Augustus Saint-Gaudens was an American sculptor of the Beaux-Arts generation who most embodied the ideals of the American Renaissance. In his years he founded the Cornish Colony, a colony that included notable painters, writers. His brother Louis Saint-Gaudens was a sculptor with whom he occasionally collaborated. Born in Dublin to a French father and an Irish mother, Saint-Gaudens was raised in New York, in 1861, he became an apprentice to a cameo-cutter, Louis Avet, and took evening art classes at the Cooper Union. Two years later, he was hired as an apprentice of Jules Le Brethon, another cameo cutter, at age 19, his apprenticeship completed and he traveled to Paris in 1867, where he studied in the atelier of François Jouffroy at the École des Beaux-Arts. In 1870, he left Paris for Rome, to art and architecture. Pierrepont, a phrenologist, proved to be a demanding client insisting that Saint-Gaudens make his head larger, in 1876, he won a commission for a bronze David Farragut Memorial. He rented a studio at 49 rue Notre Dame des Champs and it was unveiled on May 25,1881, in Madison Square Park.
The statue stood on a 300-foot-high tower, making Diana the highest point in the city and it was the first statue in that part of Manhattan to be lit at night by electricity. The statue and its tower was a landmark until 1925 when the building was demolished, in New York, he was a member of the Tilers, a group of prominent artists and writers, including Winslow Homer, William Merritt Chase and Arthur Quartley. He was a member of the Salmagundi Club in New York, two grand equestrian monuments to Civil War generals are outstanding, to General John A. For the Lincoln Centennial in 1909, Saint-Gaudens produced another statue of the president, a seated figure, Abraham Lincoln, The Head of State, is in Chicagos Grant Park. Saint-Gaudens completed the work and had begun casting the statue at the time of his death—his workshop completed it. The statues head was used as the model for the postage stamp issued on the 100th anniversary of Lincolns birth. Saint-Gaudens created the statue for the monument of Charles Stewart Parnell, with minor modifications, this medallion was reproduced for the Stevenson memorial in St.
Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh. Stevensons cousin and biographer, Graham Balfour, deemed the work the most satisfactory of all the portraits of Stevenson, Balfour noted that Saint-Gaudens greatly admired Stevenson and had once said he would gladly go a thousand miles for the sake of a sitting with him. Such pieces stand testament to both his appeal and the respect that was given to him by his contemporaries. His medals have been sold at auction for varying sums, a statue of philanthropist Robert Randall stands in the gardens of Sailors Snug Harbor in New York
Herbert Adams (sculptor)
Samuel Herbert Adams was an American sculptor. Herbert Adams was born at West Concord, Vermont, in 1863, at the age of five, he moved to Fitchburg, Massachusetts, so his father could take a job at the Putnam Machine Co. His family purchased a home on 26 Chestnut Street and he attended the Fitchburg public schools, the Academy and was influenced by Fitchburg’s first Art teacher, Louise Haskell, to pursue a career in Art. He attended Mass Normal School in Boston and got teaching certificate, Herbert Adams taught Art in the Fitchburg Public schools from 1878–1882, but left Fitchburg for Paris France in 1885 to pursue his interest in sculpture. He was educated at the Massachusetts Normal Art School enrolling in 1877 at 18 years of age, in 1889 Rodney Wallace, James Phillips, and Henry Willis donated money for an ornamental fountain to grace the Upper Common of Fitchburg, MA and the City accepted the idea. This 26 foot in diameter granite and bronze fountain depicting two playful boys and a family of turtles was the first public commission awarded to Adams and was created in his Paris studio and this was the first, large sculpture, done in the “lost-wax” process, brought to America.
During Adams lifetime he completed over 200 major public works of art, in 1890-1898 he was an instructor in the art school of Pratt Institute, New York. He was elected into the National Academy of Design in 1898, Adams served as President from 1917-1920. He experimented successfully with some polychrome busts and tinted marbles, notably in the Rabbis Daughter, and he was at his best in his portrait busts of women, the best example being the study, completed in 1887, of Miss Adeline Pond, whom he married. He was a member of the U. S, commission of Fine Arts from 1915 to 1920, serving as vice chairman from 1918 to 1920. Adams died in New York City in 1945, works by Adams are held by numerous American museums, including the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. 1887-1889 – Bust of Adeline Valentine Pond, Hispanic Society of America, New York,1888 – Boys and Turtles Fountain, Massachusetts. 1894 – The Rabbis Daughter, private collection, 1896-98 – Two bronze doors, Research, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.
Begun by Olin Levi Warner in 1895,1897 – Bust of Professor Joseph Henry, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.1898 – Bust of Julia Marlowe as Juliet, Museum of the City of New York, New York, New York. 1898 – Memorial Tablets, Massachusetts State House, Massachusetts, 1898-1905 – Vanderbilt Memorial bronze doors, St. Bartholomews Church, New York, New York. 1899-1900 – La Jeunesse, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1899-1901 – Richard Smith, Smith Memorial Arch, Fairmount Park, Pennsylvania. 1900 – Jonathan Edwards Memorial, First Congregational Church, Northampton,1902 – William Ellery Channing, Boston Public Garden, Massachusetts. 1902-05 – Matthias William Baldwin, City Hall, Philadelphia,1912 – McMillan Fountain, Washington, D. C
Revivalism in architecture is the use of visual styles that consciously echo the style of a previous architectural era. Modern-day revival styles can be summarized within New Classical Architecture, chinese architecture Japanese architecture Korean architecture Architecture of Vietnam, The following architecture are from the Indosphere. Media related to Historicist architecture at Wikimedia Commons
Henry Brooks Adams was an American historian and member of the Adams political family, being descended from two U. S. Presidents. After the American Civil War, he became a political journalist who entertained America’s foremost intellectuals at his homes in Washington and Boston. In his lifetime, he was best known for his History of the United States During the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, a 9-volume work, praised for its literary style. His posthumously published memoirs, The Education of Henry Adams, won the Pulitzer Prize and he was born in Boston, the son of Charles Francis Adams, Sr. and Abigail Brooks into one of the countrys most prominent families. After his graduation from Harvard University in 1858, he embarked on a tour of Europe. He was initiated into the Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity as honorary member at the 1893 Columbian Exposition by Harris J. Ryan, through that organization, he was a member of the Irving Literary Society. He tried his hand again at law, taking employment with Judge Horace Grays Boston firm, Henry shouldered the responsibility reluctantly and with much self-doubt.
Had little to do, he reflected later, and knew not how to do it rightly, during this time, Adams was the anonymous Washington correspondent for Charles Hales Boston Daily Advertiser. On March 19,1861, Abraham Lincoln appointed Charles Francis Adams, Henry accompanied his father to London as his private secretary. He became the anonymous London correspondent for the New York Times, the two Adamses were kept very busy, monitoring Confederate diplomatic intrigues and trying to obstruct the construction of Confederate commerce raiders by British shipyards. Henrys writings for the Times argued that Americans should be patient with the British, while in Britain, Adams was befriended by many noted men, including Charles Lyell, Francis T. Palgrave, Richard Monckton Milnes, James Milnes Gaskell, and Charles Milnes Gaskell. He worked to introduce the young Henry James to English society, with the help of his closest and lifelong friend Charles Milnes Gaskell, while in Britain, Henry read and was taken with the works of John Stuart Mill.
Henry wrote to his brother Charles that Mill demonstrated to him that democracy is still capable of rewarding a conscientious servant and his years in London led Adams to conclude that he could best provide that knowledgeable and conscientious leadership by working as a correspondent and journalist. In 1868, Henry Adams returned to the United States and settled in Washington, DC, Adams saw himself as a traditionalist longing for the democratic ideal of the 17th and 18th centuries. Accordingly, he was keen on exposing political corruption in his journalism, Adams said, I think that Lee should have been hanged. It was all the worse that he was a good man and its always the good men who do the most harm in the world. In 1870, Adams was appointed professor of history at Harvard. As an academic historian, Adams is considered to have been the first to conduct historical seminar work in the United States, among his students was Henry Cabot Lodge, who worked closely with Adams as a graduate student
Baroque Revival architecture
The Baroque Revival, known as Neo-Baroque, was an architectural style of the late 19th century. The term is used to describe architecture which displays important aspects of Baroque style, barbaras Church, New York, United States St. John Cantius Church, United States Church of St. A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Oxford University Press
Sir Frank William Brangwyn RA RWS RBA was an Anglo-Welsh artist, water colourist, engraver and progressive designer. As well as paintings and drawings, he produced designs for stained glass, ceramics, table glassware, buildings and it has been estimated that during his lifetime Brangwyn produced over 12,000 works. When, at the age of seventeen, one of his paintings was accepted at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, initially he painted traditional subjects about the sea and life on the seas. His 1890 canvas, Funeral At Sea won a medal of the class at the 1891 Paris Salon. His forenames were registered as Guillaume François, in Bruges his father maintained a large workshop with several staff and worked on numerous civic projects as well as the parish church. William Curtis Brangwyn was born in Buckinghamshire to a Welsh family and married Eleanor Griffiths, in 1874 the family moved back to the United Kingdom where William Curtis Brangwyn established a successful design practice. Frank Brangwyn attended Westminster City School but often played traunt to spend time in his fathers workshop or drawing in the South Kensington Museum.
At the age of seventeen, one of Brangwyn paintings was accepted, and sold to a shipowner, at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, Brangwyn joined the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve and began painting seascapes. He convinced the shipowner who had bought his Royal Academy picture to let him sail on a freighter to Istanbul and this trip provided Brangwyn with the material for several notable paintings. Whereas Funeral at Sea, which won a medal at the Paris Salon in 1891 was mostly composed in grey, The Golden Horn, Constantinople was much brighter and full of colour. Soon Brangwyn was attracted by the light and the colours of these southern countries at a time when Orientalism was becoming a favoured theme for many painters. He made many paintings and drawings, particularly of Spain, Egypt and Morocco and this lightened his palette, a change that initially did not find critical favor but helped establish his international reputation. In 1895 the French government purchased his painting Market in Morocco, in 1917 he collaborated with the Japanese artist Urushibara Mokuchu on a series of woodblock prints.
For his austere but decorative designs he was recognized by continental and American critics as a prominent artist, Brangwyn had an affair with Ellen Kate Chesterfield, which produced a son, James Barron Chesterfield-Brangwyn, born 1885 in Mevagissey, Cornwall. James emigrated to Australia in 1909, initially working on a farm in Townsville, Queensland, in 1896, Brangwyn married Lucy Ray, a nurse, who died in 1924. He leased Temple Lodge,51 Queen Caroline Street, London from 1900 to 1937/38 and bought The Jointure, Sussex in 1918. In 1908 Brangwyn was commissioned to paint the apse of St Aidans Church, the mosaic was completed in 1916. It covers the apse, and shows the life of St Aidan. ]Along with Diego Rivera and Josep Maria Sert, he was chosen by John D. Rockefeller
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. Classicism is a genre of philosophy, expressing itself in literature, architecture and music, which has Ancient Greek and Roman sources. It was particularly expressed in the Neoclassicism of the Age of Enlightenment, Classicism is a recurrent tendency in the Late Antique period, and had a major revival in Carolingian and Ottonian art. Until that time the identification with antiquity had been seen as a history of Christendom from the conversion of Roman Emperor Constantine I. Renaissance classicism introduced a host of elements into European culture, including the application of mathematics and empiricism into art, humanism and depictive realism, importantly it introduced Polytheism, or paganism, and the juxtaposition of ancient and modern. The classicism of the Renaissance led to, and gave way to and this period sought the revival of classical art forms, including Greek drama and music.
Opera, in its modern European form, had its roots in attempts to recreate the combination of singing and dancing with theatre thought to be the Greek norm, examples of this appeal to classicism included Dante and Shakespeare in poetry and theatre. Tudor drama, in particular, modeled itself after classical ideals, studying Ancient Greek became regarded as essential for a well-rounded education in the liberal arts. They began reviving plastic arts such as bronze casting for sculpture, for example, the painting of Jacques-Louis David which was seen as an attempt to return to formal balance, clarity and vigor in art. Various movements of the period saw themselves as classical revolts against a prevailing trend of emotionalism and irregularity. The 20th century saw a number of changes in the arts, both pre-20th century disciplines were labelled classical and modern movements in art which saw themselves as aligned with light, sparseness of texture, and formal coherence. Examples of classicist playwrights are Pierre Corneille, Jean Racine and Moliere, the influence of these French rules on playwrights in other nations is debatable.
In the English theatre, Restoration playwrights such as William Wycherly and those of Shakespeares plays that seem to display the unities, such as The Tempest, probably indicate a familiarity with actual models from classical antiquity. Classicism in architecture developed during the Italian Renaissance, notably in the writings and designs of Leon Battista Alberti and this style quickly spread to other Italian cities and to France, England and elsewhere. In the 16th century, Sebastiano Serlio helped codify the classical orders, building off of these influences, the 17th-century architects Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren firmly established classicism in England. For the development of classicism from the mid-18th-century onwards, see Neoclassical architecture, for Greek art of the 5th century B. C. E. See Classical art in ancient Greece and the Severe style Italian Renaissance painting and sculpture are marked by their renewal of classical forms and subjects. In the 15th century Leon Battista Alberti was important in theorizing many of the ideas for painting that came to a fully realised product with Raphaels School of Athens during the High Renaissance
Stanford White was an American architect and partner in the architectural firm McKim, Mead & White, the frontrunner among Beaux-Arts firms. He designed a series of houses for the rich, and numerous public, institutional. His design principles embodied the American Renaissance, in 1906, White was murdered by millionaire Harry Kendall Thaw over Whites relationship with Thaws wife, actress Evelyn Nesbit. This led to a case which was dubbed The Trial of the Century by contemporary reporters. White was the son of Shakespearean scholar Richard Grant White and Alexina Black Mease and his father was a dandy and Anglophile with no money, but a great many connections in New Yorks art world, including painter John LaFarge, Louis Comfort Tiffany, and Frederick Law Olmsted. He remained with Richardson for six years, in 1878, White embarked for a year and a half in Europe, and when he returned to New York in September 1879, he joined Charles Follen McKim and William Rutherford Mead to form McKim and White.
As part of the partnership, all designed by the architects were identified as being the work of the collective firm. In 1884, White married 22-year-old Bessie Springs Smith and his new wife hailed from a socially prominent Long Island family, her ancestors were early settlers of the area, and Smithtown, New York, was named for them. Their estate, Box Hill, was not only a home, a son, Lawrence Grant White, was born in 1887. In 1889, White designed the arch at Washington Square. White was the director of the Washington Centennial celebration and created a temporary triumphal arch which was so popular, outside of New York City, White designed the First Methodist Episcopal Church in Baltimore, now Lovely Lane United Methodist Church. He designed Cocke and Old Cabell halls at the University of Virginia, additionally, he designed the Blair Mansion at 7711 Eastern Ave. in Silver Spring, now being used as a restaurant. He was responsible for designing the Boston Public Library and the Boston Hotel Buckminster, in 1902, he designed the Benjamin Walworth Arnold House and Carriage House in Albany, New York, and he helped to develop Nikola Teslas Wardenclyffe Tower, his last design.
Just as his Washington Square Arch still stands, so do many of Whites clubhouses, which were focal points of New York society, the Century, Harmonie, Lambs and Players clubs. However, his clubhouse for the Atlantic Yacht Club, built in 1894 overlooking Gravesend Bay, sons of society families resided in Whites St. Anthony Hall Chapter House at Williams College, now occupied by college offices. In the division of projects within the firm, the sociable and his fluent draftsmanship was highly convincing to clients who might not get much visceral understanding from a floorplan, and his intuition and facility caught the mood. Whites Long Island houses have survived well, despite the loss of Harbor Hill in 1947 and he designed the Kate Annette Wetherill Estate in 1895. White designed a number of other New York mansions as well, including the Iselin family estate All View, White was active designing country estate homes in Greenwich, Connecticut
Violet Oakley was the first American woman to receive a public mural commission. During the first quarter of the century, she was renowned as a pathbreaker in mural decoration. Oakley excelled at murals and stained glass designs that addressed themes from history, Oakley was born in Bergen Heights, New Jersey, into a family of artists. Her parents were Arthur Edmund Oakley and Cornelia Swain, both of her grandfathers were member of the National Academy of Design. In 1892, she studied at the Art Students League of New York, a year later, she studied in England and France, under Raphaël Collin and others. After her return to the United States in 1896, she studied briefly at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts before she joined Howard Pyles famous illustration class at Drexel Institute. She had early success as an illustrator for magazines including The Century Magazine, Colliers Weekly, St. Nicholas Magazine. The style of her illustrations and stained glass reflects her emulation of the English Pre-Raphaelites, Oakleys commitment to Victorian aesthetics during the advent of Modernism led to the decline of her reputation by the middle of the twentieth century.
Oakleys political beliefs were shaped by the Quaker William Penn whose ideals she represented in her murals at the Pennsylvania State Capitol and she became committed to the Quaker principles of pacifism, equality of the races and sexes and social justice, and international government. She was an advocate of nuclear disarmament after World War II. She was a member of Second Church of Christ, Philadelphia from 1912 and she received many honors through her life including an honorary Doctorate of Laws Degree in 1948 from Drexel Institute. In 1905, she became the first woman to receive the Gold Medal of Honor from the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Oakley and her friends, the artists Elizabeth Shippen Green and Jessie Willcox Smith, the three illustrators received the Red Rose Girls nickname while they lived together in the Red Rose Inn in Villanova, Pennsylvania from 1899 to 1901. They lived, along with Henrietta Cozens, in a home in the Mt. Airy neighborhood of Philadelphia that they named Cogslea after their four surnames.
In 1996, Oakley was elected to the Society of Illustrators Hall of Fame, the last of the Red Rose Girls to be inducted, Cogslea was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977 as the Violet Oakley Studio. Her home and studio at Yonkers, New York, where she resided intermittently between 1912 and 1915 is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Plashbourne Estate. Oakley was a member of Philadelphias The Plastic Club, an organization established to promote Art for arts sake, other members included Elenore Abbott, Jessie Willcox Smith, and Elizabeth Shippen Green. Many of the women who founded the organization had been students of Howard Pyle and it was founded to provide a means to encourage one another professionally and create opportunities to sell their works of art
Art Nouveau is an international style of art and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the curved lines of plants. English uses the French name Art Nouveau, according to the philosophy of the style, art should be a way of life. For many well-off Europeans, it was possible to live in an art nouveau-inspired house with art nouveau furniture, fabrics, ceramics including tableware, cigarette cases, artists desired to combine the fine arts and applied arts, even for utilitarian objects. By 1910, Art Nouveau was already out of style and it was replaced as the dominant European architectural and decorative style first by Art Deco and by Modernism. Art Nouveau took its name from the Maison de lArt Nouveau, in France, Art Nouveau was sometimes called by the British term Modern Style due to its roots in the Arts and Crafts Movement, Style moderne, or Style 1900.
It was sometimes called Style Jules Verne, Le Style Métro, Art Belle Époque, in Belgium, where the architectural movement began, it was sometimes termed Style nouille or Style coup de fouet. In Britain, it was known as the Modern Style, or, because of the arts and crafts movement led by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow, as the Glasgow style. In Italy, because of the popularity in Italy of designs from Londons Liberty & Co department store, in the United States, due to its association with Louis Comfort Tiffany, it was often called the Tiffany style. In Germany and Scandinavia, a style emerged at about the same time, it was called Jugendstil. In Catalonia the related style was known as Modernisme, in Spain as Modernismo, Arte joven, in Russia, it was called Modern, and Jugendstil, and Nieuwe Kunst in the Netherlands. Some names refer specifically to the forms that were popular with the Art Nouveau artists, Stile Floreal in France, Paling Stijl in the Netherlands. The new art movement had its roots in Britain, in the designs of William Morris.
Early prototypes of the include the Red House of Morris. In France, the style combined several different tendencies, in architecture, it was influenced by the architectural theorist and historian Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, a declared enemy of the historical Beaux-Arts architectural style. For each function its material, for each material its form and this book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, and Antoni Gaudí. The French painters Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard and Édouard Vuillard played an important part in integrating fine arts painting with decoration, I believe that before everything a painting must decorate, Denis wrote in 1891. The choice of subjects or scenes is nothing and it is by the value of tones, the colored surface and the harmony of lines that I can reach the spirit and wake up the emotions
Other Greek cities set up democracies, most following the Athenian model, but none are as well documented as Athens. It was a system of democracy, in which participating citizens voted directly on legislation. The longest-lasting democratic leader was Pericles, after his death, Athenian democracy was twice briefly interrupted by oligarchic revolutions towards the end of the Peloponnesian War. It was modified somewhat after it was restored under Eucleides, the most detailed accounts of the system are of this fourth-century modification rather than the Periclean system, Democracy was suppressed by the Macedonians in 322 BC. The Athenian institutions were revived, but how close they were to a real democracy is debatable. Solon and Ephialtes contributed to the development of Athenian democracy and he broke up the power of the nobility by organizing citizens into ten groups based on where they lived rather than on their wealth. The word democracy combines the elements dêmos and krátos, and thus means literally people power, in the words monarchy and oligarchy, the second element comes from archē, meaning beginning, and hence first place or power, sovereignty.
One might expect the term demarchy to have adopted, by analogy. However, the word demarchy had already taken and meant mayoralty. We are not certain that the democracy was extant when systems that came to be called democratic were first instituted. The word is attested in Herodotus, who some of the earliest surviving Greek prose. Around 460 BC an individual is known with the name of Democrates, a name possibly coined as a gesture of democratic loyalty, Athens was not the only polis in Ancient Greece that instituted a democratic regime. Aristotle cites many other cities as well, yet, it is only with reference to Athens that we can attempt to trace some of specific sixth century events that led to the institution of democracy at the end of the century. Before the first attempt at government, Athens was ruled by a series of archons or chief magistrates. The members of these institutions were generally aristocrats, who ruled the polis for their own advantage, in 621 BC Draco codified a set of notoriously harsh laws that were a clear expression of the power of the aristocracy over everybody else.
This did not stop the aristocratic families feuding amongst themselves to obtain as much power as possible, the enfranchisement of the local laboring classes was succeeded by the development of chattel slavery, the enslavement of, in large part, foreigners. Solon, the mediator, reshaped the city by absorbing the traditional aristocracy in a definition of citizenship which allotted a political function to every resident of Attica. Athenians were not slaves but citizens, with the right, at the very least, under these reforms, the position of archon was opened to all with certain property qualifications, and a Boule, a rival council of 400, was set up