An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition are made and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination, whether privately or publicly owned. Arsenal and armoury or armory are mostly regarded as synonyms, although differences in usage exist. A sub-armory is a place of storage or carrying of weapons and ammunition. From Italian and French, from Arabic, دار تعبئة, dār a-tabiya, in a second-class arsenal, the factories would be replaced by workshops. The situation of an arsenal should be governed by strategic considerations. If of the first class, it should be situated at the base of operations and supply, secure from attack, not too near a frontier, the importance of a large arsenal is such that its defences would be on the scale of those of a large fortress. The usual subdivision of branches in a great arsenal is into storekeeping, under construction, Gun factory, carriage factory, small-arms factory and tent factory, powder factory, etc. In a second-class arsenal there would be instead of these factories.
Frederick Taylor introduced command and control techniques to arsenals, including the U. S. s Watertown Arsenal, armorer Dresden Armory Halifax Armoury Harpers Ferry Armory Kremlin Armoury Royal Arsenal Royal Armouries Springfield Armory Zeughaus Magazine
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
The Iron Age is an archaeological era, referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World when the dominant toolmaking material was iron. It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia with exceptions, meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt ore, remove impurities. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region, the earliest known iron artifacts are nine small beads dated to 3200 BC, which were found in burials at Gerzeh, Lower Egypt. They have been identified as meteoric iron shaped by careful hammering, meteoric iron, a characteristic iron–nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Iron Age. Such iron, being in its metallic state, required no smelting of ores. Smelted iron appears sporadically in the record from the middle Bronze Age. While terrestrial iron is abundant, its high melting point of 1,538 °C placed it out of reach of common use until the end of the second millennium BC.
Tins low melting point of 231, recent archaeological remains of iron working in the Ganges Valley in India have been tentatively dated to 1800 BC. By the Middle Bronze Age, increasing numbers of smelted iron objects appeared in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, African sites are turning up dates as early as 1200 BC. Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of iron production in around 1200 BC. Between 1200 BC and 1000 BC, diffusion in the understanding of iron metallurgy and use of objects was fast. As evidence, many bronze implements were recycled into weapons during this time, more widespread use of iron led to improved steel-making technology at lower cost. Thus, even when tin became available again, iron was cheaper and lighter, and forged iron implements superseded cast bronze tools permanently. Increasingly, the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, and ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe, the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe, the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II.
Iron I illustrates both continuity and discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age, during the Iron Age, the best tools and weapons were made from steel, particularly alloys which were produced with a carbon content between approximately 0. 30% and 1. 2% by weight. Steel weapons and tools were nearly the same weight as those of bronze, steel was difficult to produce with the methods available, and alloys that were easier to make, such as wrought iron, were more common in lower-priced goods
The Space Age is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, and the cultural developments influenced by these events. The Space Age is generally considered to have begun with Sputnik, the Space Age began with the development of several technologies that culminated on October 4,1957, with the launch of Sputnik 1 by the Soviet Union. This was the worlds first artificial satellite, orbiting the Earth in 98.1 minutes, the launch of Sputnik 1 ushered a new era of political and technological achievements that became known as the Space Age. The Space Age was characterized by development of new technology in a close race mostly between the US and the Soviet Union. Rapid advances were made in rocketry, materials science, much of the technology originally developed for space applications has been spun off and found additional uses. The Space Age reached its peak with the Apollo program, that captured the imagination of much of the worlds population, the landing of Apollo 11 was watched by over 500 million people around the world and is widely recognized as one of the defining moments of the 20th century.
Since then, public attention has moved to other areas. During the 1990s funding for space related programs fell sharply as the structures of the Soviet Union disintegrated. Since participation in space launches has increasingly widened to more governments, since the 1990s, space exploration and space-related technologies gained a perception by many people of being commonplace. Several countries now have space programs, from related technology ventures to full-fledged space programs with launch facilities, there are many scientific and commercial satellites in use today, with thousands of satellites in orbit, and several countries have plans to send humans into space. The Space Age might be considered to have much earlier than October 4,1957, because in June 1944. Since the aforementioned V-2 rocket flight was undertaken in secrecy, it was not public knowledge for years afterward. Having a rocket powerful enough to reach orbit meant that a nation had the ability to place a payload anywhere on the planet, or to use another term, possessed an inter-continental ballistic missile.
The fact that such a development nowhere on the planet was safe from a nuclear warhead is why the orbit standard is used to define when the space age started. The Space Age is considered to have influenced, Automotive design Amusement park attraction including TWA Moonliner, cold War playground equipment Space Chronology 50th Anniversary of the Space Age & Sputnik, NASA
History of science and technology in Africa
The Great Rift Valley of Africa provides critical evidence for the evolution of early hominins. Homo habilis, residing in eastern Africa, developed another early toolmaking industry, homo erectus developed the Acheulean stone tool industry, specifically hand-axes, at 1.5 million years ago. This tool industry spread to the Middle East and Europe around 800,000 to 600,000 years ago, homo erectus begins using fire. Homo sapiens, or modern humans, created bone tools and backed blades around 90,000 to 60,000 years ago, the use of bone tools and backed blades eventually became characteristic of Later Stone Age tool industries. The first appearance of art is during the Middle Stone Age. The oldest abstract art in the world is a shell necklace dated to 82,000 years ago from the Cave of Pigeons in Taforalt, eastern Morocco. The second oldest abstract art and the oldest rock art is found at Blombos Cave in South Africa, social sciences in Africa, including education, have a long history. In 295 BC, the Library of Alexandria was founded in Egypt and it was considered the largest library in the classical world.
Al-Azhar University, founded in 970~972 as a madrasa, is the centre of Arabic literature. The oldest degree-granting university in Egypt after the Cairo University, its establishment date may be considered 1961 when non-religious subjects were added to its curriculum. Three philosophical schools in Mali existed during the golden age from the 12th to the 16th centuries, University of Sankore, Sidi Yahya University. By the end of Mansa Musas reign in Mali, the Sankoré University had been converted into a fully staffed University with the largest collections of books in Africa since the Library of Alexandria. The Sankoré University was capable of housing 25,000 students and had one of the largest libraries in the world with roughly 1000,000 manuscripts, Timbuktu was a major center of book copying, religious groups, the sciences, and arts. Scholars and students came throughout world to study in its university and it attracted more foreign students than New York University. Three types of calendars can be found in Africa, solar, most African calendars are a combination of the three.
A stone circle located in the Nabta Playa basin may be one of the worlds oldest known archeoastronomical devices, built by the ancient Nubians about 4800 BCE, the device may have approximately marked the summer solstice. Ancient Egyptians may have observed, for example, the positions of two stars in the Plough / Big Dipper which was known to Egyptians as the thigh. It is thought that an alignment between these two stars checked with a plumb bob was used to ascertain where North lay
Medieval technology refers to the technology used in medieval Europe under Christian rule. The development of water mills from their ancient origins was impressive, by the time of the Domesday Book, most large villages had turnable mills, around 6,500 in England alone. Water-power was used in mining for raising ore from shafts, crushing ore. Often, the revolutionary aspect lay not in the act of invention itself, significant in this respect were advances in maritime technology. Advances in shipbuilding included the ships with lateen sails, the sternpost-mounted rudder. The technical drawings of late-medieval artist-engineers Guido da Vigevano and Villard de Honnecourt can be viewed as forerunners of Renaissance works such as Taccola or da Vinci, the following is a list of some important medieval technologies. The approximate date or first mention of a technology in medieval Europe is given, technologies were often a matter of cultural exchange and date and place of first inventions are not listed here.
Heavy plough The heavy plough with a mouldboard appears in the 5th century in Slavic lands, it was introduced into Northern Italy. Essential in the efficient use of the rich, often wet soils of Northern Europe, its use allowed the areas forests, hops Added to beer, its importance lay primarily in its ability to preserve beer and improve transportability for trade. Horse collar Multiple evolutions from classical harness, to breast strap harness to horse collar, allowed more horse pulling power, horseshoes Allowed horses to adapt to non-grassland terrains in Europe and carry heavier loads. Possibly known to the Romans and Celts as early as 50 BC, wine press The first practical means of applying pressure on a plane surface. The principle used for the printing press, artesian well A thin rod with a hard iron cutting edge is placed in the bore hole and repeatedly struck with a hammer, underground water pressure forces the water up the hole without pumping. Artesian wells are named after the town of Artois in France, in Reichenau Abbey a network of interconnected underfloor channels heated the 300 m2 large assembly room of the monks during the winter months.
The degree of efficiency of the system has been calculated at 90%, rib vault An essential element for the rise of Gothic architecture, rib vaults allowed vaults to be built for the first time over rectangles of unequal lengths. It greatly facilitated scaffolding and largely replaced the older groin vault, chimney The earliest true chimneys appeared in Northern Europe during the 12th century, and with them came the first true fireplaces. Segmental arch bridge The Ponte Vecchio in Florence is considered medieval Europes first stone arch bridge. Apart from tread-drums and occasionally cranks were employed for powering cranes, Stationary harbour crane Stationary harbour cranes are considered a new development of the Middle Ages, its earliest use being documented for Utrecht in 1244. The typical harbour crane was a pivoting structure equipped with double treadwheels, there were two types, wooden gantry cranes pivoting on a central vertical axle and stone tower cranes which housed the windlass and treadwheels with only the jib arm and roof rotating
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC. Worldwide, the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition, although the Iron Age generally followed the Bronze Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic. Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing, according to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems.
The overall period is characterized by use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques, tin must be mined and smelted separately, added to molten copper to make bronze alloy. The Bronze Age was a time of use of metals. The dating of the foil has been disputed, the Bronze Age in the ancient Near East began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and mathematics, the usual tripartite division into an Early and Late Bronze Age is not used. Instead, a division based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common. The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people, ur in the Middle Bronze Age and Babylon in the Late Bronze Age similarly had large populations. The earliest mention of Babylonia appears on a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 23rd century BC, the Amorite dynasty established the city-state of Babylon in the 19th century BC.
Over 100 years later, it took over the other city-states. Babylonia adopted the written Semitic Akkadian language for official use, by that time, the Sumerian language was no longer spoken, but was still in religious use. Elam was an ancient civilization located to the east of Mesopotamia, in the Old Elamite period, Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a role in the Gutian Empire and especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it
The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador. The Archaic period, prior to 2000 BC, saw the first developments in agriculture, the first Maya cities developed around 750 BC, and by 500 BC these cities possessed monumental architecture, including large temples with elaborate stucco façades. Hieroglyphic writing was being used in the Maya region by the 3rd century BC, in the Late Preclassic a number of large cities developed in the Petén Basin, and Kaminaljuyu rose to prominence in the Guatemalan Highlands. Beginning around 250 AD, the Classic period is defined as when the Maya were raising sculpted monuments with Long Count dates. This period saw the Maya civilization develop a number of city-states linked by a complex trade network. In the Maya Lowlands two great rivals and Calakmul, became powerful, the Classic period saw the intrusive intervention of the central Mexican city of Teotihuacan in Maya dynastic politics.
In the 9th century, there was a political collapse in the central Maya region, resulting in internecine warfare, the abandonment of cities. The Postclassic period saw the rise of Chichen Itza in the north, in the 16th century, the Spanish Empire colonized the Mesoamerican region, and a lengthy series of campaigns saw the fall of Nojpetén, the last Maya city in 1697. Classic period rule was centred on the concept of the divine king, kingship was patrilineal, and power would normally pass to the eldest son. A prospective king was expected to be a successful war leader. Maya politics was dominated by a system of patronage, although the exact political make-up of a kingdom varied from city-state to city-state. By the Late Classic, the aristocracy had greatly increased, resulting in the reduction in the exclusive power of the divine king. Maya cities tended to expand haphazardly, and the city centre would be occupied by ceremonial and administrative complexes, different parts of a city would often be linked by causeways.
The principal architecture of the city consisted of palaces, pyramid-temples, ceremonial ballcourts, the Maya elite were literate, and developed a complex system of hieroglyphic writing that was the most advanced in the pre-Columbian Americas. The Maya recorded their history and ritual knowledge in screenfold books, there are a great many examples of Maya text found on stelae and ceramics. The Maya developed a complex series of interlocking ritual calendars. As a part of their religion, the Maya practised human sacrifice, the Maya civilization developed within the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers a region that spreads from northern Mexico southwards into Central America. Mesoamerica was one of six cradles of civilization worldwide, the Mesoamerican area gave rise to a series of cultural developments that included complex societies, cities, monumental architecture and calendrical systems
The factory system is a method of manufacturing using machinery and division of labour. Because of the capital cost of machinery and factory buildings. Use of machinery with the division of labor reduced the skill level of workers. The factory system was first adopted in Britain at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century, the main characteristic of the factory system is the use of machinery, originally powered by water or steam and by electricity. Other characteristics of the system mostly derive from the use of machinery or economies of scale, the centralization of factories, the defining characteristics of the factory system are, The factory system is considered a capitalist form of production. The operative labor generally does not own a significant share of the enterprise, use of Unskilled labor – Before the factory some systems had many products such as shoes and muskets were made by skilled craftsmen who usually custom-made an entire article. There were a few skilled mechanics, division of labor was practiced by the putting out system in which, for example, pieces of leather were cut off-site and brought to a central shop to be made into shoes or other articles.
Economies of scale – Factories produced products on a larger scale than the putting out or crafts systems. Because factories could oversupply local markets, access to transportation was important so that goods could be widely distributed, Factories used far less manpower per unit of production and therefore lowered product cost. Location – Before the widespread use of engines and railroads, most factories were located at water power sites. Railroads became widespread, so factories could be located away from water power sites, centralization – The cost and complexity of machinery, especially that powered by water or steam, was more than cottage industry workers could afford or had the skills to maintain. The exception was the machine, which allowed putting out of sewing to continue for decades after the rise of factories. Home spinning and weaving were displaced in the following the introduction of factory production. Workers and machines were brought together in a factory complex specially designed to handle the machinery.
Although the earliest factories were all under one roof, different operations might be done on different floors. In large factories, such as Baldwin locomotive works, different processes were performed in different buildings and blacksmith operations were normally kept in a separate building for reasons of safety and health. The efficiency of steam engines increases with size, because of this, the smallest steam engines were about 2 horsepower, which was larger than needed by most workshops. Consequently until electrification in the 1910s and 1920s most workshops relied on power or rented space in power buildings which provided a centrally powered line shaft
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity and electromagnetism. This field first became an occupation in the half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone. Subsequently and recording media made electronics part of daily life, the invention of the transistor, and the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object. Electrical engineers typically hold a degree in engineering or electronic engineering. Practicing engineers may have professional certification and be members of a professional body, such bodies include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Electrical engineers work in a wide range of industries and the skills required are likewise variable. These range from basic circuit theory to the management skills required of a project manager, the tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are similarly variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to a top end analyzer to sophisticated design and manufacturing software.
Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th century and he designed the versorium, a device that detected the presence of statically charged objects. In the 19th century, research into the subject started to intensify, Electrical engineering became a profession in the 19th century. Practitioners had created an electric telegraph network and the first professional electrical engineering institutions were founded in the UK. Over 50 years later, he joined the new Society of Telegraph Engineers where he was regarded by other members as the first of their cohort, Practical applications and advances in such fields created an increasing need for standardised units of measure. They led to the standardization of the units volt, coulomb, farad. This was achieved at a conference in Chicago in 1893. During these years, the study of electricity was considered to be a subfield of physics. Thats because early electrical technology was electromechanical in nature, the Technische Universität Darmstadt founded the worlds first department of electrical engineering in 1882.
The first course in engineering was taught in 1883 in Cornell’s Sibley College of Mechanical Engineering. It was not until about 1885 that Cornell President Andrew Dickson White established the first Department of Electrical Engineering in the United States, in the same year, University College London founded the first chair of electrical engineering in Great Britain. Professor Mendell P. Weinbach at University of Missouri soon followed suit by establishing the engineering department in 1886
Second Industrial Revolution
The Second Industrial Revolution, known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. The First Industrial Revolution, which ended in the early to mid 1800s, was punctuated by a slowdown in macroinventions before the Second Industrial Revolution in 1870. The enormous expansion of rail and telegraph lines after 1870 allowed unprecedented movement of people and ideas, in the same period new systems were introduced, most significantly electrical power and telephones. The Second Industrial Revolution continued into the 20th century with early factory electrification and the production line, and ended at the start of the First World War. The Second Industrial Revolution was a period of industrial development, primarily in Britain and the United States, but in France. It followed on from the First Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the late 18th century that spread throughout Western Europe and it was the period during which modern organizational methods for operating large scale businesses over vast areas came into use.
However, some continue to express reservations about its use, Vaclav Smil called the period 1867–1914 The Age of Synergy during which most of the great innovations were developed. Unlike the First Industrial Revolution, the inventions and innovations were engineering, a synergy between iron and steel and coal developed at the beginning of the Second Industrial Revolution. Railroads allowed cheap transportation of materials and products, which in turn led to cheap rails to build more roads, railroads benefited from cheap coal for their steam locomotives. This synergy led to the laying of 75,000 miles of track in the U. S. in the 1880s, falling costs for producing wrought iron coincided with the emergence of the railway in the 1830s. The early technique of hot blast used iron for the heating medium. Iron caused problems with expansion and contraction, which stressed the iron, Edward Alfred Cowper developed the Cowper stove in 1857. This stove used firebrick as a medium, solving the expansion. The Cowper stove was capable of producing heat, which resulted in very high throughput of blast furnaces.
The Cowper stove is used in todays blast furnaces. With the greatly reduced cost of producing pig iron with coke using hot blast, demand grew dramatically, the Bessemer process greatly reduced the cost, allowing the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron. The key principle was the removal of carbon and other impurities from the iron by oxidation with air blown through the molten iron. The oxidation raises the temperature of the mass and keeps it molten