The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian and east of the antimeridian. The other half is called the Eastern Hemisphere; the Western Hemisphere consists of the Americas, the western portions of Eurasia and Africa, the extreme eastern tip of Siberia, numerous territories in Oceania, a portion of Antarctica, while excluding some of the Aleutian Islands to the southwest of the Alaskan mainland. In an attempt to define the Western Hemisphere as the parts of the world which are not part of the Old World, there exist projections which use the 20th meridian west and the diametrically opposed 160th meridian east to define the hemisphere; this projection excludes the European and African mainlands and a small portion of northeast Greenland, but includes more of eastern Russia and Oceania. The center of the Western Hemisphere is located in the Pacific Ocean at the intersection of the 90th meridian west and the Equator, among the Galápagos Islands.
The nearest land is Genovesa Island at 0°19′00″N 89°57′00″W. The highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere is Aconcagua in the Andes of Argentina at 6,960.8 metres. Below is a list of the sovereign states which are in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres on the IERS Reference Meridian, in order from north to south: Denmark. Norway. United Kingdom Netherlands France Spain Algeria Mali Burkina Faso Ghana TogoBelow is a list of the sovereign states which are in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres along the 180th meridian, in order from north to south. With the exception of the United States, all of them are located on just one side of the International Date Line, curved around them. Russia United States Kiribati Tuvalu Fiji New Zealand The following countries and territories lie outside the Americas yet are entirely/mostly or within the Western Hemisphere: Media related to Western Hemisphere at Wikimedia Commons
The Chronicle of Higher Education
The Chronicle of Higher Education is a newspaper and website that presents news and jobs for college and university faculty and student affairs professionals. A subscription is required to read some articles; the Chronicle, based in Washington, D. C. is a major news service in United States academic affairs. It is published every weekday online and appears weekly in print except for every other week in June and August and the last three weeks in December. In print, The Chronicle is published in two sections: section A with news and job listings, section B, The Chronicle Review, a magazine of arts and ideas, it publishes The Chronicle of Philanthropy, a newspaper for the nonprofit world. Corbin Gwaltney was the founder and had been the editor of the alumni magazine of the Johns Hopkins University since 1949. In 1957, he joined in with editors from magazines of several other colleges and universities for an editorial project to investigate issues in higher education in perspective; the meeting occurred on the day the first Sputnik circled the Earth, October 4, 1957, so the "Moonshooter" project was formed as a supplement on higher education for the college magazines.
The college magazine editors promised 60 percent of one issue of their magazine to finance the supplement. The first Moonshooter Report was 32 pages long and titled American Higher Education, 1958, they sold 1.35 million copies to universities. By the project's third year, circulation was over three million for the supplement. In 1959, Gwaltney left Johns Hopkins Magazine to become the first full-time employee of the newly created "Editorial Projects for Education" starting in an office in his apartment in Baltimore and moving to an office near the Johns Hopkins campus, he realized. He and other board members of EPE met to plan a new publication which would be called The Chronicle of Higher Education; the Chronicle of Higher Education was founded in 1966 by Corbin Gwaltney. and its first issue was launched in November 1966. Although it was meant for those involved in higher education, one of the founding ideas was that the general public had little knowledge about what was going on in higher education and the real issues involved.
It didn't accept any advertising and didn't have any staff-written editorial opinions. It was supported by grants from the Ford Foundation. On in its history, advertising would be accepted for jobs in higher education, this would allow the newspaper to be financially independent. By the 1970s, the Chronicle was attracting enough advertising to become self-sufficient, in 1978 the board of EPE agreed to sell the newspaper to its editors. EPE sold the Chronicle to the editors for $2,000,000 in cash and $500,000 in services that Chronicle would provide to EPE. Chronicle went from a legal non-profit status to a for-profit company; this sale shifted the focus of non-profit EPE to K-12 education. Inspired by the model established by the Chronicle, with the support of the Carnegie Corporation and other philanthropies, EPE founded Education Week in September 1981. In 1993, the Chronicle was one of the first newspapers to appear on the Internet, as a Gopher service, it released an iPad version in 2011. The Chronicle grossed $33 million in advertising revenues and $7 million in circulation revenues in 2003.
Over the years, the paper has been a winner of several journalism awards. In 2005, two special reports – on diploma mills and plagiarism – were selected as finalists in the reporting category for a National Magazine Award, it was a finalist for the award in general excellence every year from 2001 to 2005. In 2007, The Chronicle won an Utne Reader Independent Press Award for political coverage. In its award citation, Utne called The Chronicle Review "a fearless, free-thinking section where academia's best and brightest can take their gloves off and swing with abandon at both sides of the predictable political divide." The New Republic, The Nation and The American Prospect were among the finalists in the category. Baldwin, Joyce, "Chronicling Higher Education for Nearly Forty Years,", Carnegie Results, Carnegie Corporation of New York, Winter, 2006 issue Baldwin, Patricia L. Covering the Campus: The History of The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1966–1993, Texas: University of North Texas Press, 1995.
ISBN 0-929398-96-3 Connell, Christopher. 8, pp. 12–24, 27, journal published for the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching by Heldref Publications Official website
University of Wisconsin–Madison
The University of Wisconsin–Madison is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin. Founded when Wisconsin achieved statehood in 1848, UW–Madison is the official state university of Wisconsin, the flagship campus of the University of Wisconsin System, it was the first public university established in Wisconsin and remains the oldest and largest public university in the state. It became a land-grant institution in 1866; the 933-acre main campus, located on the shores of Lake Mendota, includes four National Historic Landmarks. The University owns and operates a historic 1,200-acre arboretum established in 1932, located 4 miles south of the main campus. UW–Madison is organized into 20 schools and colleges, which enrolled 30,361 undergraduate and 14,052 graduate students in 2018, its comprehensive academic program offers 136 undergraduate majors, along with 148 master's degree programs and 120 doctoral programs. A major contributor to Wisconsin's economy, the University is the largest employer in the state, with over 21,600 faculty and staff.
The UW is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. UW–Madison is categorized as a Doctoral University with the Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2012, it had research expenditures of more than $1.1 billion, the third highest among universities in the country. Wisconsin is a founding member of the Association of American Universities; as of October 2018, 25 Nobel laureates and 2 Fields medalists have been associated with UW–Madison as alumni, faculty, or researchers. Additionally, as of November 2018, the current CEOs of 14 Fortune 500 companies have attended UW–Madison, the most of any university in the United States. Among the scientific advances made at UW–Madison are the single-grain experiment, the discovery of vitamins A and B by Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis, the development of the anticoagulant medication warfarin by Karl Paul Link, the first chemical synthesis of a gene by Har Gobind Khorana, the discovery of the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase by Howard Temin, the first synthesis of human embryonic stem cells by James Thomson.
UW–Madison was the home of both the prominent "Wisconsin School" of economics and of diplomatic history, while UW–Madison professor Aldo Leopold played an important role in the development of modern environmental science and conservationism, articulating his philosophy of a "land ethic" in his influential book A Sand County Almanac. The Wisconsin Badgers compete in 25 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference and have won 28 national championships. Wisconsin students and alumni have won 50 Olympic medals; the university had its official beginnings when the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature in its 1838 session passed a law incorporating a "University of the Territory of Wisconsin", a high-ranking Board of Visitors was appointed. However, this body never accomplished anything before Wisconsin was incorporated as a state in 1848; the Wisconsin Constitution provided for "the establishment of a state university, at or near the seat of state government..." and directed by the state legislature to be governed by a board of regents and administered by a Chancellor.
On July 26, 1848, Nelson Dewey, Wisconsin's first governor, signed the act that formally created the University of Wisconsin. John H. Lathrop became the university's first chancellor, in the fall of 1849. With John W. Sterling as the university's first professor, the first class of 17 students met at Madison Female Academy on February 5, 1849. A permanent campus site was soon selected: an area of 50 acres "bounded north by Fourth lake, east by a street to be opened at right angles with King street", "south by Mineral Point Road, west by a carriage-way from said road to the lake." The regents' building plans called for a "main edifice fronting towards the Capitol, three stories high, surmounted by an observatory for astronomical observations." This building, University Hall, now known as Bascom Hall, was completed in 1859. On October 10, 1916, a fire destroyed the building's dome, never replaced. North Hall, constructed in 1851, was the first building on campus. In 1854, Levi Booth and Charles T. Wakeley became the first graduates of the university, in 1892 the university awarded its first PhD to future university president Charles R. Van Hise.
Research and service at the UW is influenced by a tradition known as "the Wisconsin Idea", first articulated by UW–Madison President Charles Van Hise in 1904, when he declared "I shall never be content until the beneficent influence of the University reaches every home in the state." The Wisconsin Idea holds that the boundaries of the university should be the boundaries of the state, that the research conducted at UW–Madison should be applied to solve problems and improve health, quality of life, the environment, agriculture for all citizens of the state. The Wisconsin Idea permeates the university's work and helps forge close working relationships among university faculty and students, the state's industries and government. Based in Wisconsin's populist history, the Wisconsin Idea continues to inspire the work of the faculty and students who aim to solve real-world problems by working together across disciplines and demographics. During World War II, University
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Kemp Malone was a prolific medievalist, etymologist and specialist in Chaucer, lecturer and professor of English Literature at Johns Hopkins University from 1924 to 1956. Born in an academic family, Kemp Malone graduated from Emory College as it was in 1907, with the ambition of mastering all the languages that impinged upon the development of Middle English, he spent several years in Germany and Iceland. When World War I broke out he served two years in the United States Army and was discharged with the rank of Captain. Malone served as President of the Modern Language Association, other philological associations and was etymology editor of the American College Dictionary, 1947. With Louise Pound and Arthur G. Kennedy, he founded the journal American Speech, "to present information about English in America in a form appealing to general readers", he resisted the views of Old English poetry as products of a purely oral tradition. He contended that we must look to poets' individual elaboration of traditional structures: "A given poet was reckoned worthy if he handled with skill the stuff of which, by convention, poems must be made".
His interests ranged from 10th-century manuscripts to the etymology of contemporary comic strip names. American speech, the English language, the historical Arthur, Cædmon and Beowulf, Deor - all were subjects among his hundreds of publications, he translated a large corpus of medieval poetry: Widsith from the Exeter Book. A sample of his production is a 1941 published book about old English poems, that were transferred into modern English alliterative verse. Rare books from his library, donated 1971 to Emory University, are part of the Ancient and Medieval History collection, held at Robert W. Woodruff Library at Emory University Libraries; the Kemp Malone library content were registered under Call number Z997. M35, his literary heritage were deposited in 1983 at Johns Hopkins University. The historian and biographer Dumas Malone is his younger brother. Norman E. Eliason: Kemp Malone: 14 March 1889–13 October 1971. American Speech, volume 44, no. 3, pp. 163–165 Richard Macksey: Obituary: Kemp Malone: 1889–1971.
MLN, volume 6, no. 6, Comparative Literature, p. 760 Thomas Pyles: Kemp Malone. Language, volume 48, no. 2, pp. 499-505 R. W. Zandvoort: In Memoriam Kemp Malone. English Studies 53, pp. 87-88 Albert C. Baugh, Morton W. Bloomfield, Francis P. Magoun: Kemp Malone. Speculum 47, pp. 601-03. Sources for his bibliography Kemp Malone at mswritersandmusicians.com
H. W. Wilson Company
The H. W. Wilson Company, Inc. is a publisher and indexing company, founded in 1898 and is located in The Bronx, New York. It provides print and digital content aimed at patrons of public school and professional libraries in both the United States and internationally; the company provides indexing services that include text, retrospective and indexing, as well other types of databases. Image gallery indexing includes art cinema; the company indexed reference monographs. An online retrieval system with various features, including language translation, is available; the company merged with EBSCO Publishing in June 2011. Grey House Publishing publishes print editions of H. W. Wilson products under license; the H. W. Wilson Company was founded in 1898 by Halsey William Wilson, a student working his way through the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Together with his roommate, Henry S. Morris, Wilson started a book selling business serving educators and students at the university; when it was time for Morris to graduate, he sold his share of the business to Wilson.
The H. W. Wilson Company's first original reference title was the Cumulative Book Index, first published in 1898; this was followed by the Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature in 1901. In 1911, Wilson relocated the company to White New York, to be nearer to its main markets. By 1917, demand for more specialized indexes had grown to the point where the company had to move again. Wilson bought a five-story building in The Bronx on the banks of the Harlem River; the building's distinctive lighthouse was added in 1929. On June 2, 2011, H. W. Wilson Company merged with EBSCO Publishing. Staff at the Dublin office of the company went to the Labour Court in Ireland and protested at EBSCO's failure to abide by its recommendations; the company published some print references, such as Facts About the Presidents, Famous First Facts, the monthly magazine Current Biography. The John Cotton Dana Award, sponsored by H. W. Wilson, honors outstanding library public relations, whether a summer reading program, a year-long centennial celebration, fundraising for a new college library, an awareness campaign, or an innovative partnership in the community.
Award winners receive a cash development grant of $5,000 from the H. W. Wilson Foundation; the awards are presented at a reception hosted by H. W. Wilson Company, held during the American Library Association's annual conference. H. W. Wilson Company's applied sciences indexing encompasses services under the title Applied Science & Technology; these are "abstracts", "full text", "retrospective". Broad subject coverage includes the major scientific disciplines and their respective sub disciplines in abstracts or full text. For example, topical coverage includes acoustics and earth sciences, geological sciences, food industry, textile industry and waste management; the retrospective indexing of Applied Science and Technology covers more than 1,350 periodicals from 1913 to 1983. Applied Science & Technology covers over 780 periodicals, as well as sources such as conference proceedings and directories. H. W. Wilson Company's indexing pertaining to art encompasses "Art Abstracts", "Art Full Text", "Art Index", "Art Index Retrospective: 1929-1984".
It includes 304 full-text journals that focus on fine art, decorative art, commercial art, folk art, film and other areas. Subjects covered include art history and criticism and architectural history, antiques, museum studies, graphic arts, industrial design, landscape architecture, interior design, folk art, photography, sculpture, decorative arts, costume design, video, motion pictures, advertising art, non-western art and other related subjects. WilsonWeb is "an online based information retrieval system that offers an interface, multiple search modes, interactive help messages, text translation into various languages". "A Modern-Day Scriptorium" By Ernest Rubinstein. The Chronicle Review. January 10, 2014. Official website The H. W. Wilson Company History Overview and history of The H. W. Wilson Company, Inc. About WilsonWeb. Nova Southeastern University. 2013
Outline of academic disciplines
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge and researched as part of higher education. A scholar's discipline is defined by the university faculties and learned societies to which she or he belongs and the academic journals in which she or he publishes research. Disciplines vary between well-established ones that exist in all universities and have well-defined rosters of journals and conferences and nascent ones supported by only a few universities and publications. A discipline may have branches, these are called sub-disciplines. There is no consensus on how some academic disciplines should be classified, for example whether anthropology and linguistics are disciplines of the social sciences or of the humanities; the following outline is provided as topical guide to academic disciplines. Biblical studies Religious studies Biblical Hebrew, Biblical Greek, Aramaic Buddhist theology Christian theology Anglican theology Baptist theology Catholic theology Eastern Orthodox theology Protestant theology Hindu theology Jewish theology Muslim theology Biological anthropology Linguistic anthropology Cultural anthropology Social anthropology Archaeology Accounting Business management Finance Marketing Operations management Edaphology Environmental chemistry Environmental science Gemology Geochemistry Geodesy Physical geography Atmospheric science / Meteorology Biogeography / Phytogeography Climatology / Paleoclimatology / Palaeogeography Coastal geography / Oceanography Edaphology / Pedology or Soil science Geobiology Geology Geostatistics Glaciology Hydrology / Limnology / Hydrogeology Landscape ecology Quaternary science Geophysics Paleontology Paleobiology Paleoecology Astrobiology Astronomy Observational astronomy Gamma ray astronomy Infrared astronomy Microwave astronomy Optical astronomy Radio astronomy UV astronomy X-ray astronomy Astrophysics Gravitational astronomy Black holes Interstellar medium Numerical simulations Astrophysical plasma Galaxy formation and evolution High-energy astrophysics Hydrodynamics Magnetohydrodynamics Star formation Physical cosmology Stellar astrophysics Helioseismology Stellar evolution Stellar nucleosynthesis Planetary science Also a branch of electrical engineering Pure mathematics Applied mathematics Astrostatistics Biostatistics Academia Academic genealogy Curriculum Multidisciplinary approach Interdisciplinarity Transdisciplinarity Professions Classification of Instructional Programs Joint Academic Coding System List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States List of academic fields Abbott, Andrew.
Chaos of Disciplines. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-00101-2. Oleson, Alexandra; the Organization of knowledge in modern America, 1860-1920. ISBN 0-8018-2108-8. US Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences. Classification of Instructional Programs. National Center for Education Statistics. Classification of Instructional Programs: Developed by the U. S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics to provide a taxonomic scheme that will support the accurate tracking and reporting of fields of study and program completions activity. Complete JACS from Higher Education Statistics Agency in the United Kingdom Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification Chapter 3 and Appendix 1: Fields of research classification. Fields of Knowledge, a zoomable map allowing the academic disciplines and sub-disciplines in this article be visualised. Sandoz, R. Interactive Historical Atlas of the Disciplines, University of Geneva