An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. Drinking alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures. Most countries have laws regulating the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages; some countries ban such activities but alcoholic drinks are legal in most parts of the world. The global alcoholic drink industry exceeded $1 trillion in 2014. Alcohol is a depressant, which in low doses causes euphoria, reduces anxiety, improves sociability. In higher doses, it causes drunkenness, unconsciousness, or death. Long-term use can lead to alcohol abuse, physical dependence, alcoholism. Alcohol is one of the most used recreational drugs in the world with about 33% of people being current drinkers; as of 2016 women on average drink 0.7 drinks and males 1.7 drinks a day. In 2015, among Americans, 86% of adults had consumed alcohol at some point, 70% had drunk it in the last year, 56% in the last month.
Alcoholic drinks are divided into three classes—beers and spirits—and their alcohol content is between 3% and 50%. Discovery of late Stone Age jugs suggest that intentionally fermented drinks existed at least as early as the Neolithic period. Many animals consume alcohol when given the opportunity and are affected in much the same way as humans, although humans are the only species known to produce alcoholic drinks intentionally. Beer is a beverage fermented from grain mash, it is made from barley or a blend of several grains and flavored with hops. Most beer is carbonated as part of the fermentation process. If the fermented mash is distilled the drink becomes a spirit. In the Andean region, the most common beer is chicha, made from grain or fruits. Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Cider or cyder is a fermented alcoholic drink made from any fruit juice. Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2% ABV to 8.5% or more in traditional English ciders. In some regions, cider may be called "apple wine".
Mead is an alcoholic drink made by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, grains, or hops. The alcoholic content of mead may range from about 8% ABV to more than 20%; the defining characteristic of mead is that the majority of the drink's fermentable sugar is derived from honey. Pulque is the Mesoamerican fermented drink made from the "honey water" of maguey cacti; the drink distilled from pulque is mescal. Wine is a fermented beverage produced from sometimes other fruits. Wine involves a longer fermentation process than beer and a long aging process, resulting in an alcohol content of 9%–16% ABV. "Fruit wines" are made from fruits other than grapes, such as cherries, or apples. Sake is a popular example of "rice wine". Sparkling wine like French Champagne, Catalan Cava or Italian Prosecco can be made by means of a secondary fermentation. A distilled drink or liquor is an alcoholic drink produced by distilling ethanol produced by means of fermenting grain, fruit, or vegetables.
Unsweetened, alcoholic drinks that have an alcohol content of at least 20% ABV are called spirits. For the most common distilled drinks, such as whiskey and vodka, the alcohol content is around 40%; the term hard liquor is used in North America to distinguish distilled drinks from undistilled ones. Vodka, baijiu, whiskey and soju are examples of distilled drinks. Distilling eliminates some of the congeners. Freeze distillation concentrates ethanol along with fusel alcohols in applejack. Fortified wine is wine, such as sherry, to which a distilled beverage has been added. Fortified wine is distinguished from spirits made from wine in that spirits are produced by means of distillation, while fortified wine is wine that has had a spirit added to it. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including port, madeira, marsala and the aromatized wine vermouth. Rectified spirit called "neutral grain spirit", is alcohol, purified by means of "rectification"; the term neutral refers to the spirit's lack of the flavor that would have been present if the mash ingredients had been distilled to a lower level of alcoholic purity.
Rectified spirit lacks any flavoring added to it after distillation. Other kinds of spirits, such as whiskey, are distilled to a lower alcohol percentage to preserve the flavor of the mash. Rectified spirit is a clear, flammable liquid that may contain as much as 95% ABV, it is used for medicinal purposes. It may be a grain spirit or it may be made from other plants, it is used in mixed drinks and tinctures, as a household solvent. Alcohol has significant negative health effects, including increased risk of cancer. Negative effects are related to the amount consumed with no safe lower limit seen. Wine, distilled spirits and other alcoholic drinks contain ethyl alcohol and alcohol consumption has short-term psychological and physiological effects on the user. Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on a person; the effects of alcohol depend on the amount an individual has drunk, the percentage of alcohol in the wine, beer or spirits and the timespan that the consumption took place, the amount of food eaten and whether an indiv
J. Will Taylor
James Willis "J. Will" Taylor was a U. S. Representative from Tennessee. Born near Lead Mine Bend in Union County, Taylor was the son of James W. and Sarah Elizabeth Taylor. He attended the public schools, Holbrook Normal College, Fountain City and the American Temperance University, Tennessee. Taylor taught at school for several years, was graduated from Cumberland School of Law at Cumberland University, Tennessee, in 1902, he was admitted to the bar the same year. Having moved to La Follette, Taylor commenced the practice of law, he served as postmaster at La Follette from 1904 to 1909. He was mayor from 1910 to 1913, in 1918 and 1919, he was Insurance commissioner for the State of Tennessee in 1913 and 1914 and chairman of the Republican State executive committee in 1917 and 1918. Taylor was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-sixth and to the ten succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1919, until his death, he served as chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of State.
He served as member of the Republican National Executive Committee 1929-1939. Taylor died in La Follette, November 14, 1939, he is interred at Woodlawn Cemetery. List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "J. Will Taylor". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. J. Will Taylor at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Bushrod Washington James
Bushrod Washington James, A. M. M. D. was an American surgeon, homeopathist and philanthropist who lived in Philadelphia. He graduated from the Homeopathic College in 1857, he served as the secretary of the Homeopathic Medical Society of Pennsylvania and as its president. He bequeathed US$55,000 as well as several properties in Philadelphia and Island Beach, New Jersey, to establish the Washington James Eye and Ear Institute, a free hospital for the treatment of diseases of the eyes and lungs, he provided three houses, jewels, a US$40,000 endowment to establish a library for children and the elderly, that became the Bushrod branch of the Free Library of Philadelphia. He donated land to the city of Oakland, for the establishment of Bushrod Park, several plots of land to the city of Coronado, for the establishment of the Bushrod Washington James Institute, he had donated a house to the American Temperance University in Harriman, which became that institution's "Bushrod W. James Hall of Domestic Science for Young Ladies."
Rules for the Treatment of Asiatic Cholera Homoeopathically. Philadelphia: F. E. Boericke, 1866. Improvements in Surgery. 1872. Report of the Bureau of General Sanitary Science and Hygiene. Philadelphia: American Institute of Homeopathy, 1881. American Resorts: With Notes Upon Their Climate. 1889. Alaskana: Or, Alaska in Descriptive and Legendary Poems. Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1892. Alaska's Great Future the Decision Regarding Bering Sea: The Decision. 1894. Echoes of Battle. Philadelphia: H. T. Coates & Company, 1895. Alaska, Its Neglected Past, Its Brilliant Future. Philadelphia: The Sunshine publishing company, 1897; the political freshman. 1902. Works by or about Bushrod Washington James in libraries
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Cornstalk Heights is a neighborhood in Harriman, United States. Platted in the early 1890s as a residential area for Harriman's upper and professional classes, the neighborhood contains over 100 buildings added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1991 as a historic district for their architectural and historical significance; the neighborhood is named for the home of Harriman founder Frederick Gates, which once stood near the eastern end of the district. Harriman was envisioned as a large-scale industrial center where the application of late 19th-century social reform principles, namely prohibition, would create an ideal living environment; the East Tennessee Land Company, led by Gates, designed the city in late 1889, including in the design several larger, more expensive lots in what is now Cornstalk Heights. Most of the district's earliest houses cost over $3,000 apiece, with some as high as $10,000— enormous sums for the period. Throughout the 1890s and early 1900s, Harriman's affluent residents built dozens of Victorian homes, most of which are still standing.
In 1990, the Cornstalk Heights Historical Community Organization was formed to prevent the district's Killeffer Park from being converted into a housing development. Cornstalk Heights is situated atop a low-rising ridge in the original section of Harriman, bordered by an oxbow bend in the Emory River on the north and south, by Walden Ridge on the west; the heights rise to a maximum of about 100 feet above the rest of the city. The district is located along Cumberland and Trenton streets, which run north-to-south, Walden, Crescent and Virginia avenues, which run east-to-west. A narrow alleyway runs along the crest of the ridge between Cumberland streets; the district consists of blocks 413-806 Clinton Street, 409-829 Cumberland Street, 502-702 Trenton Street, 418-503 Queen Avenue, 319 Virginia Avenue, 330, 402-417, 424-506 Walden Avenue. The neighborhood contains 110 houses, 100 of which are contributing properties in the National Register listing. Killeffer Park, located along Cumberland Street, is a contributing property.
Two churches in the district— the First Presbyterian Church and the Open Bible Baptist Church— were built in 1956 and 1985 and are non-contributing buildings due to age. The district's lone contributing commercial building is located at the corner of Walden Avenue and Clinton Street. Before 1890, what is now Cornstalk Heights was part of a large farm owned by Robert K. Byrd; that year, the East Tennessee Land Company, formed by northern Temperance activists led by Frederick Gates and General Clinton B. Fisk, purchased the land from Byrd's widow for $26,000; the company hoped to establish a large industrial center that would attract businesses, while at the same time demonstrate the benefits of barring the sale or consumption of alcoholic beverages. On Christmas Day, 1889, the East Tennessee Land Company platted a 343-acre section of Harriman that included most of what is now Cornstalk Heights; these lots were sold in late February 1890 at an auction attended by over 4,000 prospective buyers from across the country.
In the Cornstalk Heights section, lots along Cumberland Street and the section of Walden Avenue between Cumberland and Clinton streets sold for over $2,000. Lots along Clinton Street sold for over $1,000; the deeds to these lots required that lot owners construct frame or brick houses with at least six rooms. Over the next two years, fourteen contractors began building homes in Cornstalk Heights, using materials from new industries, established across town along the Emory River; the homes of Gates and Gates' successor as the East Tennessee Land Company's general manager, William H. Russell, were the earliest homes built in Cornstalk Heights. Gates' house was demolished in the 1950s. Although the East Tennessee Land Company went bankrupt in the wake of the Panic of 1893, it had succeeded in attracting enough new industry to help Harriman survive. Many of the heads of these new companies built homes in Cornstalk Heights. Henry Winslow, manager of the Harriman Land Company and Harriman's primary developer after the departure of the East Tennessee Land Company, built his house at 802 Clinton Street.
David Gibson, owner of Gibson Agricultural Works, built at 403 Walden Avenue. V. G. Farnham, manager of the Harriman Tack Company, built at 813 Cumberland Street. S. K. Paige, owner of a lumber company, built the house now known as "Bushrod Hall" at 422 Cumberland Street. In the 1920s, Tom Tarwater— manager of the Roane Hosiery Company— built at 709 Cumberland Street; the Reverend Alexander Killeffer, a photographer for the East Tennessee Land Company, founded Harriman's St. Andrews Episcopal Church in the early 1890s, helped build its original meeting house at 630 Trenton Street, where the Open Bible Baptist Church now stands; the original design of Harriman included a park along Cumberland Street named Fisk Park, but renamed "Killeffer Park" after Killeffer's son, Louis, a long-time resident of Cornstalk Heights. The site along Clinton Street now occupied by the First Presbyterian Church was the site of a school, which operated from 1891 to 1917; the earliest houses in Cornstalk Heights were Victorian homes designed in Queen Anne and Folk Victorian styles.
Colonial Revival and Bungalow/Craftsman styles were more common for houses built after 1900. Other architectural styles represented in the district include Dutch Colonial Revival, Tudor Revival, Neoclassical Revival, American Foursquare, Minimal Traditional. Houses in the district range from on
Harriman is a city located in Roane County, with a small extension into Morgan County. The population of Harriman was 6,350 at the 2010 census. Harriman is included in Tennessee Metropolitan Statistical Area. Harriman is located at 35°55′43″N 84°33′21″W; the city is situated along the physiographic boundary between the Tennessee Valley region and the Cumberland Plateau region, with the Plateau—namely its Walden Ridge escarpment—rising several hundred feet above the city to the west. The Emory River enters the Tennessee Valley just west of Harriman at a pass known as Emory Gap, forms an oxbow bend that surrounds the original section of Harriman. U. S. Route 27, known as Roane Street in Harriman, runs north-to-south through the city along the base of Walden Ridge. Interstate 40 runs east-to-west through the city's southern section. Harriman's southwestern boundary, which it shares with Rockwood, is located along US-27 about a half-mile south of the road's intersection with I-40; the city's southeastern boundary runs along Pine Ridge.
Harriman's northern boundary is near US-27's split with State Highway 61. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.6 square miles, of which 10.4 square miles is land and 0.19 square miles, or 1.86%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,744 people, 2,907 households, 1,802 families residing in the city; the population density was 671.5 people per square mile. There were 3,309 housing units at an average density of 329.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.11% White, 7.43% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, 1.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.76% of the population. There were 2,907 households out of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 15.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.0% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.88. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.9% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 20.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $23,736, the median income for a family was $31,190. Males had a median income of $26,616 versus $20,278 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,763. About 18.6% of families and 22.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.1% of those under age 18 and 18.7% of those age 65 or over. Harriman was founded as a Temperance Town in 1889 by temperance movement activists led by New York-born minister and plant manager Frederick Gates. Seeking a land venture that could attract industrial and economic development while avoiding the vice-driven pitfalls of late 19th century company towns and fellow prohibitionists chartered the East Tennessee Land Company in May 1889.
In subsequent months, the company acquired several hundred thousand acres of land around what is now Harriman, including the plantation of Union Army colonel and state senator, Robert K. Byrd; the company's early investors included 1888 Prohibition Party presidential candidate General Clinton B. Fisk, who served as the company's first president, Quaker Oats co-founder Ferdinand Schumacher, publishers Isaac K. Funk and A. W. Wagnalls; the East Tennessee Land Company's plan was to purchase land, build a town based on prohibitionist and other reform movement principles, establish subsidiary companies to attract industry. After a successful land auction in Harriman in 1890, the company established three subsidiaries: the East Tennessee Mining Company to administer the region's coal and iron extraction operations, the Harriman Coal & Iron Railroad Company to develop the local railroad system, the Harriman Manufacturing Company to attract industries by providing start-up capital. To project its prosperity and advertise Harriman, the company built an imposing brick headquarters, with its four picturesque Norman towers, at the corner of Walden Avenue and Roane Street near the center of the new town.
By 1892, several rolling mills and other businesses had relocated to Harriman. To help finance its early operations, the East Tennessee Land Company borrowed just over one million dollars from the Central Trust Company of New York. In late 1891, capital markets in the U. S. began to freeze, leading to the Panic of 1893. The East Tennessee Land Company, unable to pay the interest on its million-dollar loan, attempted a last-ditch stock sale to raise money to pay off the loan, but the sale failed. In November 1893, the company was forced into bankruptcy. Harriman is named for Walter Harriman, a governor of New Hampshire whose son, Walter C. Harriman, was managing director of the East Tennessee Land Company; as a colonel in the Union Army during the Civil War, he had traveled on foot through the area with his 11th New Hampshire Regiment and camped for several days on the Emory River near the future site of the city. An elderly local told the directors that Harriman had said that the site would be the perfect place for a town, based on this conversation, the directors chose the name of "Harriman".
The site of Harriman was chosen for its proximity to Emory Gap, where the Cincinnati Southern Railway joined the East Tennessee, Virginia