Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed by reactions of horror to World War I. Modernism rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief, the poet Ezra Pounds 1934 injunction to Make it new. Was the touchstone of the approach towards what it saw as the now obsolete culture of the past. In this spirit, its innovations, like the novel and twelve-tone music, divisionist painting and abstract art. Modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism and makes use of the works of the past by the employment of reprise, rewriting, revision, others focus on modernism as an aesthetic introspection. While J. M. W. Art critic Clement Greenberg describes the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood as proto-Modernists, There the proto-Modernists were, of all people, the Pre-Raphaelites actually foreshadowed Manet, with whom Modernist painting most definitely begins. They acted on a dissatisfaction with painting as practiced in their time, rationalism has had opponents in the philosophers Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, both of whom had significant influence on existentialism.
A major 19th-century engineering achievement was The Crystal Palace, the huge cast-iron and iron were used in a similar monumental style in the construction of major railway terminals in London, such as Paddington Station and Kings Cross Station. These technological advances led to the building of structures like the Brooklyn Bridge. The latter broke all previous limitations on how tall man-made objects could be and these engineering marvels radically altered the 19th-century urban environment and the daily lives of people. Arguments arose that the values of the artist and those of society were not merely different, but that Society was antithetical to Progress, the philosopher Schopenhauer called into question the previous optimism, and his ideas had an important influence on thinkers, including Nietzsche. Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection undermined religious certainty and the idea of human uniqueness, in particular, the notion that human beings were driven by the same impulses as lower animals proved to be difficult to reconcile with the idea of an ennobling spirituality.
Karl Marx argued that there were fundamental contradictions within the capitalist system and writers in different disciplines, have suggested various dates as starting points for modernism. Everdell thinks modernism in painting began in 1885–86 with Seurats Divisionism, the poet Baudelaires Les Fleurs du mal, and Flauberts novel Madame Bovary were both published in 1857. In the arts and letters, two important approaches developed separately in France, the first was Impressionism, a school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in studios, but outdoors. Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, the school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners, and became increasingly influential. A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refusés, created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris Salon. While most were in standard styles, but by artists, the work of Manet attracted tremendous attention
Benjamin West PRA was an Anglo-American painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American War of Independence and the Seven Years War. He was the president of the Royal Academy in London. He was offered a knighthood by the British Crown, but declined it and he said that Art is the representation of human beauty, ideally perfect in design and noble in attitude. West was born in Springfield, Pennsylvania, in a house that is now in the borough of Swarthmore on the campus of Swarthmore College, as the child of an innkeeper. The family moved to Newtown Square, where his father was the proprietor of the Square Tavern, Benjamin West was an autodidact, while excelling at the arts, he had little education and, even when president of the Royal Academy, could scarcely spell. From 1746 to 1759, West worked in Pennsylvania, mostly painting portraits, while West was in Lancaster in 1756, his patron, a gunsmith named William Henry, encouraged him to paint a Death of Socrates based on an engraving in Charles Rollins Ancient History.
His resulting composition, which differs from the source, has been called the most ambitious. During this time West met John Wollaston, a painter who had immigrated from London. West was a friend of Benjamin Franklin, whose portrait he painted. Franklin was the godfather of Wests second son, Benjamin, in common with many artists architects and lovers of the fine arts at that time he conducted a Grand Tour. West expanded his repertoire by copying works of Italian painters such as Titian, in Rome he met a number of international neo-classical artists including German-born Anton Rafael Mengs, Scottish Gavin Hamilton, and Austrian Angelica Kauffman. In August 1763, West arrived in England, on what he intended as a visit on his way back to America. In fact, he never returned to America and he stayed for a month at Bath with William Allen, who was in the country, and visited his half-brother Thomas West at Reading at the urging of his father. In London he was introduced to Richard Wilson and his student Joshua Reynolds and he moved into a house in Bedford Street, Covent Garden.
In 1765 he married Elizabeth Shewell, an American to whom he engaged in Philadelphia. All three prelates commissioned work from him, in 1766 West proposed a scheme to decorate St Pauls Cathedral with paintings. It was rejected by the Bishop of London, but his idea of painting an altarpiece for St Stephen Walbrook was accepted, at around this time he received acclaim for his classical subjects, such as Orestes and Pylades and The Continence of Scipio. Benjamin West was known in England as the American Raphael and his Raphaelesque painting of Archangel Michael Binding the Devil is in the collection of Trinity College, Cambridge
Bay Psalm Book
The Bay Psalm Book was the first book printed in British North America. The book is a metrical Psalter, first printed in 1640 in Cambridge, the Psalms in it are metrical translations into English. The translations are not particularly polished, and not one has remained in use, its production, just 20 years after the Pilgrims arrival at Plymouth, represents a considerable achievement. It went through several editions and remained in use for well over a century, one of eleven known surviving copies of the first edition sold at auction in November 2013 for $14.2 million, a record for a printed book. Evidently they were dissatisfied with the translations from Hebrew in these several psalters and they hired thirty pious and learned Ministers, including Richard Mather, Thomas Mayhew, and John Eliot, to undertake a new translation, which they presented here. The tunes to be sung to the new translations were the ones from their existing psalters. As with subsequent editions of the book, Day printed the book for sale by the first bookseller in British America, Hezekiah Usher, an estimated 1,700 copies of the first edition were printed.
The third edition was revised by Henry Dunster and Richard Lyon. The revision was entitled The Psalms and spiritual songs of the Old and New Testament and this revision was the basis for all subsequent editions, and was popularly known as the New England Psalter or New England Version. The ninth edition, the first to contain music, included 13 tunes from John Playfords A Breefe Introduction to the Skill of Musick, the expansion of the neoclassical movement in England led to an evolution in the singing of psalms. These changes found their way to America and subsequently new psalm versions were written, in the early part of the 18th century several updated psalms, notably those written by Tate and Brady and by Isaac Watts, were published. Shortly thereafter several congregations in New England elected to replace the Bay Psalm Book with these new titles, in 1718, Cotton Mather undertook the revision of the original Bay Psalm Book which he had studied since youth. Two subsequent revisions were published in 1752, by John Barnard of Marblehead, Prince was a clergyman at the Old South Church in Boston.
He convinced the members of the congregation of the need to produce a revised, more scholarly, Prince’s version was not accepted outside of his membership and in 1789, the Old South Church reverted to the earlier edition published by Isaac Watts. The title page of the first edition of 1640 reads, The Whole Booke of PsalmesFaithfully TRANSLATED into ENGLISHMetre, whereunto is prefixed a discourse declaring not only the lawfullnes, but the necessity of the heavenly Ordinance of singing Scripture Psalmes in the Churches of God. Imprinted,1640 Eleven copies of the first edition of the Bay Psalm Book are known still to exist, only one of the eleven copies is currently held outside the United States. It was eventually acquired by John Carter Brown in 1881 and this is the only copy outside the United States. Huntington Library Rosenbach Museum & Library, the most recently discovered copy, signatures indicate it had been previously owned by several individuals from Belfast and Glasgow
Oliver Holden was an American composer and compiler of hymns. He was born in Shirley, during the American Revolutionary War, he was a marine for a year on the USS Deane, which returned to Boston with at least one British prize while he was in the crew. For his service, he received an annual pension, a carpenter by trade, in 1786 he moved to Charlestown, Massachusetts, to help rebuild it after the war. A carpenter and real estate dealer in his life, he organized many music schools. In 1791 he joined the First Baptist Church in Boston and became leader of the choir, in 1801, he and some others started the First Baptist Church in Charlestown. He was in a group left that church in 1809, due to what they perceived as lax discipline. He entered King Solomons Lodge as a freemason in 1795, and was a member for ten years. He was in the Massachusetts House of Representatives on behalf of his town in 1818,1825,1826 and his mansion, which he built around 1800, became the Oliver Holden School, a kindergarten of Boston.
He is buried at the Phipps Street Burying Ground in Charlestown, while working as a carpenter, Holden published The American Harmony, a book of sacred music, mostly original, arranged in three and four parts. Soon afterward followed Union Harmony, or a Universal Collection of Sacred Music and he wrote the last-named work with Hans Gram and Samuel Holyoke. When George Washington visited Boston in 1789, Holden wrote the lyrics and score of an ode, and trained the choir which sang the music that greeted Washington at the Old State House. Also of note is his hymn “Confidence. ”Free scores by Oliver Holden at the International Music Score Library Project Free scores by Oliver Holden in the Choral Public Domain Library All Hail the Power of Jesus Name, hymn Oliver Holden at Find a Grave
Howard Harold Hanson was an American composer, educator, music theorist, and champion of American classical music. As director for 40 years of the Eastman School of Music, he built a high-quality school and he won a Pulitzer Prize and received numerous other awards. Hanson was born in Wahoo, Nebraska, to Swedish immigrant parents, Hans, in his youth he studied music with his mother. Afterward he attended Northwestern University, where he studied composition with church music expert Peter Lutkin, throughout his education, Hanson studied piano and trombone. Hanson earned his BA degree in music from Northwestern in 1916, in 1916, Hanson was hired for his first full-time position as a music theory and composition teacher at the College of the Pacific in California. Only three years later, the college appointed him Dean of the Conservatory of Fine Arts in 1919, in 1920, Hanson composed The California Forest Play, his earliest work to receive national attention. In 1921 Hanson was the first winner of the Prix de Rome in Music, thanks to the award, Hanson lived in Italy for three years.
During his time in Italy, Hanson wrote a Quartet in One Movement, Lux Aeterna, The Lament for Beowulf,1, the premiere of which he conducted with the Augusteo Orchestra on May 30,1923. Upon returning from Rome, Hansons conducting career expanded and he made his premiere conducting the New York Symphony Orchestra in his tone poem North and West. In Rochester, New York in 1924, he conducted his Symphony No.1 and this performance brought him to the attention of George Eastman. In 1924, Eastman chose Hanson to be director of the Eastman School of Music. Eastman, inventor of the Kodak camera and roll film, was a major philanthropist, Hanson held the position of director for forty years, during which he created one of the most prestigious music schools in America. He accomplished this by improving the curriculum, bringing in better teachers, also, he balanced the schools faculty between American and European teachers, even when this meant passing up composer Béla Bartók. Hanson offered a position to Bartók teaching composition at Eastman, Bartók wanted to teach piano at the Eastman School, but Hanson already had a full staff of piano instructors.
In 1925, Hanson established the American Composers Orchestral Concerts, later, he founded the Eastman-Rochester Orchestra, which consisted of first chair players from the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra and selected students from the Eastman School. He followed that by establishing the Festivals of American Music, Hanson estimated that more than 2000 works by over 500 American composers were premiered during his tenure at the Eastman School. To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Serge Koussevitzky commissioned Hansons Symphony No,2, the Romantic, and premiered it on November 28,1930. This work was to become Hansons best known, One of its themes is performed at the conclusion of all concerts at the Interlochen Center for the Arts
Blues is a genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century. The genre developed from roots in African musical traditions, African-American work songs, Blues incorporated spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and rhymed simple narrative ballads. Blue notes, usually thirds or fifths flattened in pitch, are a part of the sound. Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove, Blues as a genre is characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, and instrumentation. Early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line repeated four times, Early blues frequently took the form of a loose narrative, often relating the troubles experienced in African-American society. Many elements, such as the format and the use of blue notes. The origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community. The first appearance of the blues is often dated to after the ending of slavery and, and it is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the former slaves.
Chroniclers began to report about blues music at the dawn of the 20th century, the first publication of blues sheet music was in 1908. Blues has since evolved from unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of slaves into a variety of styles and subgenres. Blues subgenres include country blues, such as Delta blues and Piedmont blues, as well as urban blues styles such as Chicago blues, World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience, especially white listeners. In the 1960s and 1970s, a form called blues rock evolved. The term blues may have come from blue devils, meaning melancholy and sadness, the phrase blue devils may have been derived from Britain in the 1600s, when the term referred to the intense visual hallucinations that can accompany severe alcohol withdrawal. As time went on, the phrase lost the reference to devils, by the 1800s in the United States, the term blues was associated with drinking alcohol, a meaning which survives in the phrase blue law, which prohibits the sale of alcohol on Sunday.
Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to in print since 1912, in lyrics the phrase is often used to describe a depressed mood. The lyrics of traditional blues verses probably often consisted of a single line repeated four times. Two of the first published songs, Dallas Blues and Saint Louis Blues, were 12-bar blues with the AAB lyric structure. Handy wrote that he adopted this convention to avoid the monotony of lines repeated three times, the lines are often sung following a pattern closer to rhythmic talk than to a melody
Timothy Swan was a composer and hatmaker born in Worcester, Massachusetts. The son of goldsmith William Swan, Swan lived in towns along the Connecticut River in Connecticut. Swans compositional output consisted mostly of psalm and hymn settings, referred to as psalmody and these tunes and settings were produced for choirs and singing schools located in Congregationalist communities of New England. Swan is unique as an early American composer in that he composed secular vocal duets, the tunebook, New England Harmony is a collection of his sacred music compositions, while The Songsters Assistant is a collection of his secular music. Swan was a poet and teacher of singing, born July 23,1758, Timothy Swan was the eighth child of goldsmith William and Lavinia Swan of Worcester, Massachusetts. Not much is known of Swans early years other than he resided in Worcester until his fathers death in 1774, after the death of his father, Swan was apprenticed to a Mr. Barnes of Marlborough, Massachusetts. Barnes, an importer of goods was a loyalist who eventually left the colonies to return to England as relations between the two became increasingly strained.
This caused an end to Swans brief apprenticeship in Marlborough, after leaving Barnes employ, Swan moved to Groton, Massachusetts to live with his older brother William. Timothys elder brother had an active interest in music and may have influenced his brother, shortly after arriving in Groton, Swan enrolled in a singing school that was taught by a Mr. Gross. This experience is probably the only formal education that Swan ever had. In 1774 Swan left Groton to enlist in the Continental Army located in Cambridge and it was here that he learned to play fife under the tutelage of a British Fifer. In 1775 a little less than a year after enlisting at Cambridge, Swan moved to Northfield and it was here that Swan became apprenticed as a hatter with his brother-in-law Caleb Lyman. It is here in Northfield that Swans attention focused on musical composition and his first composition Montague can be placed around 1774 when Swan was sixteen years old. After completing his apprenticeship in 1780, Swan moved to Enfield, Connecticut and to Suffield, Connecticut and it was in Suffield that Swan composed most of his music.
In Suffield, Swan was introduced to Mary Gay, the daughter Ebenezer Gay, Swan may have been introduced to Miss Gay by his brother Benjamin Swan who was married to Lucy Gay, Marys sister. His marriage to Mary on May 5,1784, produced a family similar to his own. Supplementing his work as a hatter, Swan began teaching singing-schools in the area and it was during this time that his music was first printed. In 1783, composer-compiler Oliver Brownson included six of Swans tunes in the issue of Select Harmony
Benjamin Carr was an American composer, singer and music publisher. Born in London, he was the son of Joseph Carr and he was the nephew of his namesake Benjamin Carr, who ran an instrument-making and repair shop in London for over 20 years. He studied organ with Charles Wesley and composition with Samuel Arnold, in 1793 he traveled to Philadelphia with a stage company, and a year went with the same company to New York, where he stayed until 1797. Later that year he moved to Philadelphia, where he became a prominent member of the musical life. He was well known as a teacher of keyboard and singing, in 1820 he was one of the principal founders of the Musical Fund Society of Philadelphia, and he is known as the Father of Philadelphia Music. Mrs. French, who had achieved a degree of fame as a singer, was one of his students, carrs best known orchestral work was the Federal Overture, composed for theatrical audiences. He published many of own 61 art songs in two anthologies, the Musical Journal for the Piano Forte and Carr’s Musical Miscellany in Occasional Numbers.
Carr’s most popular song was “The Little Sailor Boy” and he was perhaps the first American composer to set a Shakespeare text to music, and his Hymn to the Virgin is generally considered one of the finest early American songs. His piano music includes shorter sonatas and variation forms, much of it was written for pedagogical purposes and he wrote several important pedagogical works, including the Lessons and Exercises in Vocal Music and The Analytical Instructor for the Piano Forte. Arnold, The Children in the Wood, Philadelphia,24 Nov 1794 C, The Deserter, New York,19 May 1795 Linn, Bourneville Castle, New York,16 Jan 1797 Holcroft, The Spanish Barber,1800 Misc. Opera arias and incidental music Songs and misc, the Library of Congress Music Division Wolfe, Richard J
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical and secular music. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period, Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music. This can leave less room for such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation. The term classical music did not appear until the early 19th century, the earliest reference to classical music recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836. This score typically determines details of rhythm, and, the written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them, J. S. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works, Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced.
That said, the score does not provide complete and exact instructions on how to perform a historical work, even if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, we do not know exactly how fast the piece should be played. Bach was particularly noted for his complex improvisations, during the Classical era, the composer-performer Mozart was noted for his ability to improvise melodies in different styles. During the Classical era, some virtuoso soloists would improvise the cadenza sections of a concerto, during the Romantic era, Beethoven would improvise at the piano. The instruments currently used in most classical music were largely invented before the mid-19th century and they consist of the instruments found in an orchestra or in a concert band, together with several other solo instruments. The symphony orchestra is the most widely known medium for music and includes members of the string, brass. The concert band consists of members of the woodwind, brass and it generally has a larger variety and number of woodwind and brass instruments than the orchestra but does not have a string section.
However, many bands use a double bass. Many of the used to perform medieval music still exist. Medieval instruments included the flute, the recorder and plucked string instruments like the lute. As well, early versions of the organ, Medieval instruments in Europe had most commonly been used singly, often self accompanied with a drone note, or occasionally in parts. From at least as early as the 13th century through the 15th century there was a division of instruments into haut, during the earlier medieval period, the vocal music from the liturgical genre, predominantly Gregorian chant, was monophonic, using a single, unaccompanied vocal melody line. Polyphonic vocal genres, which used multiple independent vocal melodies, began to develop during the medieval era, becoming prevalent by the 13th
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 61st largest in the United States. Known as the Horse Capital of the World, it is the heart of the states Bluegrass region, with a mayor-alderman form of government, it is one of two cities in Kentucky designated by the state as first-class, the other is the states largest city of Louisville. In the 2016 U. S. Census Estimate, the population was 318,449, anchoring a metropolitan area of 506,751 people. Lexington ranks tenth among US cities in college education rate, with 39. 5% of residents having at least a bachelors degree and this area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans. European explorers began to trade with them but settlers did not come in force until the late 18th century, Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was considered Fincastle County, Virginia,17 years before Kentucky became a state. A party of frontiersmen, led by William McConnell, camped on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn Creek at the site of the present-day McConnell Springs, upon hearing of the colonists victory in the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19,1775, they named their campsite Lexington.
It was the first of what would be many American places to be named after the Massachusetts town, the risk of Indian attacks delayed permanent settlement for four years. In 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, Col. Robert Patterson and 25 companions came from Fort Harrod and they built cabins and a stockade, establishing a settlement known as Bryan Station. In 1780, Lexington was made the seat of Virginias newly organized Fayette County, colonists defended it against a British and allied Shawnee attack in 1782, during the last part of the American Revolutionary War. The town was chartered on May 6,1782, by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, the First African Baptist Church was founded c. 1790 by Peter Durrett, a Baptist preacher and slave held by Joseph Craig. Durrett helped guide The Travelling Church, a migration of several hundred pioneers led by the preacher Lewis Craig and Captain William Ellis from Orange County. It is the oldest black Baptist congregation in Kentucky and the third oldest in the United States, I would suppose it contains about five hundred dwelling houses, many of them elegant and three stories high.
The country around Lexington for many miles in every direction, is equal in beauty and fertility to anything the imagination can paint and is already in a state of cultivation. Residents have fondly continued to refer to Lexington as The Athens of the West since Espys poem dedicated to the city, in the early 19th century, planter John Wesley Hunt became the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies. London Ferrill, second preacher of First African Baptist, was one of three clergy who stayed in the city to serve the suffering victims, additional cholera outbreaks occurred in 1848–49 and the early 1850s. Cholera was spread by using contaminated water supplies, but its transmission was not understood in those years. Often the wealthier people would flee town for outlying areas to try to avoid the spread of disease, planters held slaves for use as field hands, laborers and domestic servants. In the city, slaves worked primarily as servants and artisans, although they worked with merchants, shippers
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid 1950s. The terms popular music and pop music are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular. Pop and rock were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they were used in opposition from each other. Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music. Pop music is eclectic, and often borrows elements from other such as urban, rock, Latin. Identifying factors include generally short to medium-length songs written in a format, as well as the common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as a body of music which is distinguishable from popular, according to Pete Seeger, pop music is professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music. Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music, the music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs.
Pop music, as a genre, is seen as existing and developing separately, pop music continuously evolves along with the terms definition. The term pop song was first recorded as being used in 1926, Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pops earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience. Since the late 1950s, pop has had the meaning of non-classical mus, usually in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles. Grove Music Online states that, in the early 1960s pop music competed terminologically with beat music, while in the USA its coverage overlapped with that of rock and roll. From about 1967, the term was used in opposition to the term rock music. Whereas rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of music, pop was more commercial, ephemeral. It is not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward, and, in musical terms, it is essentially conservative.
It is, provided from on high rather than being made from below, pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged. The beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment, the lyrics of modern pop songs typically focus on simple themes – often love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed