Amistad Research Center
The Amistad Research Center is an independent archives and manuscripts repository in the United States that specializes in the history of African Americans and ethnic minorities. It is one of the first institutions of its kind in the United States to collect African American ethnic historical records and to document the modern Civil Rights Movement; the ARC has 15 million holdings, emphasizing documents, including books, periodicals and fine arts. It additionally has digitized holdings to enable research and education by scholars and students at locations distant from the ARC. Although the ARC documents history and race relations in the United States its holdings extend beyond African-American history and include the ethnic heritage of Latinos, Asian Americans, Native Americans, Appalachian whites, the LGBTQ community; the ARC traces its history to the events leading to the 1841 U. S. Supreme Court case United States v; the Amistad. The abolitionists who aided the Amistad Africans in their defense in that court case helped to found the American Missionary Association, as an anti-caste, integrated abolitionist group.
During and following the United States Civil War, the AMA founded hundreds of schools for the freedmen and other ethnic communities across the United States, including common schools and universities. The AMA became a division within the Board of Home Missions of the Congregational Churches following a 1927 merger, it continued to work toward causes of civil rights, race relations, the educational work of the church throughout the mergers of the Congregation, Christian and Reformed churches that occurred in 1931 and in 1956. It fell under the umbrella of the United Church Boards of Homeland Ministries of the United Church of Christ; as the AMA division's awareness of the problems of discrimination and segregation of African-Americans became evident, a two-day seminar on "racialism" was held at the Broadway Tabernacle Church in New York City in October 1941. The seminar was attended by AMA officers, presidents of the black colleges and universities, representatives of philanthropic organizations, U.
S. government officials. The results of the seminar was the establishment of the Race Relations Department of the UCBHM at Fisk University, Tennessee in 1942; the Amistad Research Center was established within the Race Relations Department to house the historical records of the American Missionary Association in 1966. Clifton H. Johnson was appointed as director of the Race Relations Department in 1966 making him the ARC's first administrator. Johnson was a suitable choice for the ARC because of his experience with the AMA archives, he wrote his dissertation on the AMA while a doctoral candidate at the University of North Carolina, organized the AMA archives, initiated a proposal to the AMA suggesting that they use their archives as a nucleus to collect primary documents on the history of ethnic minorities in the United States. Johnson's initial intent for Amistad Research Center was that it would supply primary resources for scholars interested in any aspect of African American history; the UCBHM closed the Race Relations Department but chose to keep the ARC and it was incorporated into an independent non-profit archive in 1969.
After incorporation in 1969, the first meeting of the ARC's board members was held in the New York City office of the AMA. Dr. Albert W. Dent, retired president of Dillard University, approached Johnson, with an open invitation from Dr. T. S. Lawless, chairman of the university's board of trustees, about moving the ARC to the campus of Dillard University. In 1970 the ARC moved to Dillard University; the university housed the ARC free of charge in its library with a promise to donate land for the construction of a permanent home on its campus. The funds for a new building at Dillard never crystallized and the Center was forced to seek a new location to house its collections that had grown beyond the space it occupied in Dillard's Library; the Amistad Research Center moved to the New Orleans Mint in 1980 after its collection became too large for its space at Dillard University. The United States government had given the Old U. S. Mint building to the State of Louisiana, which in turn had given it to the Louisiana State Museum.
Johnson reached agreement with the director of the museum about re-locating the ARC to the Old U. S. Mint building; the terms including renting the floor space to the ARC for $1 per year. The ARC spent $500,000 on renovations to the new space, anticipating that the Old U. S. Mint building could accommodate its collections for the next 15 years. Johnson underestimated the growth of the ARC's collections, after five years the ARC ran out of space again. Johnson and the ARC's Board of Trustees searched for another location that would accommodate the institution in its continued growth. By the mid-1980s, the ARC was in need of adequate space and invitations came from various universities to house the ARC. Harvard University, Rutgers University, the University of North Carolina, the University of Georgia, Howard University, Hampton University, the University of Mississippi, Tulane University and Prairie View A&M sent delegations to make presentations to the ARC's board. There was strong opposition to both Mississippi and Tulane housing the Center because of their past histories of denying Black students admission to their schools.
However, there was strong support from the local community to keep the Center in New Orleans. The local chapter of the Friends of Amistad collected hundreds of signatures from Black residents in favor of Tulane. Rosa Keller, Tulane University President Eamon Kelly, the Tulane University Board of Administrators, New Orleans Mayor Ernest M
The Bureau of Refugees and Abandoned Lands referred to as the Freedmen's Bureau, was an agency of the United States Department of War to "direct such issues of provisions and fuel, as he may deem needful for the immediate and temporary shelter and supply of destitute and suffering refugees and freedmen and their wives and children."The Freedmen's Bureau Bill, which established the Freedmen's Bureau on March 3, 1865, was initiated by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln and was intended to last for one year after the end of the Civil War; the Freedmen's Bureau was an important agency of early Reconstruction, assisting freedmen in the South. The Bureau was made a part of the United States Department of War, as it was the only agency with an existing organization that could be assigned to the South. Headed by Union Army General Oliver O. Howard, the Bureau started operations in 1865. Throughout the first year, its representatives learned that these tasks would be difficult, as Southern legislatures passed laws for Black Codes that restricted movement, conditions of labor, other civil rights of African Americans, nearly duplicating conditions of slavery.
The Freedmen's Bureau controlled a limited amount of arable land. The Bureau's powers were expanded to help African Americans find family members from whom they had become separated during the war, it arranged to teach them to read and write, considered critical by the freedmen themselves as well as the government. Bureau agents served as legal advocates for African Americans in both local and national courts in cases dealing with family issues; the Bureau encouraged former major planters to rebuild their plantations and urged freed blacks to return to work for them, kept an eye on contracts between the newly free laborers and planters, pushed whites and blacks to work together in a free labor market as employers and employees rather than as masters and slaves. In 1866, Congress renewed the charter for the Bureau. U. S. President Andrew Johnson, a southern Democrat who had succeeded to the office following Lincoln's assassination, vetoed the bill because he believed that it encroached on states' rights, relied inappropriately on the military in peacetime, would prevent freed slaves from becoming independent by offering too much assistance.
By 1869, the Bureau had lost most of its funding at the hands of southern Democrats and as a result was forced to cut much of its staff. By 1870 the Bureau had been weakened further due to the rise of Ku Klux Klan violence across the South, whose members attacked both blacks and sympathetic white Republicans, including teachers. Northern Democrats were against the program painting it as a program that would make African Americans "lazy". In 1872, Congress abruptly abandoned the program, refusing to approve renewal authorizing legislation, it did not inform Howard, transferred to Arizona by U. S. President settlers. Grant's Secretary of War William W. Belknap was hostile to Howard's leadership and authority at the Bureau. Belknap aroused controversy among Republicans by his reassignment of Howard; the Bureau helped solve everyday problems of the newly freed slaves, such as obtaining clothing, water, health care, communication with family members, jobs. Between 1865 and 1869, it distributed 15 million rations of food to freed African Americans, set up a system by which planters could borrow rations in order to feed freedmen they employed.
Although the Bureau set aside $350,000 for this latter service, only $35,000 was borrowed by planters. Despite the good intentions and limited success of the Bureau, medical treatment of the freedmen was deficient. Most southern white doctors and nurses would not treat freedmen, infrastructure of many areas had been destroyed by the war, people had few means of improving sanitation. Blacks had little opportunity to develop their own medical personnel. In this period, epidemics of cholera and yellow fever were carried by travelers along the river corridors, breaking out across the South and causing high fatalities among the poor. Freedman's Bureau agents complained that freedwomen were refusing to contract their labor. One of the first actions black families took for independence was to withdraw women's labor from fieldwork; the Bureau attempted to force freedwomen to work by insisting that their husbands sign contracts making the whole family available as field labor in the cotton industry, by declaring that unemployed freedwomen should be treated as vagrants just as black men were.
The Bureau did allow some exceptions, such as married women with employed husbands, some "worthy" women, widowed or abandoned and had large families of small children to care for. "Unworthy" women, meaning the unruly and prostitutes, were the ones subjected to punishment for vagrancy. Under slavery, most marriages had been informal, as slaveholders refused to acknowledge slave marriages, they were not recognized, although planters presided over marriage ceremonies for their slaves. After the war, the Freedmen's Bureau performed numerous marriages for freed couples who asked for it; as many husbands and wives had been separated during wartime chaos, the Bureau agents helped families in their attempts to reunite after the war. The Bureau had an informal regional communications system that allowed agents to send inquiries and provide answers, it sometimes provided transportation to reunite families. Freedmen and freedwomen turned to the Bureau for assistance in resolving issues of abandonment and divorce.
The most recognized accomplishments of the Freedman's Bureau were in education. Prior to the Civil
United Church of Christ
The United Church of Christ is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination based in the United States, with historical confessional roots in the Congregational and Lutheran traditions, with 4,956 churches and 853,778 members. The United Church of Christ is a historical continuation of the General Council of Congregational Christian churches founded under the influence of New England Pilgrims and Puritans. Moreover, it subsumed the third largest Reformed group in the country, the German Reformed; the Evangelical and Reformed Church and the General Council of the Congregational Christian Churches united in 1957 to form the UCC. These two denominations, which were themselves the result of earlier unions, had their roots in Congregational, Lutheran and Reformed denominations. At the end of 2014, the UCC's 5,116 congregations claimed 979,239 members in the U. S. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 0.4 percent, or 1 million adult adherents, of the U. S. population self-identify with the United Church of Christ.
The UCC maintains full communion with other mainline Protestant denominations. Many of its congregations choose to practice open communion; the denomination places high emphasis on participation in worldwide interfaith and ecumenical efforts. The national settings of the UCC have favored liberal views on social issues, such as civil rights, LGBT rights, women's rights, abortion. However, United Church of Christ congregations are independent in matters of doctrine and ministry and may not support the national body's theological or moral stances, it is self-described as "an pluralistic and diverse denomination". The United Church of Christ was formed when two Protestant churches, the Evangelical and Reformed Church and the General Council of the Congregational Christian Churches united in 1957; this union adopted an earlier general statement of unity between the two denominations, the 1943 "Basis of Union". At this time, the UCC claimed about two million members. In 1959, in its General Synod, the UCC adopted a broad "Statement of Faith".
The UCC adopted its constitution and by-laws in 1961. There is no UCC hierarchy or body that can impose any doctrine or worship format onto the individual congregations within the UCC. While individual congregations are supposed to hold guidance from the general synod "in the highest regard", the UCC's constitution requires that the "autonomy of the Local Church is inherent and modifiable only by its own action". Within this locally focused structure, there are central beliefs common to the UCC; the UCC uses four words to describe itself: "Christian, Reformed and Evangelical". While the UCC refers to its evangelical characteristics, it springs from mainline Protestantism as opposed to Evangelicalism; the word evangelical in this case more corresponds with the original Lutheran origins meaning "of the gospel" as opposed to the Evangelical use of the word. UCC is theologically liberal, the denomination notes that the "Bible, though written in specific historical times and places, still speaks to us in our present condition".
The motto of the United Church of Christ comes from John 17:21: "That they may all be one". The denomination's official literature uses broad doctrinal parameters, emphasizing freedom of individual conscience and local church autonomy. In the United Church of Christ, creeds and affirmations of faith function as "testimonies of faith" around which the church gathers rather than as "tests of faith" rigidly prescribing required doctrinal consent; as expressed in the United Church of Christ constitution: The United Church of Christ acknowledges as its sole Head, Jesus Christ, Son of God and Savior. It acknowledges as kindred in Christ all, it looks to the Word of God in the Scriptures, to the presence and power of the Holy Spirit, to prosper its creative and redemptive work in the world. It claims as its own the faith of the historic Church expressed in the ancient creeds and reclaimed in the basic insights of the Protestant Reformers, it affirms the responsibility of the Church in each generation to make this faith its own in reality of worship, in honesty of thought and expression, in purity of heart before God.
In accordance with the teaching of our Lord and the practice prevailing among evangelical Christians, it recognizes two sacraments: Baptism and the Lord's Supper or Holy Communion. The denomination, looks to a number of historic confessions as expressing the common faith around which the church gathers, including: The Apostles' Creed, The Nicene Creed, The Heidelberg Catechism, Luther's Small Catechism, The Kansas City Statement of Faith, The Evangelical Catechism, The Statement of Faith of the United Church of Christ. In 2001, Hartford Institute for Religion Research did a "Faith Communities Today" study that included a survey of United Church of Christ beliefs. Among the results of this were findings that in the UCC, 5.6% of the churches responding to the survey described their members as "very liberal or progressive", 3.4% as "very conservative", 22.4% as "somewhat liberal or progressive", 23.6% as "somewhat conservative". Those results suggested a nearly equal balance between conservative congregations.
The self-described "moderate" group, was the largest at 45%. Other statistics found by the Hartford Institute show that 53.2% of members say "the Bible" is the highest sourc
Huston–Tillotson University is a private black university in Austin, Texas. The school is affiliated with the United Methodist Church, the United Church of Christ, the United Negro College Fund. Huston–Tillotson University awards four-year degrees in business, the humanities, natural sciences, social sciences and technology; the University offers alternative teacher certification and academic programs for undergraduates interested in pursuing post-graduate degrees in Law and Medicine. Established in 1875, Huston–Tillotson University is the first institution of higher learning in Austin, Texas; the history of Huston - Tillotson University lies in two schools: Tillotson College and Samuel Huston College. Tillotson Collegiate and Normal Institute was chartered as a coeducational school in 1877 by the American Missionary Society of Congregational churches and its namesake, George Jeffrey Tillotson, it opened on January 17, 1881 and had 12 presidents: "William E. Brooks, first president, was succeeded by John Hershaw, Henry L. Lubbell, William M. Brown, Winfield S. Goss, Marshall R. Gaines, Arthur W. Partch, Isaac M. Agard, Francis W. Fletcher.
J. T. Hodges, the first African American to be president, was followed by Mary E. Branch and William H. Jones, who became president in 1944." Tillotson College was a women's college from 1926-1935. Samuel Huston College developed out of an 1876 Methodist Episcopal conference. An 1883 agreement with the Freedmen's Aid Society led to the development of the college; the college was named after Samuel Huston of Marengo and the college opened in 1900. On October 24, 1952 Tillotson College and Samuel Huston College merged to form Huston-Tillotson College, it became Huston–Tillotson University on February 28, 2005. Before the merger, future baseball legend Jackie Robinson accepted an offer from his old friend and pastor Rev. Karl Downs, president of the college, to be the athletic director at Samuel Huston College of the Southwestern Athletic Conference. Before joining the Kansas City Monarchs, Robinson coached the school's basketball team for the 1944–45 season; as a fledgling program, few students tried out for the basketball team, Robinson resorted to inserting himself into the lineup for exhibition games.
Although his teams were outmatched by opponents, Robinson was respected as a disciplinarian coach, drew the admiration of, among others, Langston University basketball player Marques Haynes, a future member of the Harlem Globetrotters. HTU offers undergraduate and graduate degrees through the following: Colleges of Arts and Sciences School of Business and TechnologyThe W. E. B. Dubois Honors Program is a selective program that provides qualified undergraduate students special academic and extracurricular opportunities. HTU has an engineering dual degree program with Prairie View A&M University. Under this program, HTU undergraduates complete preliminary required courses on campus and automatically transfer to Prairie View A&M to complete their engineering degree. Students who complete the program will receive two degrees: a Bachelor of Science in Mathematics from HTU and a Bachelor of Science in an engineering discipline from Prairie View A&M. Huston–Tillotson University's campus is located at the site of the former Tillotson College on a land feature known to local residents as Bluebonnet Hill.
The 24-acre campus is located in East Austin, between 7th and 11th streets near I-35 and downtown Austin. East Austin has been the city's designated place for African-American culture and empowerment due to Jim Crow segregation laws. Most of the buildings on campus follow the same nomenclature as the name of the university, with hyphens denoting the importance of the contributions of individuals from both colleges before the merger; the Anthony and Louise Viaer Alumni Hall is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In fall 2015, the student body was 43 % male. 68% identified as Black, 22% identified as Hispanic, 6% identified as Non-Hispanic White, the remaining 4% identified with other ethnicity or racial groups. Huston–Tillotson teams, nicknamed athletically as the Rams, are part of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics competing in the Red River Athletic Conference. Men's sports include baseball, basketball and track & field; the baseball team plays at historic Downs Field at East 12th Alexander Avenue.
Dr. Herman A. Barnett III, First African-American to be admitted to the University of Texas Medical School and first native Texan African-American to graduate from a Texas medical school and to be licensed to practice medicine in Texas. Maceo T. Bowie, First president of the Kennedy-King City College in Chicago, IL. Bobby Bradford, Jazz trumpeter, cornetist and composer. Dr June H. Brewer, former professor of English at Huston-Tillotson University for 35 years and former chairperson for the English Department at Hutson-Tillotson. In 1950, Dr. Brewer was among the first five African Americans admitted to the University of Texas after the landmark Sweatt v. Painter case opened the University to African American students. Bert Collins, Former President and CEO of the North Carolina Mutual Insurance Company.. Elizabeth Conley, Texas Philanthropist and GLBTQ advocate. Juanita Craft and civil rights activist. Dr. Karl E. Downs - minister in the United Methodist Chur
Talladega College, located in Talladega, Alabama, is a private, liberal arts college. It is Alabama's oldest private black college; as of 2009, it received full SACS accreditation. The history of Talladega College began on November 20, 1865, when three former slaves William Savery, Thomas Tarrant, Ambrose Headen of Talladega, met in convention with a group of new freedmen in Mobile, Alabama. From this meeting came the commitment, "We regard the education of our children and youth as vital to the preservation of our liberties, true religion as the foundation of all real virtue, shall use our utmost endeavors to promote these blessings in our common country." With this as their pledge, Savery and Headen aided by General Wager Swayne of the Freedmen's Bureau, began in earnest to provide a school for the children of former slaves of the community. Their leadership resulted in the construction of a one-room school house using lumber salvaged from an abandoned carpenter's shop; the school overflowed with pupils from its opening and soon it was necessary to move into larger quarters.
Meanwhile, the nearby Coosa River Valley Baptist Academy was about to be sold under mortgage default. This building had been built in 1852-53 with the help of slaves, including Savery and Headen. A speedy plea was sent to General Swayne for its purchase. General Swayne in turn persuaded the American Missionary Association to buy the building and some 20 acres of land for $23,000; the grateful parents renamed the building Swayne School and it opened in November 1867 with about 140 pupils. A building constructed before the war with slave labor for white students became the home of the state's first college dedicated to serving the educational needs of blacks. In 1869, Swayne School was issued a charter as Talladega College by the Judge of Probate of Talladega County; the former Baptist Academy building, now known as Swayne Hall, has remained in service as the symbol and spirit of the beginning of the college. Talladega College is located in the city of Talladega; the campus consists of 50 acres with 17 primary buildings.
32 campus buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Talladega College Historic District. The Savery Library, completed in 1939, was built to replace a 1907 structure built with a donation from Andrew Carnegie; the library houses hundreds of thousands of serials, a Record Room, a equipped computer laboratory, a unique Archives Room, the historic Amistad murals painted by Hale Woodruff. Embedded in the floor of the library is a mural of La Amistad - which school tradition says must never be stepped upon - referring to the mutiny by slaves, who took control of that ship and won their freedom in a United States court, is depicted upon the surrounding walls; the mezzanine floor of the library houses the Galangue Room. This room contains an extensive collection of Nigerian artifacts. Andrews Hall, built in 1910, houses the Education Department, it is named for George Whitfield Andrews, D. D. Dean of the Theological Department from 1875 to 1908. Arthur D. Shores Hall, constructed in 1974, is named for the late attorney Arthur D. Shores, Class of 1927, who served for many years as a member and chairman of the College Board of Trustees.
De Forest Chapel was built in 1903 in commemoration of the life and service of the Rev. Henry Swift De Forest, D. D. President of the College from 1879 to 1896. DeForest Chapel was renovated in 1996 and rededicated November 1996. De Forest was the father of inventor Lee De Forest. Fanning Refectory was built in 1928 from a legacy of Dr. David H. Fanning of Worcester, Massachusetts; the building contains the faculty dining rooms. Juliette Derricotte House, built in 1940-41, was the gift of the Harkness Foundation and named for Juliette Derricotte, Class of 1918, who at the time of her death in 1932 was a member of the Board of Trustees. A staff residence and guest house, it was converted into a women's honors dormitory in 1988. Silsby Science Hall, constructed in 1926, was named for Dr. E. C. Silsby, a member of the college faculty for 37 years; the building was friends and alumni of the college. It contains the classrooms for the Natural Sciences and Mathematics. Talladega College teams, nicknamed athletically as the Tornadoes, are part of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics Division II level competing in the Gulf Coast Athletic Conference.
Men's sports include baseball, basketball and soccer, while women's sports include basketball and volleyball. The Talladega College Tornado Marching Band was established in 2012; the marching band is the largest organization on campus, with over 200 members. The band is led by five drum majors and is accompanied by a danceline named "Dega Diamonds"; the marching band made their debut appearance at the annual Honda Battle of the Bands in 2015 and performed at the 2017 U. S. presidential inauguration parade in Washington, D. C. Talladega College official website Talladega College official athletics website Petersons College profile
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
William Lloyd Garrison
William Lloyd Garrison was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, which he founded with Isaac Knapp in 1831 and published in Massachusetts until slavery was abolished by Constitutional amendment after the American Civil War, he was one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. Born in Newburyport, Garrison began his newspaper career as an apprentice compositor for the Newburyport Herald, he became involved in the anti-slavery movement in the 1820s, over time he rejected both the American Colonization Society and the gradualist views of most others involved in the movement. Garrison co-founded The Liberator to espouse his abolitionist views, in 1832 he organized the New-England Anti-Slavery Society; this society expanded into the American Anti-Slavery Society, which espoused the position that slavery should be abolished.
Garrison emerged as a leading advocate of women's rights, which prompted a split in the abolitionist community. In the 1870s, Garrison became a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement. Garrison was born on December 10, 1805, in Newburyport, the son of immigrants from the British colony of New Brunswick, in present-day Canada. Under An Act for the relief of sick and disabled seamen, Abijah Garrison, a merchant sailing pilot and master, had obtained American papers and moved his family to Newburyport in 1806; the U. S. Embargo Act of 1807, intended to injure Great Britain, caused a decline in American commercial shipping; the elder Garrison became unemployed and deserted the family in 1808. Garrison's mother was Frances Maria Lloyd, reported to have been tall, of a strong religious character, she started referring to their son William as his middle name, to preserve her family name. She died in the city of Baltimore, Maryland. Garrison sold home-made lemonade and candy as a youth, delivered wood to help support the family.
In 1818, at 13, Garrison began working as an apprentice compositor for the Newburyport Herald. He soon began writing articles under the pseudonym Aristides. Aristides was an Athenian statesman and general nicknamed "the Just." After his apprenticeship ended, Garrison and a young printer named Isaac Knapp bought their own newspaper in 1826, the short-lived Free Press. One of their regular contributors was abolitionist John Greenleaf Whittier. In this early work as a small town newspaper writer, Garrison acquired skills he would use as a nationally known writer and newspaper publisher. In 1828, he was appointed editor of the National Philanthropist in Boston, the first American journal to promote legally-mandated temperance. At the age of 25, Garrison joined the anti-slavery movement crediting the 1826 book of Presbyterian Reverend John Rankin, Letters on Slavery, for attracting him to the cause. For a brief time he became associated with the American Colonization Society, an organization that promoted the resettlement of free blacks to a territory on the west coast of Africa.
Although some members of the society encouraged granting freedom to slaves, others considered relocation a means to reduce the number of free blacks in the United States. Southern members thought reducing the threat of free blacks in society would help preserve the institution of slavery. By late 1829–1830, "Garrison rejected colonization, publicly apologized for his error, as was typical of him, he censured all who were committed to it." Garrison began writing for and became co-editor with Benjamin Lundy of the Quaker newspaper Genius of Universal Emancipation in Baltimore, Maryland. With his experience as a printer and newspaper editor, Garrison changed the layout of the paper and handled other operation issues. Lundy was freed to spend more time touring as an anti-slavery speaker. Garrison shared Lundy's gradualist views, but while working for the Genius, he became convinced of the need to demand immediate and complete emancipation. Lundy and Garrison continued to work together on the paper in spite of their differing views.
Each signed his own editorials. Garrison introduced "The Black List," a column devoted to printing short reports of "the barbarities of slavery—kidnappings, murders." For instance, Garrison reported that Francis Todd, a shipper from Garrison's home town of Newburyport, was involved in the domestic slave trade, that he had had slaves shipped from Baltimore to New Orleans in the coastwise trade on his ship the Francis. Todd filed a suit for libel in Maryland against both Lundy; the state of Maryland brought criminal charges against Garrison finding him guilty and ordering him to pay a fine of $50 and court costs. Garrison was sentenced to a jail term of six months, he was released after seven weeks when the anti-slavery philanthropist Arthur Tappan donated the money for the fine. Garrison decided to leave Baltimore, he and Lundy amicably agreed to part ways. In 1831, Garrison returned to New England, where he co-founded a weekly anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator, with his friend Isaac Knapp.
In the first issue, Garrison stated: I am aware that many object to the severity of my language. I will be as harsh as truth, as uncompr