The American Society of Cinematographers, founded in Hollywood in 1919, is a cultural and professional organization, neither a labor union nor a guild. The society was organized to advance the science and art of cinematography and gather a wide range of cinematographers to discuss techniques and ideas and to advocate for motion pictures as a type of art form.. The president of the ASC is Kees van Oostrum. Members use the post-nominal letters "ASC". On the 1920 film titled Sand, cinematographer Joseph H. August, an original member of the ASC, became the first individual to have the "ASC" appear after his name on the onscreen credit. Only film cinematographers and special effect supervisors can become an ASC member. Basic requirements include being a director of photography for a minimum five out of the last eight years, having a high professional reputation and being recommended by three active or retired ASC members; the ASC is criticised for the lack of women on the board. Out of the active members on the ASC, only four percent are women.
In the beginning of cinema and photographers in the United States had a similar problem: they had "big, ugly white streaks" that resulted from static electricity discharged from the cameras. Two separate groups in the United States worked together to find a solution to this problem; the two groups were the Static Club of America. A precursor to the ASC, the Cinema Camera Club in New York City was founded in 1913 by Arthur Miller, Phil Rosen, Frank Kugler. Arthur and his brother, William Miller, both filmmakers in New York City, worked together and established a union for cinematography workers called the Motion Picture Industry Union. Miller left to work in Hollywood, one year after the Motion Picture Industry Union was formed. In 1918, Phil Rosen asked the president of the Cinema Camera Club of California, Charles Rosher, whether he could help reorganize the association by creating a national organization with "membership by invitation and a strong educational component"; this reorganisation and the setup of the bylaws occurred on December 21, 1918.
The ASC was authorized by the State of California on January 8, 1919. In 2014, the ASC admitted its first member with no background in live action feature film, Pixar's Sharon Calahan, who had worked in computer animation; the society started the ASC Master Class education program in the same year. This program allows members of the ASC and other professionals to teach students from all walks of life on various subjects including composition, angles, creating mood among other techniques of visual storytelling. In 2017, John Bailey, an ASC member, was elected as the president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, making him the first cinematographer to take up such a position. In the 1920s, the ASC began printing a four-page newsletter titled The American Cinematographer in 1920. According to the ASC, "The American Cinematographer covers the technology and artistry of visual storytelling, offering print and digital editions." Within this publication a wide range of cinematographer and technical information was produced through a variety of means such as interviews, articles and podcasts.
Other than the magazine, the ASC publishes the American Cinematographer Manual. The first edition was published in 1935 by Jackson J. Rose as The American Cinematographer Hand Book and Reference Guide; the Hand Book evolved from the Cinematographic Annual only published twice, in 1930 and 1931. Rose's handbook went through nine editions by the middle of the 1950s, it was from this book that the modern American Cinematographer Manual originated; the first edition of the new manual was published in 1960 and is now in its 10th edition, published in 2016. Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical Releases Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Regular Series for Non-Commercial Television Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Regular Series for Commercial Television Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography for a Movie, Miniseries, or Pilot for Television Lifetime Achievement Award Television Career Achievement Award Board of Directors Award List of Presidents of American Society of Cinematographers British Society of Cinematographers Canadian Society of Cinematographers Official website American Society of Cinematographers collection
The bunny rat, or hairy-soled conyrat is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae, native to southern South America. The bunny rat is a built rat-like rodent, with a total length of 20 to 27 cm, including the 7 to 10 cm tail. Adults weigh an average of about 80 g; the body is covered in long soft hair, the tail is hairy, ending in a distinct tuft. The head is large, with prominent rounded, ears; the hind legs are unusually long for a rat, with the first and fifth toes reduced in size, giving them an appearance similar to those of a rabbit. The fur is dark brown to buff-grey over the upper parts of the body, becoming paler, sometimes white, on the underparts. Without genetic analysis, the bunny rat can only be reliably distinguished from its close relative, the naked-soled conyrat, by the fact that the soles of its feet are hairy, its karyotype has 2n =34. Bunny rats are widespread in Argentina and eastern Chile south of about 36°S, are found in a few patchy localities in northern Argentina and parts of Uruguay.
Bunny rats have been reported from the Falkland Islands. Within this region, they are most found in open grasslands such as steppe and prairie, but can be found in shrublands, beech forest, below about 3,000 m. Four subspecies are recognised, although it is possible that the bunny rat represents a species complex, rather than a single species: Reithrodon auritus auritus - central Argentina Reithrodon auritus caurinus - northern Argentina Reithrodon auritus cuniculoides - southern Argentina, eastern Chile Reithrodon auritus pachycephalus - Tierra del Fuego Bunny rats feed entirely on grass, can consume a mass of vegetation equal to their own body weight in a single night. Although nocturnal, they may be active during the day, depending on the weather, spend most of their waking hours feeding, they sleep in tunnels, which are about 4 to 7 cm wide, have multiple entrances. In many cases, they may co-opt tunnels dug by other rodent species, may share them with the original inhabitant. Bunny rats can reach population densities of 10–15 per hectare in ideal conditions.
They are common prey for owls, are thought to have a maximum lifespan of 15 months. They breed between September and March, but most in the spring, give birth to litters of up to eight pups. Females reach sexual maturity two months after birth, although this may be longer for males
Henry Horatio Wells, a Michigan lawyer and Union Army officer in the American Civil War, succeeded Francis Harrison Pierpont as the appointed provisional governor of Virginia from 1868 to 1869 during Reconstruction. A Radical Republican labelled a carpetbagger, Wells was defeated for election in 1869 by Gilbert C. Walker, who became his appointed successor. Wells served as U. S. Attorney for Virginia and for the District of Columbia. Henry Wells was raised in Detroit, Michigan, he attended Romeo Academy read law with Theodore Romeyn. In 1848 Wells married Millicent Hunt of Detroit, with whom he had a son and a daughter before she died after giving birth to that short-lived daughter in 1852. In 1854, Wells remarried, to Phoebe Higby, they had a daughter. Wells was admitted to the Michigan bar circa 1846. In his private legal practice, Wells defended. Wells ran for office. Voters elected Wells to the Michigan House of Representatives, he served one term and advocated temperance, free public schools, abolition of slavery and extending civil and political rights to African Americans.
During the American Civil War, Wells received a commission as major in the 26th Michigan Infantry, was soon promoted to lieutenant colonel. His unit was assigned to Alexandria, Virginia to occupy that city in the controlled part of the Union Army of Virginia; as provost marshal since February 1863, Wells led military police in Alexandria, soon supervised law enforcement in all Union-controlled territory south of the Potomac River. Francis Harrison Pierpont was appointed governor of Union-controlled portions of Virginia during the war, made Alexandria his headquarters. Fellow abolitionist John Curtiss Underwood became the U. S. District Judge stationed in Alexandria. After President Abraham Lincoln's assassination in April 1865, Wells played an important role in pursuing and apprehending the assassin, John Wilkes Booth, in a barn in Caroline County, Virginia. Wells had interrogated Dr. Samuel Mudd, he was associated with the proceedings before Judge Underwood in which the captured Jefferson Davis was charged with treason.
Wells received a promotion to brevet brigadier general in May 1865. On May 9, 1865, Virginia's Confederate Governor General William Smith was arrested, President Andrew Johnson appointed Pierpont as Virginia's provisional governor. Pierpont moved the state government's seat back to Richmond, but became unpopular. In 1864, Pierpont had called a constitutional convention in Alexandria which abolished slavery, that constitution was thus temporarily extended to the entire state, until a new Constitution could be drafted and adopted. After ending his military service on September 21, 1865, Wells resumed private legal practice, he remained in Alexandria and was active in the Alexandria Canal Company, the Alexandria Canal and Bridge Company which constructed a canal in what became Arlington and bridge to Georgetown. He associated with Judge Underwood and local Alexandria attorney S. Ferguson Beach, who held Radical Republican views. Wells supported extending civil rights of African Americans. In 1866, the Radical Republicans in Congress won large majorities, soon took charge.
They put Virginia under military rule. Virginia was administered as the "First Military District" in 1867–69 under General John Schofield. Schofield was charged with overseeing the transition to civilian rule, after Virginia's voters selected delegates to write a constitution to succeed the 1864 document; the convention began meeting on December 3, 1867. Delegates elected Judge Underwood their president and Rev. James W. Hunnicutt to head the committee on suffrage. Wells and Hunnicutt wanted to protect Black voting rights, but wanted to disenfranchise Confederate veterans and sympathizers. Other Virginians, politically active and supported the Confederate government met in December 1867. Led by Alexander H. H. Stuart of Staunton, they established the Conservative Party of Virginia, to oppose whatever the Underwood Convention proposed. Another opposition leader was William Mahone, a railroad president and former Confederate general who said it was time for a New Departure for the state's Conservative Party.
Nonetheless, whites had to accept the results of the war, including civil rights and the vote for freedmen. Governor Pierpont had become unpopular with all sides. On April 4, 1868, General Schofield appointed his friend Wells in his place. On May 6 and 7, 1868, Virginia's Republican convention nominated Wells for governor on a ticket with James H. Clements for lieutenant governor and Thomas R. Bowden for attorney general; the Conservatives nominated Robert E. Withers. However, the new constitution needed to be ratified before such election could be held, the provisions disenfranchising former Confederates were controversial. General Schofield postponed the scheduled June 1868 ratification vote. On Christmas Day, 1868, both Richmond newspapers published a letter from Stuart advocating "universal amnesty". General Ulysses S. Grant and influential Republican