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American Planning Association

The American Planning Association is a professional organization representing the field of urban planning in the United States. The APA was formed in 1978, when two separate professional planning organizations, the American Institute of Planners and the American Society of Planning Officials, were merged into a single organization; the American Institute of Certified Planners is now the organization's professional branch. Like many professional organizations, the American Planning Association's main function is to serve as a forum for the exchange of ideas between people who work in the field of urban planning; the organization keeps track of the various improvement efforts underway around the country, which may include the improvement or construction of new parks and roads, or residential developments. The organization is a starting point for people looking for employment; the association publishes the Journal of the American Planning Association. JAPA was founded in 1935 as Planners' Journal, was from 1943 known as Journal of the American Institute of Planners.

The American Planning Association holds an annual national conference which attracts planners, local government officials, planning commissioners and planning students from across the United States and the world. Each conference now hosts several hundred individual sessions with thousands of attendees. Future conferences are planned for: San Francisco, CA Houston, TX Boston, MA The association is subdivided into 47 state/regional chapters, such as the NJAPA or the Western Central Chapter of the APA. APA members in the United States are required to belong to a local chapter. Many APA Chapters meet and most are a source for local conferences and education, networking; each of 47 local chapters publishes a newsletter and maintains a presence on the web and on social media. To manage the various interests of American planners, the APA has created 21 divisions. APA divisions offer professional networking opportunities for planners, they produce newsletters and special publications, develop conference sessions, collaborate with related organizations, contribute to policy work.

The divisions focus on planning strategies for professionals with focused interests. American Planning Association JAPA Annual National Planning Conference

Mahmoud Tawfik

Mahmoud Tawfik is an Egyptian politician and police officer. He serves as the Egyptian Minister of Interior. Tawfik joined the Egyptian police and graduated from the Police Academy in 1982. Following his graduation, Tawfik worked for various Egyptian security agencies under the control of the Egyptian Ministry of Interior, he started working for the Cairo Security Directorate, before joining the State Security Investigations Service and its successor agency, the National Security Agency in 2011. At the National Security Agency, he served as director of the agency’s external operations department before becoming deputy director in 2015. Tawfiq was involved in counter-terrorism activities against Islamist groups, including the Muslim Brotherhood. On 29 October 2017, Tawfik was promoted to director of the National Security Agency by Minister of Interior Magdy Abdel Ghaffar after insurgents killed several police officers in an ambush in the Egyptian Western Desert. During his time as director, Amnesty International reported that the agency was responsible for large scale human rights violations including torturing and killing members of the opposition without trial.

On June 14, 2018, President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi reshuffled key ministries and appointed Tawfiq as Minister of Interior

Logical framework approach

The Logical Framework Approach is a methodology used for designing and evaluating international development projects. Variations of this tool are known as Goal Oriented Project Planning or Objectives Oriented Project Planning; the Logical Framework Approach was developed in 1969 for the U. S. Agency for International Development, it is based on a worldwide study by a principal of Fry Consultants Inc.. In 1970 and 1971, USAID implemented the method in 30 country assistance programs under the guidance of Practical Concepts Incorporated, founded by Rosenberg, it has been used by multilateral donor organizations, such as AECID, GIZ, SIDA, NORAD, DFID, SDC, UNDP, EC and the Inter-American Development Bank. Some non-governmental organizations offer LFA training to ground-level field staff, it has gained popularity in the private sector, for example, in health care. The Logical Framework Approach takes the form of a four-by-four project table referred to as a "Logframe"; the rows represent types of events that take place as a project is implemented: Activities, Outputs and Goal.

The columns represent types of information about the events: a Narrative description, Objectively Verifiable Indicators of these events taking place, Means of Verification where information will be available on the OVIs, Assumptions. Assumptions are external factors that could have an influence, whether positive or negative, on the events described in the narrative column; the list of assumptions should include the factors that may impact the project's success but cannot be directly controlled by the project or program managers. In some cases, these include what could be killer assumptions, which if invalid will have major negative consequences for the project. A good project design should be able to substantiate its assumptions those with a high potential to have a negative impact; the core of the Logical Framework is the "temporal logic model". This takes the form of a series of connected propositions: If these Activities are implemented, these Assumptions hold these Outputs will be delivered.

If these Outputs are delivered, these Assumptions hold this Purpose will be achieved. If this Purpose is achieved, these Assumptions hold this Goal will be achieved; these are viewed as a hierarchy of hypotheses, with the project or program manager sharing responsibility with higher management for the validity of hypotheses beyond the output level. Thus, Rosenberg brought the essence of scientific method to non-scientific endeavors; the "Assumptions" column is important in clarifying the extent to which the project or program objectives depend on external factors, clarify "force majeure" — of particular interest when the Canadian International Development Agency at least used the LFA as the essence of contracts. The LFA is used in other contexts, both personal and corporate; when developed within an organization, it can articulate a common interpretation of the objectives of a project and how they will be achieved. The indicators and means of verification force clarifications as one would for a scientific endeavor, as in "you haven't defined it until you say how you will measure it."

Tracking progress against defined output indicators provides a clear basis for monitoring progress. Given a well constructed logical framework, an informed skeptic and a project advocate should be able to agree on what the project attempts to accomplish, how it is to succeed—in terms of programmatic as well as project objective. One of its purposes in its early uses was to identify the span of control of'project management'. In some countries with less than perfect governance and managerial systems, it became an excuse for failure. Externally sourced technical assistance managers were able to say that all activities foreseen have been implemented and all required outputs produced, but because of the sub-optimal systems in the country, which are beyond the control of the project's management, the purpose have not been achieved and so the goal has not been attained; the Logical Framework Approach, Handbook for objectives-oriented planning, Fourth edition, NORAD, 1999, ISBN 82-7548-160-0. Strategic Project Management Made Simple: Practical Tools for Leaders and Teams, by Terry Schmidt.

ISBN 978-0-470-41158-2 The Logical Framework: A Manager's Guide to a Scientific Approach to Design and Evaluation, by Practical Concepts, Incorporated, 1979 USAID-related logical framework documents available through USAID's Development Experience System. Centre for Informatic Apprenticeship and Resources in Social Inclusion Short description. AusGuideline 3.3 The Logical Framework Approach Project Cycle Management Guidelines Fernando, Renuka. "Getting on With It: Monitoring and Evaluation in the Third Sector" Risk and Regulation. London School of Economics. Winter 2012. Example of the LFA as a design methodology

Cities of Refuge

The Cities of Refuge were six Levitical towns in the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah in which the perpetrators of accidental manslaughter could claim the right of asylum. Maimonides, invoking talmudic literature, expands the city of refuge count to all 48 Levitical cities. Outside of these cities, blood vengeance against such perpetrators was allowed by law; the Bible names the six cities as being cities of refuge: Golan and Bosor, on the east of the Jordan River, Kedesh and Hebron on the western side. In the Priestly Code, the regulations concerning the cities of refuge state that, once he had claimed asylum, a perpetrator had to be taken from the city and put on trial; this law code treats blood money as an unacceptable device that would compound the crime, insisting that atonement can only be made by blood. The Priestly Code states that no harm was allowed to come to the perpetrator once the Jewish high priest had died, at which point the perpetrator was free to leave the city without fear.

The Talmud argues that the death of the high priest formed an atonement, as the death of pious individuals counted as an atonement, in its view, the high priest was pious. The Deuteronomic Code prescribed that three cities be set aside to provide refuge on a regional basis, with three additional cities to be set aside'if the Lord your God enlarges your territory'; these were not the three cities of refuge east of the Jordan established according to Deuteronomy 4:41, but a further three nine in total. Albert Barnes stated that the additional three cities allowed for "the anticipated enlargement of the borders of Israel to the utmost limits promised by God, from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates" and the King James Version refers in Deuteronomy 19:8 to the enlargement of the coast of the promised land; the Deuteronomic regulations are presented in a different manner from in the Priestly Code and, rather than describing the perpetrator being put on trial state that if the perpetrator is guilty of murder, the elders of the town in which the crime was committed should demand the perpetrator's return and hand him over without pity to the avenger of blood to be killed.

The Deuteronomic Code does not give any role to the high priest or mention the terms on which the perpetrator could return home, but does state that roads should be built to the cities of refuge to ease the escape of the perpetrator to them. A chapter in the Book of Joshua reiterates the regulations for the cities of refuge, adding that when a perpetrator arrives at the city, he had to disclose the events that had occurred to the city elders, after which they had to find him a place to live within the city. Textual scholars regard the chapter as being an insertion by the deuteronomist, in the Talmud, it is argued that the chapter had been moved and was part of the Torah as an aspect of the Deuteronomic Code. In many ancient cultures, the inviolability of deities was considered to extend to their religious sanctuaries and all that resided within, whether criminals, escaped slaves, ordinary people, or, in some cases, passing cattle. In general, the area covered by these rights of sanctuary varied from a small area around the altar or other centrepiece to a large area beyond the limits of the town containing the sanctuary, depending on the significance of the deity and the importance of the sanctuary.

Biblical scholars perceive this simple right of asylum at sanctuaries as being presented by the Covenant Code, which textual scholars attribute to the 8th century BC. Biblical scholars believe that this right was the context underlying the account in the Books of Kings of Joab and Adonijah each fleeing from Solomon to an altar, with their opponents being unwilling to attack them while they remained there. Over time, these general rights of asylum were curtailed, as some sanctuaries had become notorious hotbeds of crime; this is considered by scholars to be the reason that, in Israelite culture, the rights were restricted to just six locations by the time the Priestly Code was compiled—the late 7th century according to textual scholars—and it is thus regarded by biblical scholars as being no coincidence that the three cities of refuge to the west o

C.D. Primeiro de Agosto in African football

This article aims at providing details on the participation and performance of Clube Desportivo Primeiro de Agosto at the various competitions organized by the Confederation of African Football, namely the CAF Champions League, the CAF Confederation Cup and the former CAF Cup and CAF Winner's Cup. Primeiro de Agosto has a total 24 participations in CAF-sponsored competitions, including 12 in the CAF Champions League, 5 in the African Cup of Champions Clubs, 3 in the CAF Cup Winners' Cup and 2 in both the CAF Confederation Cup and the CAF Cup. In 1998, the club reached the final of the CAF Cup Winners' Cup. In 1997 and 2009, they reached the group stage of the CAF Champions League and of the CAF Confederation Cup, respectively. In 2018, they reached the semi-finals of the champions league were they were unfairly eliminated in a second-leg 4-2 defeat to Espérance Tunis with a biased, shameful performance by referee Janny Sikazwe. Win Draw Loss The biased performance of Zambian referee Janny Sikazwe positively prevented D'Agosto from reaching the finals.

The renowned referee had a disgraceful performance during the entire match ignoring the rules of the game and siding with the home team. The ice on the cake of his performance occurred shortly before Espérance's final goal, when D'Agosto scored but he inexplicably disallowed the goal on a would-be push to the Tunisian goal-keeper. In the aftermath, Sikazwe was suspended by CAF on suspicion of corruption. D'Agosto's coach Ndunguidi deployed three quarter-backs and that strategy paid off when Nsilulu made a superior play for Muanza to score 1-0. Espérance needed to play on the offense and three quarter-backs made D'Agosto's defense look like an insurmountable wall. Stopirrá, Pedro and Nsilulu were at the top of their game to the despair of their opponents. However, the home team managed to score at only 4 minutes of play. Espérance was putting a lot of pressure and close to half time, the referee wrongly awarded a penalty on Julião. Hamrouni took the penalty and scored 2-1. In the second half, D'Agosto was defending too close to the penalty box, Espérance took advantage and Laroussi scored 3-1 after a poor save by D'Agosto's goal-keeper Goliath.

The penalty missed by Assis in the second half at a time when D'Agosto was winning 1-0 might have been enough for D'Agosto to claim the title as they lost 3-1 in Tunis. That miss had an heavy toll on the future career of the young promising player. Assis was the team's official penalty taker, he had scored two against USM so he had earned the trust of coach Ndunguidi Daniel. It was intense match. D'Agosto failed to display the superb gameplay. Went for long kicks into the Tunisian penalty box instead of flanking using the speed of either Mendonça or Nsilulu, it was a huge responsibility. In the end, cries of sadness at Cidadela. If only that penalty had been scored... Referees

Calvin Coolidge State Forest

Calvin Coolidge State Forest known as Coolidge State Forest, covers 22,564 acres in two parts in Rutland and Windsor Counties in Vermont. The West portion cover 17,259 acres in Killington, Mendon and Shrewsbury in both counties; the East portion cover 5,305 acres in Bridgewater, Plymouth and Woodstock in Windsor County. The forest is managed by the Vermont Department of Forests and Recreation for timber resources, wildlife habitat, recreational activities. Activities in the forest include camping, picnicking, hunting, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing and snowmobiling. Coolidge State Park in the East section in Plymouth is the most developed and primary recreational center for the forest, features a campground; the park's facilities were built by the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s, are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are several remote lean-tos, primitive camping areas, gold panning; the Vermont Association of Snow Travelers grooms an extensive network of road and trails for snowmobiling in the winter.

There are hunting opportunities for game species such as deer and ruffed grouse. The CCC built many of the roads in the East section. In the East, the forests are hardwood and steep, are managed for timber; the West section features many hiking trails, including the Shrewsbury Peak Trail, Tinker Brook Trail, Bucklin Trail and portions of the Long Trail and Appalachian Trail. There are trails for cross-country skiing, as well as snowshoeing. Hunting and trapping occurs in this section; the West section of Calvin Coolidge State Forest is located along the Green Mountains ridgeline and features many high forested mountain peaks, including Killington Peak, Little Killington, Saltash and Smith peaks. There are three designated Vermont State Natural Areas – Tinker Brook Natural Area in Plymouth, Shrewsbury Peak Natural Area in Shrewsbury, Mendon Peak Natural Area in Mendon. Official website