Crystal Catherine Eastman was an American lawyer, feminist and journalist. She is best remembered as a leader in the fight for women's suffrage, as a co-founder and co-editor with her brother Max Eastman of the radical arts and politics magazine The Liberator, co-founder of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, co-founder in 1920 of the American Civil Liberties Union. In 2000 she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in New York. Crystal Eastman was born in Marlborough, Massachusetts, on June 25, 1881, the third of four children, her oldest brother, was born in 1878 and died in 1884 at age seven. The second brother, Anstice Ford Eastman, who became a general surgeon, was born in 1878 and died in 1937. Max was the youngest, born in 1882. In 1883 their parents, Samuel Elijah Eastman and Annis Bertha Ford, moved the family to Canandaigua, New York. In 1889, their mother became one of the first women ordained as a Protestant minister in America when she became a minister of the Congregational Church.
Her father was a Congregational minister, the two served as pastors at the church of Thomas K. Beecher near Elmira, her parents were friendly with writer Mark Twain. From this association young Crystal became acquainted with him; this part of New York was in the so-called "Burnt Over District." During the Second Great Awakening earlier in the 19th century, its frontier had been a center of evangelizing and much religious excitement, which resulted in the founding of the Shakers and Mormonism. During the antebellum period, some were inspired by religious ideals to support such progressive social causes as abolitionism and the Underground Railroad. Crystal and her brother Max Eastman were influenced by this progressive tradition, he became a socialist activist in his early life, Crystal had several common causes with him. They were close throughout her life after he had become more conservative; the siblings lived together for several years on 11th Street in Greenwich Village among other radical activists.
The group, including Ida Rauh, Inez Milholland, Floyd Dell, Doris Stevens spent summers and weekends in Croton-on-Hudson. Eastman graduated from Vassar College in 1903 and received an M. A. in sociology from Columbia University in 1904. Gaining her law degree from New York University Law School, she graduated second in the class of 1907. Social work pioneer and journal editor Paul Kellogg offered Eastman her first job, investigating labor conditions for The Pittsburgh Survey sponsored by the Russell Sage Foundation, her report, Work Accidents and the Law, became a classic and resulted in the first workers' compensation law, which she drafted while serving on a New York state commission. She continued to campaign for occupational safety and health while working as an investigating attorney for the U. S. Commission on Industrial Relations during Woodrow Wilson's presidency, she was at one time called the "most dangerous woman in America," due to her free-love idealism and outspoken nature. During a brief marriage to Wallace J. Benedict, which ended in divorce, Eastman moved to Milwaukee with him.
There she managed the unsuccessful 1912 Wisconsin suffrage campaign. When she returned east in 1913, she joined Alice Paul, Lucy Burns, others in founding the militant Congressional Union, which became the National Woman's Party. After the passage of the 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote in 1920, Eastman and Paul wrote the Equal Rights Amendment, first introduced in 1923. One of the few socialists to endorse the ERA, Eastman warned that protective legislation for women would mean only discrimination against women. Eastman claimed that one could assess the importance of the ERA by the intensity of the opposition to it, but she felt that it was still a struggle worth fighting, she delivered the speech, "Now We Can Begin", following the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, outlining the work that needed to be done in the political and economic spheres to achieve gender equality. During World War I, Eastman was one of the founders of the Woman's Peace Party, soon joined by Jane Addams, Lillian D. Wald, others.
She served as president of the New York branch. Renamed the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom in 1921, it remains the oldest extant women's peace organization. Eastman became executive director of the American Union Against Militarism, which lobbied against America's entrance into the European war and more against war with Mexico in 1916, sought to remove profiteering from arms manufacturing, campaigned against conscription, imperial adventures and military intervention; when the United States entered World War I, Eastman organized with Roger Baldwin and Norman Thomas the National Civil Liberties Bureau to protect conscientious objectors, or in her words: "To maintain something over here that will be worth coming back to when the weary war is over." The NCLB grew into the American Civil Liberties Union, with Baldwin at the head and Eastman functioning as attorney-in-charge. Eastman is credited as a founding member of the ACLU, but her role as founder of the NCLB may have been ignored by posterity due to her personal differences with Baldwin.
In 1916 Eastman married the British editor and antiwar activist Walter Fuller, who had come to the United States to direct his sisters’ singing of folksongs. They had two children and Annis, they worked together as activists until the end of the war. He died in 1927, nine months before Crystal, ending his career editing Radio Times for the BBC. After Max Eastman's periodical The Masses was forced to close b
The Triple Entente refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907. The understanding between the three powers, supplemented by agreements with Japan and Portugal, was a powerful counterweight to the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy. However, Italy did not side with Germany and Austria during World War I and joined the Entente instead in the Treaty of London. Historians continue to debate the importance of the alliance system as one of the causes of World War I. At the start of World War I in 1914, all three Triple Entente members entered it as Allied Powers against the Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary. However, the Triple Entente, unlike the Triple Alliance or the Franco-Russian Alliance, was not an alliance of mutual defense. Thus, Britain felt free to make its own foreign policy decisions in the 1914 July Crisis. Russia had been a member of the League of the Three Emperors, an alliance in 1873 with Austria-Hungary and Germany.
The alliance was part of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck′s plan to isolate France diplomatically. The alliance served to fight against progressive sentiments, which the conservative rulers found unsettling, such as the First International. However, the League faced great difficulty with the growing tensions between Russia and Austria-Hungary over the Balkans, where the rise of nationalism and the continued decline of the Ottoman Empire made many former Ottoman provinces struggle for independence; the situation in the Balkans in the wake of the Serbo-Bulgarian War and the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, which made Russia feel cheated of its gains made in the Russo-Turkish War, prevented the League from being renewed in 1887. In an attempt to stop Russia from allying with France, Bismarck signed the secret Reinsurance Treaty with Russia in 1887; the treaty assured. The alliance between Russia and France and Bismarck's exclusion of Russia from the German financial market in 1887 prevented the treaty from being renewed in 1890.
That ended the alliance between Russia. After the Reinsurance Treaty was not renewed in 1890, Russian leaders grew alarmed at the country's diplomatic isolation and joined the Franco-Russian Alliance in 1894. In 1904, Britain and France signed a series of agreements, the Entente cordiale in solving colonial disputes; that heralded the end of British splendid isolation and was a response to growing German antagonism, as expressed in the expansion of the Kaiserliche Marine to become a battle fleet that could threaten the supremacy of the British Royal Navy. The Entente, unlike the Triple Alliance and the Franco-Russian Alliance, was not an alliance of mutual defence and so Britain was free to make its own foreign policy decisions in 1914; as British Foreign Office Official Eyre Crowe minuted, "The fundamental fact of course is that the Entente is not an alliance. For purposes of ultimate emergencies it may be found to have no substance at all. For the Entente is nothing more than a frame of mind, a view of general policy, shared by the governments of two countries, but which may be, or become, so vague as to lose all content".
In 1907, Britain and Russia signed the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 to end their rivalry in Central Asia, nicknamed The Great Game. In the last decade of the nineteenth century, Britain continued its policy of "splendid isolation", with its primary focus on defending its massive overseas empire. However, by the early 1900s, the German threat had increased and in Britain thought it was in need of allies. For most of the 19th century, Britain had regarded France and Russia as its two most dangerous rivals, but with the growing threat of Germany, policy began to change for several reasons: France and Britain had signed five separate agreements regarding spheres of influence in North Africa in 1904, the Entente cordiale; the Tangier Crisis encouraged co-operation between the two countries from their mutual fear of apparent German expansionism. Russia was defeated in the Russo-Japanese War, which resulted in less concern over Russian imperialism and encouraged Russia to secure its position elsewhere.
France was allied to Russia in the Dual Alliance. Britain was frightened about the rising threat of German imperialism. Kaiser Wilhelm II had announced to the world his intentions to create a global German empire and to develop a strong navy. Britain, traditionally having control of the seas, saw that a serious threat to its own empire and navy. In 1907, the Anglo-Russian Entente was agreed, which attempted to resolve a series of long-running disputes over Persia and Tibet and helped to address British fears about the Baghdad Railway, which would help German expansion in the Near East. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, Prussia defeated the Second French Empire, resulting in the establishment of the Third Republic. In the Treaty of Frankfurt, Prussia forced France to cede Alsace-Lorraine to the new German Empire. Since, relations had been poor. France, worried about the escalating military development of Germany, began building up its own war industries and army to deter to German aggression.
France developed a strong bond with Russia by ratifying the Franco-Russian Alliance, designed to create a strong counter to the Triple Alliance. France's main concerns were to regain Alsace-Lorraine. Russia had b
John Haynes Holmes
John Haynes Holmes was a prominent Unitarian minister, co-founder of the NAACP and the ACLU. He is noted for his anti-war activism, he was born in Philadelphia on November 29, 1879, a descendant of John Holmes of Colchester, Essex, a Messenger of the General Court of Plymouth Colony and the executioner of Thomas Granger. Newland H. Holmes, President of the Massachusetts Senate, was his cousin, he studied at Harvard, graduating in 1902 attended Harvard Divinity School, from which he graduated in 1904 and was called to his first church in Dorchester, Massachusetts. That same year, he married Madeleine Baker, they had two children and Frances. In 1907 he was called to the Church of the Messiah in New York City and served as its Senior Minister until 1918, when he left the American Unitarian Association because of differences over its policy towards World War I, but continued to preach there. Shortly after that, his church became non-denominational and renamed itself the "Community Church of New York".
Members of the church, insisted that the church retain its AUA membership. Despite that, he became the Senior Minister there again and served until his retirement in 1949, when he became Minister Emeritus, he rejoined the AUA in 1960, just before the Unitarian and Universalist churches merged and he was featured in the last AUA yearbook published before the merger. On May 25, 1919, Holmes was one of the speakers at a rally held in Madison Square Gardens, which demanded the end of US government support for the enemies of the Bolshevik regime in Russia, he engaged in interfaith efforts, working with Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise of New York. The book Rabbi and Minister details this friendship and their working relationship on social and political causes. Holmes was among the leading American Christian supporters of Zionism in the 1930s, he was a leading member of the Pro-Palestine Federation, which called on the British government to keep Palestine open to Jewish immigrants fleeing persecution in Europe.
At the same time, Holmes favored cultural forms of Zionism that stopped short of calling for Jewish statehood. He publicized the work of Gandhi, from his pulpit, describes his meetings and interactions with the Mahatma in his book My Gandhi, he was a recipient of the Gandhi Peace Award. Although a minister, he helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People in 1909, the American Civil Liberties Union in 1920, serving as its chairman from 1940 to 1950, after the resignation of Harry F. Ward, he was succeeded as ACLU Chairman by Ernest Angell. His varied pursuits included authoring several books, a play, If This Be Treason, which had a brief run on Broadway, he was a popular lecturer and debater, debating a well known Clarence Darrow concerning Prohibition. He died on April 1964, aged eighty-four. There was an outcry after a cartoon by Theodor Geisel mocking Holmes was published in the New York newspaper PM on January 13, 1942. Geisel responded January 21, 1942: In response to the letters defending John Haynes Holmes... sure, I believe in love, brotherhood and a cooing white pigeon on every man's roof.
I think it's nice to have pacifists and strawberry festivals... in between wars. But right now, when the Japs are planting their hatchets in our skulls, it seem like a hell of a time for us to smile and warble:'Brothers!' It is a rather flabby battlecry. If we want to win, we've got to kill Japs. We can get palsy-walsy afterward with those. Holmes' stand as a pacifist in both world wars was neither easy, he faced expulsion from his denomination during World War I if he did not disavow his pacifist views. Geisel's criticism is an example of the scorn and ridicule Holmes faced as a result of his strong views, which he vigorously defended. Is Death the End? New Wars for Old Palestine To-Day and To-Morrow: A Gentile's Survey of Zionism. A Sensible Man's View of Religion. Is Suicide Justifiable?, John Day The Affirmation of Immortality. My Gandhi. I Speak for Myself. Correspondence and phonograph records of John Haynes Holmes are in the Andover-Harvard Theological Library at Harvard Divinity School in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
John Haynes Holmes at Spartacus Educational John Haynes Holmes materials at the South Asian American Digital Archive Works by John Haynes Holmes at Project Gutenberg Works by John Haynes Holmes at Faded Page Works by or about John Haynes Holmes at Internet Archive
Oswald Garrison Villard
Oswald Garrison Villard was an American journalist and editor of the New York Evening Post. He was a civil rights activist, along with his mother, Fanny Villard, a founding member of the NAACP. In 1913 he wrote to President Woodrow Wilson to protest his administration's racial segregation of federal offices in Washington, DC, a change from previous integrated conditions, he was a leading liberal spokesman in the 1920s and 1930s turned to the right. Villard was a founder of the American Anti-Imperialist League, favoring independence for territories taken in the Spanish–American War, he provided a rare direct link between the anti-imperialism of the late 19th century and the conservative Old Right of the 1930s and 1940s. Villard was born in Germany, on March 13, 1872, while his parents were living there, he was the son of Henry Villard, an American newspaper correspondent, an immigrant from Germany, Fanny Villard, daughter of abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. Fanny Villard was a one of the founders of the Women's Peace Movement.
His father invested in railroads, bought The Nation and the New York Evening Post. The family returned to the United States soon after Villard's birth, settling in New York City in 1876. Villard graduated from Harvard University in 1893 and, after touring Europe with his father for a year, returned to Harvard to earn his graduate degree in American History, he served as a teaching assistant, could have pursued a career in academia, but desired a more active life. In 1896 he joined the staff of The Philadelphia Press, but disliked the paper's pandering to advertisers, he soon joined the staff of his father's Evening Post, serving as the editor of the Saturday features page. He began to write for the New York Evening Post and The Nation, said that he and his fellow staff members were... radical on peace and war and on the Negro question. We were radical in our demand for free trade and our complete opposition to the whole protective system. Villard was a founder of the American Anti-Imperialist League, which favored independence for the territories captured in the Spanish–American War.
To further the cause, he worked to organize "a third ticket" in 1900 to challenge William Jennings Bryan and William McKinley. He was joined in this effort by several key veterans of the 1896 National Democratic Party. Not Villard made a personal appeal to ex-president Grover Cleveland, a hero of the gold Democrats, urging him to be the candidate. Cleveland demurred. Villard consistently used the editorial page of the Evening Post to argue against imperialism and expansionism. Villard was a pioneer, today unsung, civil rights leader. In 1910, he donated space in the New York Evening Post for the "call" to the meeting that formally organized the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Villard became a co-founder of the organization, along with W. E. B. Du Bois and other influential individuals. For many years, Villard served as the NAACP's disbursing treasurer while Moorfield Storey, another Cleveland Democrat, was its president. Villard supported Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 election, during an interview with the president convinced Wilson to work to improve conditions for African Americans.
He protested by writing to Wilson in July 1913 about his administration's segregation of federal offices in the capital, a change from previous practice. Booker T. Washington appealed to Villard to get Wilson to change his policy. Wilson did little to help blacks during his administrations. Although many African Americans had crossed party lines to vote for him, few were appointed to higher level civil service positions. In addition, Wilson did nothing to encourage the end of disenfranchisement of blacks in the South by Democratic-dominated legislatures, which had excluded African Americans there from the political system. Villard turned against the president, endorsing his opponents and editorializing against him in the Evening Post and the Nation. In 1910 Villard published John Brown 1800-1859: A Biography Fifty Years After, which portrayed Brown as an inspiring American hero, it was praised by reviewers for its unbiased use of new information. Villard wrote Germany Embattled, in which he urged readers to acknowledge German contributions to American life and described the political divide in Germany.
He reminded readers that the Germans believed in their cause, advocated for continued neutrality in the European conflict. Villard followed this with two further studies of Germany: The German Phoenix: The Story of the Republic and Inside Germany. Villard used the former to examine postwar German contributions to art, journalism and morality, his third book discussed the plight of German civilians. Villard wrote many books critical of newspapers, his stated goal was to improve journalistic standards, which he believed had succumbed to big business and diminishing integrity. He felt that his contemporaries were sacrificing integrity for monetary contributions from businesses and politicians, he published many of his articles and addresses on a wide range of subjects including militarism, the Garrison family, racial discrimination. Villard published an account of his father's early obstacles and accomplishments, he w
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Roger Nash Baldwin
Roger Nash Baldwin was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. He served as executive director of the ACLU until 1950. Many of the ACLU's original landmark cases took place under his direction, including the Scopes Trial, the Sacco and Vanzetti murder trial, its challenge to the ban on James Joyce's Ulysses. Baldwin was author. Baldwin was born in Wellesley, the son of Lucy Cushing and Frank Fenno Baldwin, he earned master's degrees at Harvard University. There he taught sociology at Washington University, worked as a social worker and became chief probation officer of the St. Louis Juvenile Court, he co-wrote Juvenile Courts and Probation with Bernard Flexner at this time. Baldwin was a member of the American Union Against Militarism, which opposed American involvement in World War I. After the passage of the Selective Service Act of 1917, Baldwin called for the AUAM to create a legal division to protect the rights of conscientious objectors. On July 1, 1917, the AUAM created the Civil Liberties Bureau, headed by Baldwin.
The CLB separated from the AUAM on October 1, 1917, renaming itself the National Civil Liberties Bureau, with Baldwin as director. In 1920, NCLB was renamed the American Civil Liberties Union. With Baldwin continuing as the ACLU's first executive director. In the meantime, on 30 October 1918, as a conscientious objector himself, refusing to register for the draft, undergo medical examination, or accept any alternative service such as farming, was sentenced at the Federal Court in New York City to a year in a penitentiary; as director of ACLU, Baldwin was integral to the shape of the association's early character. Baldwin retired from the ACLU leadership in 1950, he remained active in politics for the rest of his life. In St. Louis, Baldwin had been influenced by the radical social movement of the anarchist Emma Goldman, he joined the Industrial Workers of the World. Roger Baldwin oversaw and supplied funding for a large number of defense cases for I. W. W. members and investigations throughout the United States.
A accessible archive of his correspondence with I. W. W branches and attorneys has been published by Princeton's Mudd Manuscript Library. In 1927, he had visited the Soviet Union and wrote a book, Liberty Under the Soviets. However, as more and more information came out about Joseph Stalin's regime in the Soviet Union, Baldwin became more and more disillusioned with communism and called it "A NEW SLAVERY", he condemned "the inhuman communist police state tyranny, forced labor." In the 1940s, Baldwin led the campaign to purge the ACLU of Communist Party members. In 1947, General Douglas MacArthur invited him to Japan to foster the growth of civil liberties in that country. In Japan, he founded the Japan Civil Liberties Union, the Japanese government awarded him the Order of the Rising Sun. In 1948, Germany and Austria invited him for similar purposes, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1951. President Jimmy Carter awarded Baldwin the Medal of Freedom on 16 January 1981.
A resident of Oakland, New Jersey, Baldwin died of heart failure on August 26, 1981, at The Valley Hospital in Ridgewood, New Jersey. He is the subject of John G. Avildsen's 1982 documentary Traveling Hopefully. International Labor Defense Workers Defense Union Juvenile Courts and Probation. With Bernard Flexner. New York: The Century Company, 1914. Liberty Under the Soviets. New York: Vanguard Press, 1928. Civil Liberties and Industrial Conflict. With Clarence B. Randall. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1938; the Rights of Man are Worth Defending. With Pauli Murray. New York: League For Adult Education, 1942. Democracy in Trade Unions: A Survey, with a Program of Action. New York, American Civil Liberties Union, 1943. Human Rights: World Declaration and American Practice New York, Public Affairs Committee, 1950. A New Slavery: Forced Labor: The Communist Betrayal of Human Rights. New York, Oceana Publications, 1953. "Freedom in the USA and the USSR," New York: Soviet Russia Today, 1934. "Liberalism and the United Front," in Irving Talmadge, Whose revolution?
A Study of the Future Course of Liberalism in the United States, edited by Irving Talmadge New York: Howell, Soskin, 1941. "The Making of a Reformer: The Roger Baldwin Story: A Prejudiced Account by Himself," in Woody Klein, Liberties Lost: The Endangered Legacy of the ACLU. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2006. Peter Kropotkin, Revolutionary Pamphlets: A Collection of Writings. New York: Vanguard Press, 1927. Robert C. Cottrell, Roger Nash Baldwin and the American Civil Liberties Union. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. Peggy Lamson, Roger Baldwin: Founder of the American Civil Liberties Union. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976; the Individual and the State: The Problem as Presented by the Sentencing of Roger N. Baldwin. New York: Graphic Press, 1918. Roger Nash Baldwin Papers: Finding Aid, Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. Robert C. Cottrell, "Roger Nash Baldwin, Unitarian." Harvard Square Library. Communist Dissonance, Matthew Harwood for Reason Magazine Jan 2018