New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Trane Inc. is a manufacturer of heating and air conditioning systems and building management systems and controls. The company is a subsidiary of Ingersoll Rand and is the successor company to the American Standard Companies, it makes products under the American Standard brand names. A global company, Trane's international headquarters are in Ireland. Trane employs more than 29,000 people at 104 manufacturing locations in 28 countries, has annual sales of more than $8 billion. In addition to its activity in HVAC systems, Trane is involved in energy conservation and renewable energy projects. In 1885, James Trane, a Norwegian immigrant from Tromsø, opened his own plumbing and pipe-fitting shop in La Crosse, Wisconsin, he designed a new type of Trane vapor heating. Reuben Trane, James' son, earned a mechanical engineering degree at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and joined his father's plumbing firm. In 1913, James and Reuben incorporated The Trane Company, it was Reuben's invention of the convector radiator in 1923 that established the company's reputation as an innovator, a reputation Trane people have been building on since.
By 1916, the Tranes were no longer in the plumbing business, but instead focused their attention on manufacturing heating products. Reuben conceived the idea of the first convector radiator in 1925, which replaced the heavy, cast-iron radiators that prevailed at the time. Trane's first air conditioning unit was developed in 1931. In 1982, Trane purchased General Electric's Central Air Conditioning Division. With that purchase came many of the most recognizable traits of Trane's residential air conditioning products. Many of those traits, like the distinctive red "Climatuff" compressors, the "Spine-Fin" all aluminum spiny outdoor coil and the all aluminum evaporator coil, are still found in Trane's residential equipment lines. In 1984, Trane was acquired by American Standard Inc. and became a fixture in the American Standard Companies business. Following a leveraged buyout in 1988, American Standard returned as a publicly held corporation in 1995. On February 1, 2007, American Standard Companies announced.
The company sold off its namesake kitchen and bath division and spun off WABCO, American Standard's vehicle controls division, while retaining The Trane Company. American Standard renamed itself Trane Inc. effective November 28, 2007. On December 17, 2007, Trane announced it had agreed to be acquired by Ireland-based Ingersoll Rand in a cash and stock transaction; the sale was completed on June 5, 2008. The Channel Tunnel is a 50.45-kilometre rail tunnel beneath the English Channel, linking the United Kingdom with France. At its lowest point, it is 115 m below sea level. At 37.9 kilometres, the tunnel has the longest undersea portion of any tunnel in the world. During the design stage of the tunnel, engineers found that its aerodynamic properties and the heat generated by high-speed trains as they passed through it would raise the temperature inside the tunnel to 50 °C; as well as making the trains "unbearably warm" for passengers this presented a risk of equipment failure and track distortion.
To cool the tunnel to 30 °C, engineers installed 480 kilometres of 0.61 m diameter cooling pipes carrying 84 million liters of water. The network—Europe's largest cooling system—was supplied by eight York Titan chillers running on R22, a Hydrochlorofluorocarbon refrigerant gas. Due to R22's ozone depletion potential and high global warming potential, its use is being phased out in developed countries, since 1 January 2015 it has been illegal in Europe to use HCFCs to service air-conditioning equipment—broken equipment that used HCFCs must instead be replaced with equipment that does not use it. In 2016, Trane was selected to provide replacement chillers for the tunnel's cooling network; the York chillers were decommissioned and four "next generation" Trane Series E CenTraVac large-capacity chillers were installed—two located in Sangatte and two at Shakespeare Cliff, UK. The energy-efficient chillers, using Honeywell's non-flammable, ultra-low GWP R1233zd refrigerant, maintain temperatures at 25 °C, in their first year of operation generated savings of 4.8 GWh—approximately 33%, equating to €500,000 —for tunnel operator Getlink.
The list of buildings below use Trane systems. Channel Tunnel, between England and France Musée d'Orsay, France Warsaw Financial Center, Poland Australian Securities Exchange, Australia The Kremlin, Russia La Scala Opera House, Italy McCormick Place Convention Center, Illinois Athens Olympic Sports Complex, Greece SeaWorld, Florida Rogers Centre, Canada Statue of Liberty, New York City, New York Farragut Technical Analysis Center, Washington, D. C. Washington Monument, Washington, D. C. World Trade Center, China Burj Khalifa, Dubai, UAE Bangkok, Thailand Charlotte, North Carolina Charmes, France Clarksville, Tennessee Columbia, South Carolina Forsyth, Georgia Fort Smith, Arkansas Epinal, France Golbey, France La Crosse, Wisconsin Lexington, Kentucky Lynn Haven, Florida Macon, Georgia Penang, Malaysia Pueblo, Colorado Rockingham, North Carolina Rushville, Indiana Sao Paulo, Brazil Springhill, Louisiana St. Paul, Minnesota Taicang, China Yangmei, Taiwan Waco, Texas Araucaria, Brazil Monterrey, Mexico Trenton, New Jersey Tyler, Texas Vidalia, Georgia Chennai, India closed now Trane American Standard Heating and Cooling
Armitage Shanks is a British manufacturer of bathroom fixtures and plumbing supplies, now part of the Ideal Standard group. In 2004, Armitage Shanks had eight factories in the United Kingdom, the largest in Armitage, Staffordshire. Armitage Shanks is one of the sponsors of the Loo of the Year Awards; the company that became Armitage Shanks was founded in 1817 by Thomas Bond in Armitage, Staffordshire. The Armitage "sanitary pottery manufacture" became a successful UK toilet manufacturer. In 1907 Armitage Ware Limited was incorporated. In 1969, Armitage merged with Shanks Holdings Limited, a competing "sanitary engineering company" established at Barrhead near Glasgow, Renfrewshire in 1878, producing the famous brand name Armitage Shanks. In 1980, Armitage Shanks was purchased by Blue Circle Industries, in February 1999, Blue Circle sold its bathroom division to United States-based American Standard Companies for US$430 million. Following this purchase, the Armitage Shanks brand continued in the United Kingdom, their former export markets.
American Standard were acquired by Bain Capital in February 2007, is now majority owned by Sun Capital Partners. The company has inspired other people and groups to use the name, sometimes as an example of toilet humour. Armitage Shanks is the pseudonym of the ringmaster of the Seattle, Washington based Circus Contraption "Armatage Shanks" is the first song on Green Day's album from 1995, which came about after the band had been to England and noticed the brand name on the urinals there. "Armitage Shanks" is the opening track from the Sleaford Mods album from 1998 entitled "The Mekon" "Armitage Shanks" is the 24th song on Future Clouds and Radar's self titled album from 2007. "Armitage Shanks" is the given name of the Loch Ness Monster in the musical from 2015 by Robert J. Sherman, Love Birds. "Armitage Shanks" is a b side on the single from 1993 "U Talk 2 Much" by Cork City band, The Sultans of Ping FC. Lyrics include:'No one says Merry Christmas to those masters of industry, Armitage Shanks' and'Often people use you, never flush you'.
"Armitage Shanks" is a humorous song by Chuck Brodsky, recorded on his live album "Two Sets." Armitage Shanks was an English garage punk band in the 2000s. "Armitage Shanks" is a fictional character in the Focus on the Family radio drama, Adventures in Odyssey. "Armitage Shanks" is a fictional character in the novel Taz by Dawood Ali McCallum. "Armitage Shanks" is a fictional character played by Sean Griffin in the video game The X-Files The Armitage Shanks Championship Bowl is a fictional Mornington Crescent prize in I'm Sorry I Haven't A Clue. "Armitage Shanks" was one of the many nicknames of the late Richard Marsland from the Get This radio programme. "Hermitage Shanks," a pun on the name, is the title of a song on Mr. B The Gentleman Rhymer's album "I Say!". Armitage Shanks is the main character in Kevin Cannon's graphic novels Far Arden and Crater XV. Armitage is the name of a false super secret organization within MI7 that Simon Ambrose claims to be part of, he takes the name off a toilet within his view at the time in the movie Johnny English Reborn.
Armitage Shanks is the name of the lab rat in the eighth episode of the ninth season of It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia. Armitage Shanks is the eighth song on Matt Fishel’s 2013 album Not Thinking Straight Armitage Shanks corporate site
Bain Capital is a private investment firm based in Boston, Massachusetts. It specializes in private equity, venture capital, public equity, impact investing, life sciences and real estate. Bain Capital invests across a range of geographic regions; as of 2018, the firm managed more than $105 billion of investor capital. The firm was founded in 1984 by partners from the consulting firm Company. Since inception it has invested in or acquired hundreds of companies including AMC Theatres, Artisan Entertainment, Aspen Education Group, Burger King, Burlington Coat Factory, Canada Goose, DIC Entertainment, Domino's Pizza, DoubleClick, Dunkin' Donuts, D&M Holdings, Guitar Center, Hospital Corporation of America, iHeartMedia, KB Toys, Sports Authority, Toys "R" Us, Warner Music Group, The Weather Channel, Apple Leisure Group, which includes AMResorts and Apple Vacations; as of 2018, Bain Capital employed more than 1,000 people. Bain Capital is headquartered at 200 Clarendon Street in Boston, Massachusetts with additional offices in New York City, Palo Alto, San Francisco, London, Hong Kong, Mumbai, Tokyo and Sydney.
The company, its actions during its first 15 years, became the subject of political and media scrutiny as a result of co-founder Mitt Romney's political career his 2012 presidential campaign. Bain Capital was founded in 1984 by Bain & Company partners Mitt Romney, T. Coleman Andrews III, Eric Kriss, after Bill Bain had offered Romney the chance to head a new venture that would invest in companies and apply Bain's consulting techniques to improve operations. In addition to the three founding partners, the early team included Fraser Bullock, Robert F. White, Joshua Bekenstein, Adam Kirsch, Geoffrey S. Rehnert. Romney had the titles of president and managing general partner or managing partner, he became referred to as managing director or CEO as well. He was the sole shareholder of the firm. At the beginning, the firm had fewer than ten employees. In the face of skepticism from potential investors and his partners spent a year raising the $37 million in funds needed to start the new operation. Bain partners sourced the rest from wealthy individuals.
Early investors included Boston real estate mogul Mortimer Zuckerman and Robert Kraft, the owner of the New England Patriots football team. They included members of elite Salvadoran families who fled the country's civil war, they and other wealthy Latin Americans invested $9 million through offshore companies registered in Panama. While Bain Capital was founded by Bain executives, the firm was not an affiliate or a division of Bain & Company but rather a separate company; the two firms shared the same offices—in an office tower at Copley Place in Boston—and a similar approach to improving business operations. However, the two firms had put in place certain protections to avoid sharing information between the two companies and the Bain & Company executives had the ability to veto investments that posed potential conflicts of interest. Bain Capital provided an investment opportunity for partners of Bain & Company; the firm gave a cut of its profits to Bain & Company, but Romney persuaded Bill Bain to give that up.
The Bain Capital team was reluctant to invest its capital. By 1985, things were going poorly enough that Romney considered closing the operation, returning investors' money to them, having the partners go back to their old positions; the partners saw weak spots in so many potential deals that by 1986 few had been done. At first, Bain Capital focused on venture capital opportunities. One of Bain's earliest and most notable venture investments was in Staples, Inc. the office supply retailer. In 1986, Bain provided $4.5 million to two supermarket executives, Leo Kahn and Thomas G. Stemberg, to open an office supply supermarket in Brighton, Massachusetts; the fast-growing retail chain went public in 1989. Bain Capital reaped a nearly sevenfold return on its investment, Romney sat on the Staples board of directors for over a decade. Another successful investment occurred in 1986 when $1 million was invested in medical equipment maker Calumet Coach, which returned $34 million. A few years Bain Capital made an investment in the technology research outfit the Gartner Group, which ended up returning a 16-fold gain.
Bain invested the $37 million of capital in its first fund in twenty companies and by 1989 was generating an annualized return in excess of 50 percent. By the end of the decade, Bain's second fund, raised in 1987 had deployed $106 million into 13 investments; as the firm began organizing around funds, each such fund was run by a specific general partnership—that included all Bain Capital executives as well as others—which in turn was controlled by Bain Capital Inc. the management company that Romney had full ownership control of. As CEO, Romney had a final say in every deal made. Beginning in 1989, the firm, which began as a venture capital source investing in start-up companies, adjusted its strategy to focus on leveraged buyouts and growth capital investments in more mature companies, their model was to buy existing firms with money borrowed against their assets, partner with existing management to apply Bain methodology to their operations, sell them off in a few years. Existing CEOs were
Piscataway, New Jersey
Piscataway is a township in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 56,044, reflecting an increase of 5,562 from the 50,482 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 3,393 from the 47,089 counted in 1990; the name Piscataway may be derived from the area's original Native American residents, transplants from near the Piscataqua River defining the coastal border between New Hampshire and Maine, whose name derives from peske and tegwe, or alternatively from pisgeu and awa or from a Lenape language word meaning "great deer" or from words meaning "place of dark night". The area was first settled in 1666 by Quakers and Baptists who had left the Puritan colony in New Hampshire. Piscataway Township was formed on December 18, 1666, incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798, as part of the state's initial group of 104 townships; the community, the fifth-oldest municipality in New Jersey, has grown from Native American territory, through a colonial period and is one of the links in the earliest settlement of the Atlantic Ocean seacoast that led to the formation of the United States.
Over the years, portions of Piscataway were taken to form Raritan Township, Dunellen and South Plainfield. Piscataway has advanced educational and research facilities due to the presence of Rutgers University, whose main campus spills into the township. High Point Solutions Stadium, home field for the Rutgers Scarlet Knights football team, is in Piscataway. Part of the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School is located in Piscataway as well. In 2008, Money magazine ranked Piscataway 23rd out of the top 100 places to live in America. In 2014, the magazine ranked. In 1666, the first appointed Governor of New Jersey, Philip Carteret, granted 12 new settlers from Massachusetts a 100 square mile lot of land, founded as the townships of Woodbridge and Piscataway. After this original purchase, additional settlers from the Piscataqua River area of New Hampshire moved to the area, bringing the name. Coming from a lumbering and fishing background, these settlers, consisting of Baptists and Quakers, were comfortable with their new surroundings, looking forward to starting a new life away from political and religious persecution in the north.
They were enterprising and pioneering families who were experienced in wilderness settlement. Before the original settlers, there were pioneer scouts who surveyed these new waterways; the town name of Piscataway came from these early pioneers who came from the town of Piscataqua. During the original land purchase, the pioneers had signed 12 Articles of Agreement with Governor Carteret, which served as the legal basis for the government of Piscataway and Woodbridge and which shaped the democratic development of self-government. In short, these articles were designed to provide liberty and land ownership for new families and to allow them to establish their own government representatives and religious freedoms. After a few line and boundary changes and its out plantations were reported to total 40,000 acres, with 66 square miles of land in 1685; the Lenni Lenape Indians were natives to the entire Piscataway area, but were displaced to smaller areas as settler numbers increased. The Indians had established defined trails that the settlers used to travel through the wilderness area and branch out to new lands.
Over time, many of these primitive trails became the main routes of travel from town to town and still exist today. The trails along the Raritan River were named after a local Indian tribe called the Raritangs. Piscataway Township is the fifth oldest town in New Jersey and among the fifty oldest towns in the United States. On February 8, 1777, the Battle of Quibbletown, a running battle took place between 2,000 British and Hessian troops under the command of British General Charles Lord Cornwallis and the local patriot militia led by Colonel Charles Scott and a separate militia commanded by Brigadier General Nathaniel Warner. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 19.029 square miles, including 18.835 square miles of land and 0.194 square miles of water. The township lies on the south side of the Raritan Valley, a line of cities in Central Jersey, along with New Brunswick, Highland Park and South Plainfield. Piscataway is 45 minutes southwest of New York City and 53 minutes northeast of Philadelphia.
Piscataway is bordered by nine municipalities: Dunellen, Highland Park, New Brunswick and South Plainfield in Middlesex County and Franklin Township and South Bound Brook in Somerset County and Plainfield in Union County. Society Hill is an unincorporated community and census-designated place located within Piscataway Township. Piscataway is segmented by local residents into unincorporated communities and place names which include Arbor, Bound Brook Heights, Fellowship Farm, Johnson Park, Lake Nelson, New Brunswick Highlands, New Market, North Stelton, Randolphville, Raritan Landing and Riverview Manor; the original village settlement of Piscatawaytown is located in present-day Edison Township. Significant portions of Piscataway make up part of historic Camp Kilmer and the Livingston and Busch Campuses of Rutgers University; the Arbor and New Brunswick Highl
Heating and air conditioning is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide acceptable indoor air quality. HVAC system design is a subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. "Refrigeration" is sometimes added to the field's abbreviation, as HVAC&R or HVACR or "ventilation" is dropped, as in HACR. HVAC is an important part of residential structures such as single family homes, apartment buildings and senior living facilities, medium to large industrial and office buildings such as skyscrapers and hospitals, vehicles such as cars, airplanes and submarines, in marine environments, where safe and healthy building conditions are regulated with respect to temperature and humidity, using fresh air from outdoors. Ventilating or ventilation is the process of exchanging or replacing air in any space to provide high indoor air quality which involves temperature control, oxygen replenishment, removal of moisture, smoke, dust, airborne bacteria, carbon dioxide, other gases.
Ventilation removes unpleasant smells and excessive moisture, introduces outside air, keeps interior building air circulating, prevents stagnation of the interior air. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as circulation of air within the building, it is one of the most important factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. Methods for ventilating a building may be divided into natural types; the three major functions of heating and air conditioning are interrelated with the need to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality within reasonable installation and maintenance costs. HVAC systems can be used in both commercial environments. HVAC systems can provide ventilation, maintain pressure relationships between spaces; the means of air delivery and removal from spaces is known as room air distribution. In modern buildings, the design and control systems of these functions are integrated into one or more HVAC systems. For small buildings, contractors estimate the capacity and type of system needed and design the system, selecting the appropriate refrigerant and various components needed.
For larger buildings, building service designers, mechanical engineers, or building services engineers analyze and specify the HVAC systems. Specialty mechanical contractors fabricate and commission the systems. Building permits and code-compliance inspections of the installations are required for all sizes of building. Although HVAC is executed in individual buildings or other enclosed spaces, the equipment involved is in some cases an extension of a larger district heating or district cooling network, or a combined DHC network. In such cases, the operating and maintenance aspects are simplified and metering becomes necessary to bill for the energy, consumed, in some cases energy, returned to the larger system. For example, at a given time one building may be utilizing chilled water for air conditioning and the warm water it returns may be used in another building for heating, or for the overall heating-portion of the DHC network. Basing HVAC on a larger network helps provide an economy of scale, not possible for individual buildings, for utilizing renewable energy sources such as solar heat, winter's cold, the cooling potential in some places of lakes or seawater for free cooling, the enabling function of seasonal thermal energy storage.
HVAC is based on inventions and discoveries made by Nikolay Lvov, Michael Faraday, Willis Carrier, Edwin Ruud, Reuben Trane, James Joule, William Rankine, Sadi Carnot, many others. Multiple inventions within this time frame preceded the beginnings of first comfort air conditioning system, designed in 1902 by Alfred Wolff for the New York Stock Exchange, while Willis Carrier equipped the Sacketts-Wilhems Printing Company with the process AC unit the same year. Coyne College was the first school to offer HVAC training in 1899; the invention of the components of HVAC systems went hand-in-hand with the industrial revolution, new methods of modernization, higher efficiency, system control are being introduced by companies and inventors worldwide. Heaters are appliances; this can be done via central heating. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to heat water, steam, or air in a central location such as a furnace room in a home, or a mechanical room in a large building; the heat can be transferred by conduction, or radiation.
Heaters exist for various types of fuel, including solid fuels and gases. Another type of heat source is electricity heating ribbons composed of high resistance wire; this principle is used for baseboard heaters and portable heaters. Electrical heaters are used as backup or supplemental heat for heat pump systems; the heat pump gained popularity in the 1950s in the United States. Heat pumps can extract heat from various sources, such as environmental air, exhaust air from a building, or from the ground. Heat pump HVAC systems were only used in moderate climates, but with improvements in low temperature operation and reduced loads due to more efficient homes, they are increasing in popularity in cooler climates. In the case of heated water or steam, piping is used to transport the heat