Rod of Asclepius
In Greek mythology, the Rod of Asclepius known as the Staff of Asclepius and as the asklepian, is a serpent-entwined rod wielded by the Greek god Asclepius, a deity associated with healing and medicine. The symbol has continued to be used in modern times, where it is associated with medicine and health care, yet confused with the staff of the god Hermes, the caduceus. Theories have been proposed about the Greek origin of its implications; the Rod of Asclepius takes its name from the Greek god Asclepius, a deity associated with healing and medicinal arts in Greek mythology. Asclepius' attributes, the snake and the staff, sometimes depicted separately in antiquity, are combined in this symbol; the most famous temple of Asclepius was at Epidaurus in north-eastern Peloponnese. Another famous healing temple was located on the island of Kos, where Hippocrates, the legendary "father of medicine", may have begun his career. Other asclepieia were situated in Trikala and Pergamum in Asia. In honor of Asclepius, a particular type of non-venomous snake was used in healing rituals, these snakes – the Aesculapian snakes – crawled around on the floor in dormitories where the sick and injured slept.
These snakes were introduced at the founding of each new temple of Asclepius throughout the classical world. From about 300 BCE onwards, the cult of Asclepius grew popular and pilgrims flocked to his healing temples to be cured of their ills. Ritual purification would be followed by offerings or sacrifices to the god, the supplicant would spend the night in the holiest part of the sanctuary – the abaton. Any dreams or visions would be reported to a priest who would prescribe the appropriate therapy by a process of interpretation; some healing temples used sacred dogs to lick the wounds of sick petitioners. The original Hippocratic Oath began with the invocation "I swear by Apollo the Physician and by Asclepius and by Hygieia and Panacea and by all the gods..."The serpent and the staff appear to have been separate symbols that were combined at some point in the development of the Asclepian cult. The significance of the serpent has been interpreted in many ways; the ambiguity of the serpent as a symbol, the contradictions it is thought to represent, reflect the ambiguity of the use of drugs, which can help or harm, as reflected in the meaning of the term pharmakon, which meant "drug", "medicine", "poison" in ancient Greek.
Products deriving from the bodies of snakes were known to have medicinal properties in ancient times, in ancient Greece, at least some were aware that snake venom that might be fatal if it entered the bloodstream could be imbibed. Snake venom appears to have been'prescribed' in some cases as a form of therapy; the staff has been variously interpreted. One view is that it, like the serpent, "conveyed notions of resurrection and healing", while another is that the staff was a walking stick associated with itinerant physicians. Cornutus, a Greek philosopher active in the first century CE, in the Theologiae Graecae Compendium offers a view of the significance of both snake and staff: Asclepius derived his name from healing soothingly and from deferring the withering that comes with death. For this reason, they give him a serpent as an attribute, indicating that those who avail themselves of medical science undergo a process similar to the serpent in that they, as it were, grow young again after illnesses and slough off old age.
The staff seems to be a symbol of some similar thing. For by means of this it is set before our minds that unless we are supported by such inventions as these, in so far as falling continually into sickness is concerned, stumbling along we would fall sooner than necessary. In any case the two symbols merged in antiquity as representations of the snake coiled about the staff are common, it has been claimed that the snake wrapped around the staff was a species of rat snake, Elaphe longissima, the Aesculapian snake. Some commentators have interpreted the symbol as a direct representation of traditional treatment of dracunculiasis, the Guinea worm disease; the worm emerges from painful ulcerous blisters. The blisters burn, causing the patient to immerse the affected area in water to soothe it; the worm senses the temperature discharges its larvae into the water. The traditional treatment was to pull the worm out of the wound over a period of hours to weeks and wind it around a stick; the modern treatment may replace the stick with a piece of sterile gauze but is otherwise identical.
See the article on Nehustan which discusses the incident in the biblical Book of Numbers, where the Nehushtan was a bronze serpent on a pole which God told Moses to erect to protect the Israelites who saw it from dying from the bites of the "fiery serpents" which God had sent to punish them for speaking against God and Moses. King Hezekiah instituted a religious iconoclastic reform and destroyed "the brazen serpent that Moses had made. Many bible students have made the
Charles Ernest Grassley is an American politician serving as the President pro tempore of the United States Senate, the senior United States Senator from Iowa. He is in his seventh term in the Senate, first being elected in 1980. A member of the Republican Party, Grassley served eight terms in the Iowa House of Representatives and three terms in the United States House of Representatives, he has served three stints as Senate Finance Committee Chairman during periods of Republican Senate majority. When Orrin Hatch's term ended on January 3, 2019, Grassley became the most senior Republican in the Senate and - as the Republicans are the majority party - was appointed President pro tempore for the 116th United States Congress, making him third in the presidential line of succession. Grassley was born in New Hartford, the son of Ruth and Louis Arthur Grassley, raised on a farm, he graduated from the town high school. At Iowa State Teachers College, he earned a B. A. in 1955 and an M. A. in Political Science in 1956.
During his time as a student, Grassley joined the social-professional Alpha Gamma Rho Fraternity. During the 1950s, Grassley farmed and worked in factories in Iowa, first as a sheet metal shearer and as an assembly line worker, he pursued a Ph. D. in political science at the University of Iowa, but did not complete the degree. From 1967–1968, Grassley taught at Charles City College. Grassley represented parts of Butler County in the Iowa House of Representatives from 1959 until 1975, he served in the United States House of Representatives from 1975 to 1981. Committee on Agriculture and Forestry Subcommittee on Rural Revitalization, Conservation and Credit Subcommittee on Energy and Technology Subcommittee on Production, Income Protection and Price Support Committee on Finance Subcommittee on Health Care Subcommittee on Energy, Natural Resources, Infrastructure Subcommittee on International Trade and Global Competitiveness Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on Antitrust, Competition Policy and Consumer Rights Subcommittee on Immigration and The National Interest Subcommittee on Oversight, Agency Action, Federal Rights and Federal Courts Committee on the Budget Caucus on International Narcotics Control Joint Committee on Taxation In November 1981, Grassley was one of thirty-two senators to sign a letter to President Reagan supporting Director of the Office of Management and Budget David Stockman.
In August 1982, while the Reagan administration tried persuading senators to approve legislation authorizing the creation of a radio station for broadcasting to Cuba, Grassley joined fellow Iowa Senator Roger Jepsen and Edward Zorinsky in seeking an amendment to the bill so the Reagan administration would be barred from operating Radio Marti on that frequency or other commercial frequencies under the AM band. In October 1983, Grassley voted against establishing a legal holiday to commemorate the birthday of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. On November 1, 1984, Grassley signed a one-page citation of contempt of Congress against Attorney General William French Smith due to the latter not turning over files on an investigation into Navy shipbuilding. Assistant Attorney General Stephen S. Trott called the citation "out of place" since Grassley was not acting at a session of the Judiciary panel that he led. In May 1987, the Senate Appropriations Committee defeated an attempt by Grassley to hasten payments of corn and other feed grain subsidies ahead of the scheduled payment taking place after October 1.
The Grassley measure was designed to unravel an accounting device lawmakers used to make it appear as though they were reducing spending for the incoming fiscal year. In October, during a press briefing, Grassley accused President Reagan of being "asleep at the switch" and botching the handling of Robert Bork's Supreme Court nomination, adding that the Bork nomination had convinced him the Reagan administration "has been lucky for the last seven years" in other matters including the economy and foreign policy; that month, Grassley likened the groups lobbying against Bork's nomination with the era of McCarthyism during the 1950s: "The big lie is standard operating procedure for some of these groups. All you have to do is repeat the same outrageous charges, repeat them so that people believe they are true." In November, as party leaders of the Senate Judiciary Committee met on the Supreme Court nomination of Douglas H. Ginsburg, Grassley released the text of a letter he intended to send to the American Bar Association suggesting the association was dragging its feet in its review of Ginsburg's record.
After Ginsburg admitted to smoking marijuana, Grassley said, "You like to think people who are appointed to the Supreme Court respect the law." Grassley joined Jesse Helms in resisting the nomination of Anthony Kennedy, President Reagan's next choice for the Supreme Court, admitting that he would have preferred another candidate such as appeals court justices Pasco Bowman or J. Clifford Wallace. Grassley stated his distaste for "the people who are committed to changing the judiciary" taking "the path of least resistance."In January 1989, as the Senate voted to schedule a vote within the following month on the pay increase, Grassley questioned how senators would decline federal program increases "come March and April if the first thing out of the box is a pay raise?" In February, Grassley was one of six senators to testify against the 50% pay increase scheduled to take effect the following week. In October, Grassley was one of nine senators to vote against legislation intende
Benjamin Rush was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and a civic leader in Philadelphia, where he was a physician, social reformer and educator as well as the founder of Dickinson College. Rush signed the Declaration of Independence, his self-description there was: "He aimed right." He served as Surgeon General of the Continental Army and became a professor of chemistry, medical theory, clinical practice at the University of Pennsylvania. Rush was a leader of the American Enlightenment and an enthusiastic supporter of the American Revolution, he was a leader in Pennsylvania's ratification of the Constitution in 1788. He was prominent in many reforms in the areas of medicine and education, he opposed slavery, advocated free public schools, sought improved education for women and a more enlightened penal system. As a leading physician, Rush had a major impact on the emerging medical profession; as an Enlightenment intellectual, he was committed to organizing all medical knowledge around explanatory theories, rather than rely on empirical methods.
Rush argued that illness was the result of imbalances in the body's physical system and was caused by malfunctions in the brain. His approach prepared the way for medical research, but Rush himself undertook none of it, he promoted public health by advocating clean environment and stressing the importance of personal and military hygiene. His study of mental disorder made him one of the founders of American psychiatry. Benjamin Rush was born to John Rush and Susanna Hall on January 4, 1746; the family, of English descent, lived on a plantation in the Township of Byberry in Philadelphia County, about 14 miles outside of Philadelphia. Benjamin was the fourth of seven children. John Rush died in July 1751 at age thirty-nine, leaving his mother, who ran a country store, to care for the family. At age eight, Benjamin was sent to live with an uncle to receive an education. Benjamin and his older brother Jacob attended a school run by Reverend Samuel Finley, which became West Nottingham Academy. In 1760, after further studies at the College of New Jersey, Rush graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree at age fourteen.
From 1761 to 1766, Rush apprenticed under Dr. John Redman in Philadelphia. Redman encouraged him to further his studies at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, where Rush studied from 1766 to 1768 and earned an M. D. degree. Rush became fluent in French and Spanish as a result of his studies and European tour. While at Edinburgh, he became a friend of the Earl of Leven and his family, including William Leslie. Returning to the Colonies in 1769, Rush opened a medical practice in Philadelphia and became Professor of Chemistry at the College of Philadelphia. Rush published the first American textbook on chemistry, several volumes on medical student education, wrote influential patriotic essays. Rush was active in the Sons of Liberty and was elected to attend the provincial conference to send delegates to the Continental Congress. Thomas Paine consulted Rush when writing the profoundly influential pro-independence pamphlet Common Sense. Rush signed the Declaration of Independence, he represented Philadelphia at Pennsylvania's own Constitutional Convention.
While Rush was representing Pennsylvania in the Continental Congress, he used his medical skills in the field. Rush accompanied the Philadelphia militia during the battles after which the British occupied Philadelphia and most of New Jersey, he was depicted serving in the Battle of Princeton in the painting The Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777 by the American artist John Trumbull. The Army Medical Service was in disarray, between the military casualties high losses due to typhoid, yellow fever and other camp illnesses, political conflicts between Dr. John Morgan and Dr. William Shippen, Jr. and inadequate supplies and guidance from the Medical Committee. Nonetheless, Rush accepted an appointment as surgeon-general of the middle department of the Continental Army. Rush's order "Directions for preserving the health of soldiers" became one of the foundations of preventative military medicine and was republished, including as late as 1908. However, Rush's reporting of Dr. Shippen's misappropriation of food and wine supplies intended to comfort hospitalized soldiers, under-reporting of patient deaths, failure to visit the hospitals under his command led to Rush's resignation in 1778.
Rush criticized General George Washington in two handwritten but unsigned letters while still serving under the Surgeon General. One, to Virginia Governor Patrick Henry dated October 12, 1778, quoted General Thomas Conway saying that if not for God's grace the ongoing war would have been lost by Washington and his weak counselors. Henry forwarded the letter to Washington, despite Rush's request that the criticism be conveyed orally, Washington recognized the handwriting. At the time, the supposed Conway Cabal was trying to replace Washington with Horatio Gates as commander-in-chief. Rush's letter relayed General John Sullivan's criticism that forces directly under Washington were undisciplined and mob-like, contrasted Gates' army as "a well-regulated family". Ten days Rush wrote to John Adams relaying complaints inside Washington's army, including about "bad bread, no order, universal disgust" and praising Conway, appointed to Inspector General. Dr. Shippen sought Rush's resignation and received it by
A logo is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition. It may be of an abstract or figurative design or include the text of the name it represents as in a wordmark. In the days of hot metal typesetting, a logotype was one word cast as a single piece of type, as opposed to a ligature, two or more letters joined, but not forming a word. By extension, the term was used for a uniquely set and arranged typeface or colophon. At the level of mass communication and in common usage, a company's logo is today synonymous with its trademark or brand. Numerous inventions and techniques have contributed to the contemporary logo, including cylinder seals, trans-cultural diffusion of logographic languages, coats of arms, silver hallmarks, the development of printing technology; as the industrial revolution converted western societies from agrarian to industrial in the 18th and 19th centuries and lithography contributed to the boom of an advertising industry that integrated typography and imagery together on the page.
Typography itself was undergoing a revolution of form and expression that expanded beyond the modest, serif typefaces used in books, to bold, ornamental typefaces used on broadsheet posters. The arts were expanding in purpose—from expression and decoration of an artistic, storytelling nature, to a differentiation of brands and products that the growing middle classes were consuming. Consultancies and trades-groups in the commercial arts were organizing. Artistic credit tended to be assigned to the lithographic company, as opposed to the individual artists who performed less important jobs. Innovators in the visual arts and lithographic process—such as French printing firm Rouchon in the 1840s, Joseph Morse of New York in the 1850s, Frederick Walker of England in the 1870s, Jules Chéret of France in the 1870s—developed an illustrative style that went beyond tonal, representational art to figurative imagery with sections of bright, flat colors. Playful children’s books, authoritative newspapers, conversational periodicals developed their own visual and editorial styles for unique, expanding audiences.
As printing costs decreased, literacy rates increased, visual styles changed, the Victorian decorative arts led to an expansion of typographic styles and methods of representing businesses. The Arts and Crafts Movement of late-19th century in response to the excesses of Victorian typography, aimed to restore an honest sense of craftsmanship to the mass-produced goods of the era. A renewal of interest in craftsmanship and quality provided the artists and companies with a greater interest in credit, leading to the creation of unique logos and marks. By the 1950s, Modernism had shed its roots as an avant-garde artistic movement in Europe to become an international, commercialized movement with adherents in the United States and elsewhere; the visual simplicity and conceptual clarity that were the hallmarks of Modernism as an artistic movement formed a powerful toolset for a new generation of graphic designers whose logos embodied Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s dictum, "Less is more." Modernist-inspired logos proved successful in the era of mass visual communication ushered in by television, improvements in printing technology, digital innovations.
The current era of logo design began in the 1870s with the first abstract logo, the Bass red triangle. As of 2014, many corporations, brands, services and other entities use an ideogram or an emblem or a combination of sign and emblem as a logo; as a result, only a few of the thousands of ideograms in circulation are recognizable without a name. An effective logo may consist of both an ideogram and the company name to emphasize the name over the graphic, employ a unique design via the use of letters and additional graphic elements. Ideograms and symbols may be more effective than written names for logos translated into many alphabets in globalized markets. For instance, a name written in Arabic script might have little resonance in most European markets. By contrast, ideograms keep the general proprietary nature of a product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross exemplifies a well-known emblem that does not need an accompanying name; the red cross and red crescent are among the best-recognized symbols in the world.
National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and their Federation as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross include these symbols in their logos. Branding can aim to facilitate cross-language marketing. Consumers and potential consumers can identify the Coca-Cola name written in different alphabets because of the standard color and "ribbon wave" design of its logo; the text was written in Spencerian Script, a popular writing style when the Coca Cola Logo was being designed. Since a logo is the visual entity signifying an organization, logo design is an important area of graphic design. A logo is the central element of a complex identification system that must be functionally extended to all communications of an organization. Therefore, the design of logos and their incorporation in a visual identity system is one of the most difficult and important areas of graphic design. Logos fall into three classifications. Ideographs, such as Chase Bank, are abstr
Robert Whitaker (author)
Robert Whitaker is an American journalist and author, writing about medicine and history. Whitaker is a medical writer at the Albany Times Union newspaper in Albany, New York from 1989 to 1994. In 1992, he was a Knight Science Journalism fellow at MIT. Following that, he became director of publications at Harvard Medical School. In 1994, he co-founded a publishing company, CenterWatch, that covered the pharmaceutical clinical trials industry. CenterWatch was acquired by Medical Economics, a division of The Thomson Corporation, in 1998. In 2002, USA Today published Whitaker's article "Mind drugs may hinder recovery" in its editorial/opinion section. In 2004, Whitaker published a paper in the non-peer-reviewed journal Medical Hypotheses, titled "The case against antipsychotic drugs: a 50-year record of doing more harm than good". In 2005, he published his paper Anatomy of an Epidemic: Psychiatric Drugs and the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America in the peer-reviewed journal Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry.
In his book Anatomy of an Epidemic, published in 2010, Whitaker continued his work. He has written on and off for the Boston Globe and in 2001, he wrote his first book Mad in America about psychiatric research and medications, the domains of some of his earlier journalism, he appeared in the film Take These Broken Wings: Recovery from Schizophrenia Without Medication released in 2008, a film detailing the pitfalls of administering medication for the illness. An IRE 2010 book award winner for best investigative journalism, this book investigates why the number of mentally ill patients in America receiving SSI or SSDI disability checks keeps rising, despite the so-called "psychopharmacological revolution." Whitaker's main thesis is. However, patients receiving prolonged treatment courses end up more disabled than they started. Despite these results from several landmark studies in the 1970s, in the 1980s pharmaceutical companies such as Eli Lily together with the American Psychiatric Association began more aggressively pushing second generation anti-depressants and anti-psychotics on psychiatric patients.
Many prominent academic psychiatrists worked as key opinion leaders for the pharmaceutical companies, were compensated millions of dollars. Articles that Whitaker co-wrote won the 1998 George Polk Award for Medical Writing and the 1998 National Association of Science Writers’ Science in Society Journalism Award for best magazine article. A 1998 Boston Globe article series he co-wrote on psychiatric research was a finalist for the 1999 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service. In April 2011, IRE announced that Anatomy of an Epidemic had won its award as the best investigative journalism book of 2010 stating, "this book provides an in-depth exploration of medical studies and science and intersperses compelling anecdotal examples. In the end, Whitaker punches holes in the conventional wisdom of treatment of mental illness with drugs." Mad In America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, The Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill, Perseus Publishing, December 24, 2001, ISBN 0-7382-0385-8 The Mapmaker's Wife: A True Tale of Love and Survival in the Amazon, Basic Books, April 13, 2004, ISBN 0-7382-0808-6 On the Laps of Gods: The Red Summer of 1919 and the Struggle for Justice That Remade a Nation, June 10, 2008, ISBN 0-307-33982-3 Anatomy of an Epidemic: Magic Bullets, Psychiatric Drugs, the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America, April 13, 2010, ISBN 978-0-307-45241-2 Psychiatry Under The Influence: Institutional Corruption, Social Injury, Prescriptions for Reform, Palgrave Macmillan, by Robert Whitaker, Lisa Cosgrove Paperback – April 23, 2015, ISBN 978-1137506924 Daniel J. Luchins, "Mental Illness", Journal of the American Medical Association, Review of Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill, 287: 3149–3150, doi:10.1001/jama.287.23.3149 ""Anatomy of an Epidemic": The hidden damage of psychiatric drugs", Jed Lipinski, April 27, 2010 "Are Prozac and Other Psychiatric Drugs Causing the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America?", AlterNet, Bruce E. Levine, April 28, 2010 Whitaker, Robert.
Preface to: Peter Stastny & Peter Lehmann, Alternatives Beyond Psychiatry. Berlin/Eugene/Shrewsbury: Peter Lehmann Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9545428-1-8, ISBN 978-0-9788399-1-8. E-Book in 2018. Whitaker, Robert. Vorwort zu: Peter Lehmann & Peter Stastny, Statt Psychiatrie 2. Berlin/Eugene/Shrewsbury: Antipsychiatrieverlag. ISBN 978-3-925931-38-3. E-Book in 2018. Whitaker, Robert. Πρόλογος, στο: Πέτερ Λέμαν, Πέτερ Στάστνι & Άννα Εμμανουηλίδου, Αντί της ψυχιατρικής. Η φροντίδα του ψυχικού πόνου έξω από την ψυχιατρική. Θεσσαλονίκη: εκδ. Νησίδες 2012. ISBN 978-960-9488-26-6. C-SPAN video, Whitaker talks for 1.5 hours Mad in America Robert Whitaker's blog. Robert Whitaker at the ISEPP 2011 Conference in L. A. on YouTube Robert Whitaker at the ISEPP 2011 Conference in L. A. on YouTube Take These Broken Wings Daniel Mackler - Full movie
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer