgess to found the American Land Conservancy and served on the executive committee for ten years. Litton founded the organization Sequoia ForestKeeper® in 2001 and served as president until his death and he served on the Advisory Committee of the Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance and on the Honorary Board of Directors of the Glen Canyon Institute. On November 30,2014, he died at his home in Portola Valley, aged 97
Paul Norton Pete McCloskey, Jr. is a former Republican politician from the U. S. state of California who served in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1967 to 1983. He ran on a platform for the Republican nomination for President in 1972 but was defeated by incumbent President Richard Nixon. In April 2007, McCloskey switched his affiliation to the Democratic Party and he is a decorated United States Marine Corps veteran of combat during the Korean War, being awarded the Navy Cross, the Silver Star, and two awards of the Purple Heart. He published a book called Truth and Untruth, Political Deceit in America in 1972, one of McCloskeys enduring legacies is his co-authorship of the 1973 Endangered Species Act. Pete McCloskeys great-grandfather was orphaned in the Great Irish Famine and came to California in 1853 at the age of 16 and he and his son, McCloskeys grandfather, were farmers in Merced County. McCloskey was born on September 29,1927, in Loma Linda, California and he attended public schools in South Pasadena and San Marino.
He was inducted into South Pasadena High School Hall of Fame for the sport of baseball and he attended Occidental College and California Institute of Technology under the U. S. Navys V-5 Pilot Program. He graduated from Stanford University in 1950 and Stanford University Law School in 1953. McCloskey voluntarily served in the U. S. Navy from 1945 to 1947, the U. S. Marine Corps from 1950 to 1952, the U. S. Marine Corps Reserve from 1952 to 1960 and the Ready Reserve from 1960 to 1967. He retired from the Marine Corps Reserve in 1974, having attained the rank of Colonel and he was awarded the Navy Cross and Silver Star decorations for heroism in combat and two Purple Hearts as a Marine during the Korean War. He volunteered for the Vietnam War before eventually turning against it, in 1992, he wrote his fourth book, The Taking of Hill 610, describing some of his exploits in Korea. He was a lecturer on legal ethics at the Santa Clara, in a 1981 interview, he stated that he thought he was the first Republican elected opposing the war despite the fact that his constituency, two to one, favored the war in 1967.
McCloskey was the first member of Congress to publicly call for the impeachment of President Nixon after the Watergate scandal and he was the first lawmaker to call for a repeal of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that had allowed for the War in Vietnam. At the Republican National Convention in Miami Beach, Rep. McCloskey received one vote from a New Mexico delegate, all other votes cast went to President Nixon, which technically meant that McCloskey finished second place in the race for the Presidential nomination. Congressman John Ashbrook of Ohio had challenged President Nixons bid for re-nomination, in 1982, McCloskey was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for nomination to the United States Senate. The California Republican Senatorial primary that year was a battle among the major candidates in the 12-person GOP field. McCloskey, Bob Dornan, Barry Goldwater Jr. Maureen Reagan, San Diego Mayor Pete Wilson, former Rep. John G. Schmitz, in 1986, McCloskey engaged in a debate about Israel-Palestinian issues with Jewish Defense League founder, Rabbi Meir Kahane.
Two thousand people attended the debate took place in San Francisco and was eventually turned into a short film titled
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28,1892, in San Francisco, California, by the Scottish-American preservationist John Muir, in recent years, the club has gravitated toward green politics and especially toward bright green environmentalism. Recent focuses of the club include promoting green energy, mitigating global warming, in 2015 Sierra Club launched its activism platform AddUp. The Sierra Club does not set standards for or regulate alpinism, but it organizes wilderness courses, rock climbs, the Sierra Club is governed by a 15-member Board of Directors. Each year, five directors are elected to terms. A president is elected annually by the Board from among its members, the Executive Director runs the day-to-day operations of the group. Michael Brune, formerly of Rainforest Action Network, has served as the executive director since 2010. Pope stepped down amid discontent that the group had strayed from its core principles, Sierra Club members belong to statewide chapters and local groups.
National and local special-interest sections and task forces address particular issues, the national Sierra Club sets the organizations policy agenda. As early as 1889, Johnson had encouraged Muir to form an association to protect the Sierra Nevada. Others involved in the planning included artist William Keith, Willis Linn Jepson, Willard Drake Johnson, Joseph LeConte. The Sierra Clubs charter members elected Muir president, an office he held until his death in 1914, Muir escorted President Theodore Roosevelt through Yosemite in 1903, and two years the California legislature ceded Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove to the federal government. The Sierra Club won its first lobbying victory with the creation of the second national park. In the first decade of the 1900s, the Sierra Club became embroiled in the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir controversy that divided preservationists from resource management conservationists. In the late 19th century, the city of San Francisco was rapidly outgrowing its limited water supply, which depended on intermittent local springs and streams.
Gifford Pinchot, a supporter of public utilities and head of the US Forest Service. Muir appealed to his friend U. S. President Roosevelt and attorney William Edward Colby began a national campaign against the dam, attracting the support of many eastern conservationists. With the 1912 election of U. S. President Woodrow Wilson, the bill to dam Hetch Hetchy passed Congress in 1913, and so the Sierra Club lost its first major battle
From 1952 to 1969, he served as the first Executive Director of the Sierra Club, and served on its board three times, from 1941–1953, 1983–1988, and 1995–2000. As a younger man, he was a prominent mountaineer, Brower was born in Berkeley, California. He was married to Anne Hus Brower whom he met when they were both editors at the University of California Press in Berkeley, Anne was the daughter of Francis L M. Hus and Frances Hus, while Frances was the daughter of John P. Irish. Kenneth Brower, David Browers son, authored a number of books, most notably The Starship, beginning his career as a world-class mountaineer with more than 70 first ascents to his credit, Brower came to the environmental movement through his interest in mountaineering. In 1933, Brower spent seven weeks in the High Sierra with George Rockwood, after a close call with a loose rock while climbing in the Palisades, he met Norman Clyde in the wilderness, who gave him some valuable climbing lessons. On that trip he met Hervey Voge, who persuaded him to join the Sierra Club, on May 18,1934, along with Voge, he began a ten-week climbing trip through the High Sierra, to survey climbing routes and maintain mountaineering records for the club.
Previously, they had established several food caches along their planned route, in all, the pair climbed 63 peaks on this trip, including 32 first ascents. On the first day, they climbed Mount Tyndall, Mount Williamson, from June 23 to 26, the pair made eight first ascents in the Devils Crags along with Norman Clyde, and climbed Mount Agassiz. Clyde called the Devils Crag climbs one of the most remarkable mountaineering feats ever accomplished in the United States, in the Palisades range, the pair climbed Thunderbolt Peak, traversed to North Palisade by way of Starlight Peak, and descended the U-Notch Couloir. In the Sawtooth Range, they climbed The Doodad, the West Tooth and this climb, rated YDS III,5.7 A2, was the first in the United States to use expansion bolts for protection. Twelve previous attempts on Shiprock had failed, and it was known as the last great American climbing problem, the Brower partys success was described as an outstanding effort by probably the only group on the continent capable of making the climb.
Brower made the first ascent of seventy routes in Yosemite and elsewhere in the western United States, techniques described in this book were used by U. S. forces in the battles in the North Apeninnes and the Lake Garda Alps. The book was published in three revised editions, Browers role in the 10th Mountain Division is featured in the documentary film Fire on the Mountain. He served as a major in the Army Reserve for many years after the war ended, after the war, Brower returned to his job at the University of California Press, and began editing the Sierra Club Bulletin in 1946. He managed the Sierra Club annual High Trips from 1947 to 1954, Brower was named the first executive director of the Sierra Club in 1952, and joined the fight against the Echo Park Dam in Utahs Dinosaur National Monument. Conservationists successfully lobbied Congress to delete Echo Park Dam from the Colorado River Project in 1955, and these coffee-table books sold well and introduced the Sierra Club to new members interested in wilderness preservation.
Financial management began to be a bone of contention between Brower and the Clubs board of directors, under Browers leadership from 1952 to 1969, the club’s membership expanded tenfold, from 7,000 to 70,000 members, becoming the nation’s leading environmental membership organization. Building on the biennial Wilderness Conferences which the Club launched in 1949 together with The Wilderness Society and the Sierra Club led a major battle to stop the Bureau of Reclamation from building two dams that would flood portions of the Grand Canyon
Sunset or sundown, is the daily disappearance of the Sun below the horizon as a result of Earths rotation. The Sun will set exactly due west at the equator on the spring and fall equinoxes, the time of sunset is defined in astronomy as the moment when the trailing edge of the Suns disk disappears below the horizon. Dusk is at the end of astronomical twilight, and is the darkest moment of twilight just before night. Sunset creates unique atmospheric conditions such as the intense orange and red colors of the Sun. The time of sunset varies throughout the year, and is determined by the position on Earth, specified by longitude and latitude. During winter and spring, the days get longer and sunsets occur every day until the day of the latest sunset, in the Northern Hemisphere, the latest sunset occurs late in June or in early July, but not on the summer solstice of June 21. This date depends on the viewers latitude, the earliest sunset does not occur on the winter solstice, but rather about two weeks earlier, again depending on the viewers latitude.
In the Northern Hemisphere, it occurs in early December or late November, for a few weeks surrounding both solstices, both sunrise and sunset get slightly each day. Even on the equator and sunset shift several minutes back and forth through the year and these effects are plotted by an analemma. Sunsets occur almost exactly due west on the equinoxes for all viewers on Earth, exact calculations of the azimuths of sunset on other dates are complex, but they can be estimated with reasonable accuracy by using the analemma. As sunrise and sunset are calculated from the leading and trailing edges of the Sun and not the center, the duration of a daytime is slightly longer than nighttime. Further, because the light from the Sun is refracted as it passes through the Earths atmosphere, refraction affects the apparent shape of the Sun when it is very close to the horizon. It makes things appear higher in the sky than they really are, light from the bottom edge of the Suns disk is refracted more than light from the top, since refraction increases as the angle of elevation decreases.
This raises the apparent position of the edge more than the top. Its width is unaltered, so the disk appears wider than it is high, the Sun appears larger on the horizon, an optical illusion, similar to the moon illusion. Because the shorter wavelength components, such as blue and green, scatter more strongly, the remaining reddened sunlight can be scattered by cloud droplets and other relatively large particles to light up the horizon red and orange. The removal of the wavelengths of light is due to Rayleigh scattering by air molecules and particles much smaller than the wavelength of visible light. The scattering by cloud droplets and other particles with diameters comparable to or larger than the sunlights wavelengths is due to Mie scattering and is not strongly wavelength-dependent
Bodie is a ghost town in the Bodie Hills east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Mono County, United States, about 75 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe. It is located 12 mi east-southeast of Bridgeport, at an elevation of 8379 feet, as Bodie Historic District, the U. S. Department of the Interior recognizes it as a National Historic Landmark. Also registered as a California Historical Landmark, the ghost town officially became Bodie State Historic Park in 1962, since 2012, Bodie has been administered by the Bodie Foundation, which uses the tagline Protecting Bodies Future by Preserving Its Past. Bodie began as a camp of little note following the discovery of gold in 1859 by a group of prospectors. Bodey perished in a blizzard the following November while making a trip to Monoville. Gold discovered at Bodie coincided with the discovery of silver at nearby Aurora, but while these two towns boomed, interest in Bodie remained lackluster. By 1868 only two companies had built stamp mills at Bodie, and both had failed, rich discoveries in the adjacent Bodie Mine during 1878 attracted even more hopeful people.
By 1879, Bodie had a population of approximately 5, 000–7,000 people, one idea maintains that in 1880, Bodie was Californias second or third largest city, but the U. S. Census of that year disproves the popular tale. Over the years, Bodies mines produced gold valued at nearly US$34 million, Bodie boomed from late 1877 through mid– to late 1880. The first newspaper, The Standard Pioneer Journal of Mono County and it started out as a weekly, but soon became a thrice-weekly paper. It was during this time that a line was built which connected Bodie with Bridgeport and Genoa. California and Nevada newspapers predicted Bodie would become the next Comstock Lode, men from both states were lured to Bodie by the prospect of another bonanza. Gold bullion from the towns nine stamp mills was shipped to Carson City, Nevada, by way of Aurora, most shipments were accompanied by armed guards. After the bullion reached Carson City, it was delivered to the mint there, at its peak,65 saloons lined Main Street, which was a mile long.
Murders, barroom brawls, and stagecoach holdups were regular occurrences, as with other remote mining towns, Bodie had a popular, though clandestine, red light district on the north end of town. She is credited with giving life-saving care to many, but was buried outside the cemetery fence. Bodie had a Chinatown, the street of which ran at a right angle to Bodies Main Street, with several hundred Chinese residents at one point. Opium dens were plentiful in this area, the cemetery includes a Miners Union section, and includes a cenotaph to President James A. Garfield
Topanga is a census-designated place in western Los Angeles County, United States. Located in the Santa Monica Mountains, the community lies in Topanga Canyon, the narrow southern portion of Topanga at the coast is in between the city of Malibu and the city of Los Angeles neighborhood of Pacific Palisades. Topanga had a population of 8,289 as of 2010, the ZIP code is 90290 and the area code is primarily 310, with 818 only at the north end of the canyon. It is in the 3rd County Supervisorial district, Topanga Creek drains Topanga Canyon and is the third largest watershed entering the Santa Monica Bay. The creek is one of the few remaining undammed waterways in the area, the area typically receives about 22 of rain annually. Topanga Beach lies on the coast at the outlet of Topanga Creek, Topanga Canyon Boulevard, State Route 27, is the principal thoroughfare, connecting the Ventura Freeway with Pacific Coast Highway. The southern portion of the boulevard largely follows Topanga Creek, north of the Old Topanga Canyon Road intersection, the boulevard traverses the Santa Monica Mountains.
It is part of the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area and it primarily represents a California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion, with large areas of the California oak woodland plant community, and a wide variety of native plants. Topanga is the given to the area by the Native American indigenous Tongva tribe. It was the border of their territory, abutting the Chumash tribe that occupied the coast from Malibu northwards. Bedrock mortars can be carved into rock outcroppings in many locations. Topanga was first settled by Europeans in 1839, in the 1920s, Topanga Canyon became a weekend getaway for Hollywood stars with several cottages built for that purpose. The rolling hills and ample vegetation served to provide privacy and attractive surroundings for the rich and famous. During the 1960s, Topanga Canyon became a magnet to many new artists, in 1965 Wallace Berman settled in the area. For a time, Neil Young lived in Topanga, first living with producer David Briggs later buying his own house and he would record most of his After the Gold Rush album in his basement studio in 1970.
Charles Manson had previously been living in Topanga, where he had briefly befriended both Neil Young and Dennis Wilson of The Beach Boys. Members of Mansons family began their campaign of murder on July 31,1969 with the murder of Topanga resident Gary Hinman, etta James, Neil Young, and Crazy Horse, Geronimo Black, and many others. It is rumored that Jim Morrison was inspired to write Roadhouse Blues about the drive up Topanga Canyon Boulevard to The Corral