Niagara Falls (Phish album)
Niagara Falls is a three-CD live album by the rock band Phish. It contains the complete concert recorded on December 7, 1995, at the Niagara Falls Convention Center in Niagara Falls, New York, it was released by JEMP Records on November 12, 2013. On AllMusic, Thom Jurek said, "Given Phish's musical renaissance after their reunion in 2008, revisiting the band's past is useful for the purpose of hearing just what made them such a dominant force on the early jam band scene in the first place; this date, recorded at the Niagara Falls Convention Center in December of 1995, is a prime example.... The sound captured is pristine. It's not just Phish's tight command of the material that's so remarkable, but the improvisational interplay that takes place inside an intricate knotty set of musical parameters; as evidenced by Niagara Falls and performing like this set the band apart in the early years — before they were given to excess bullshitting at the turn of the century. There isn't any of that here. Having played together for a dozen years at this point and cultivated a loyal and large coterie of followers, arguably as idiosyncratic as the Vermont-based group itself, the quirks that endeared Phish to their original followers — like the barbershop a capella chestnut "Hello My Baby" — were morphing into more broad eccentricities that were proving accessible to a larger fan base."On Live For Live Music, David Melamed said, "From a band whose storied career spans three full decades, Niagara Falls captures Phish in their prime, at a point where the band was gaining traction… selling out large arenas and refining a diverse repertoire, building a strong relationship with their consistently-growing fan base....
Niagara Falls captures the musical essence of 1.0-era Phish. From the experimental space jams, the double a cappella set closers, the pure bliss of the band's original music, this is one joyous slice of fabled Phish-tory."On AltDaily, David Paul Kleinman wrote, "Phish has always been an act extempore, something that separates them out from every other act hitting the large venues they do. It's difficult to find an arena act that has one second that isn't prescripted. It's difficult to find an arena band that isn't playing the exact same songs in the exact same order every night: "Thank you, Cleveland... uh, I mean, Baltimore!" Phish is the rare sort of act that performs without a net, these two sets from a chilly night in upstate New York illustrate the band's widening range of risky moves. It's one thing to experiment with one kind of music per night, it is quite another thing to experiment with several kinds per night." Disc oneFirst set: "The Old Home Place" – 3:52 "The Curtain" – 6:07 "AC/DC Bag" – 9:17 "Demand" – 1:55 "Rift" – 5:42 "Slave to the Traffic Light" – 12:50 "Guyute" – 10:33 "Bouncing Around the Room" – 3:37 "Possum" – 14:20 "Hello My Baby" – 1:52Disc twoSecond set: Audience chess move – 1:10 "Split Open and Melt" – 17:15 "Strange Design" – 3:00 "Taste" – 7:37 "Reba" – 14:40 "Julius" – 6:54Disc threeSecond set: "Sleeping Monkey" – 5:14 "Sparkle" – 3:29 "Mike's Song" – 17:24 "Weekapaug Groove" – 13:57 "Amazing Grace" – 2:56Encore: "Uncle Pen" – 4:52Soundcheck: "Poor Heart" – 4:19 PhishTrey Anastasio – guitar, vocals Jon Fishman – drums, vocals Mike Gordon – bass, vocals Page McConnell – keyboards, vocalsProductionProduced by Phish Recording: Paul Languedoc Post-production: Kevin Shapiro Technical assistance: Ben Collette Illustration: Dan Black Art direction: Julia Mordaunt
The Story of the Ghost
The Story of the Ghost is the seventh studio album by American rock band Phish, released by Elektra Records on October 27, 1998. The album features an emphasis on the jazz-funk influenced "cow-funk" style, which the group had been experimenting with in concert throughout 1997 and 1998; the album's first single was "Birds of a Feather", a Top 20 hit on Billboard magazine's Adult Alternative Songs chart. Much of the album originated during large-scale improvisation sessions; the band took favorite moments from those in-studio jams and wrote songs around them, adding lyrics from a book of writings by long-time Phish lyricist Tom Marshall. Additional excerpts from the improvisational "Ghost Sessions" were later released as The Siket Disc. A few of the album's songs reflect the band's 1997 "cow-funk" sound, with bass guitarist Mike Gordon taking a more prominent role. Anastasio had coined the "cow-funk" term in the band's 1997 official biography The Phish Book, observing that "What we’re doing now is more about groove than funk.
Good funk, real funk, is not played by four white guys from Vermont." Much of the album, however, is defined by what Rolling Stone called an "unhurried vibe... with airy, uncluttered grooves and relaxed vocals." Unlike Phish's previous albums, The Story of the Ghost does not include any instrumentals. "End of Session" was performed live for the first time on July 25, 2017. Early incarnations of several tracks from the album can be heard on the 2000 release Trampled by Lambs and Pecked by the Dove, a collection of song sketches recorded by frontman Trey Anastasio and lyricist Tom Marshall; the album was recorded of the course of several sessions at Bearsville Studios in the village of Bearsville, New York, where the band had recorded Billy Breathes. The band chose Andy Wallace to produce the album because of his work on Reign in Blood by Slayer, Nevermind by Nirvana and Grace by Jeff Buckley."Birds of a Feather", "Frankie Says", "Shafty" were all debuted live during the "Island Tour", a brief run of shows the band played while taking a break from recording the album in April 1998.
All four nights of the "Island Tour" were released as part of the LivePhish Series. In 2000, during the promotion for Farmhouse, many interviews saw Anastasio citing a certain disdain for the process of creating The Story of the Ghost, he was critical of the band's "socialistic" approach to the song selection for the album. "There were songs I thought should have gone on The Story of the Ghost album, that were better than the songs that got on there" Anastasio said in a 2000 interview. "if anyone didn't like a song it was out. But what happens with that approach is the material gets watered down. You end up with songs that everyone is fine with, but the best songs are those where one person is passionately for and one person hates, because the best songs are those that arouse strong reactions". Tom Marshall recalls that one of these stronger songs was omitted in favor of what he felt was a weaker track in "Fikus". Anastasio named "Bug" and "Twist" as two songs he was disappointed were cut from the album, both appeared on Farmhouse.
In 2018, Marshall had Anastasio as a guest on his Under the Scales podcast to discuss the 20th anniversary of The Story of the Ghost, both conceded they were now happy with the album as it was released, with Marshall revising his opinion of "Fikus" to a more positive one. In February 2009, The Story of the Ghost was made available as a download in FLAC and MP3 formats at LivePhish.com. From the band's website:Phish Trey Anastasio - guitars, horn arrangement for "Birds of a Feather" Page McConnell - keyboards, vocals Mike Gordon - bass guitar, pedal steel, vocals Jon Fishman - drums, vocalsAdditional musicians and production staff Andy Wallace - producer, mixerRecorded at Bearsville Studios, Bearsville, NY April - June 1998 Chris Shaw - engineer Chris Laidlaw - assistant recording engineerDave Grippo - saxophone on "Birds of a Feather" James Harvey - trombone on "Birds of a Feather" Jennifer Hartswick - trumpet on "Birds of a Feather" Heloise Williams - background vocals on "Birds of a Feather" and "Shafty"Additional Recording Sessions: Bearsville Studios 3/11-15, 9/29-10/2, 1997 John Siket - recording engineer Chris Laidlaw - assistant recording engineerDave O's Farmhouse 3/4-7, 4/7-11, 1998 Recorded by Phish and Andy Wallace Mixed at Soundtracks Studios, NY, NY June/July 1998 Steve Sisco - assistant mix engineerMastered by Howie Weinberg at Masterdisk July 1998 Pre-Production Digital Editing: John Billingsly Management: John Paluska/Dionysian Productions Production Assistance: Beth Montuori, Brad Sands Technical Assistance: Paul Languedoc, Pete Carini, Kevin Brown, Brian Brown Paintings by George Condo Art Direction: Lili Picou Project Management: Cynthia Brown and Jason Colton Phish's official website
Joy (Phish album)
Joy is the twelfth studio album by the American rock band Phish, released on September 8, 2009, on the band's own label, JEMP Records. Joy was Phish's first studio album since Undermind in 2004, their first since they reunited in March 2009; the sessions reunited the band with producer Steve Lillywhite, who last worked with Phish on their 1996 release, Billy Breathes. The album's second single, "Backwards Down the Number Line", was successful on Billboard's Adult Alternative Songs chart, reaching a peak of #9 in October 2009; the first single, "Time Turns Elastic"—originally a multi-movement work for strings and vocals released as an album earlier in the year by Anastasio—was released for iTunes-only download on May 26, 2009. The album's second single, "Backwards Down The Number Line", was released on iTunes and began radio rotation on August 17, 2009. Amazon.com released an exclusive live version of "Backwards Down the Number Line", recorded at Red Rocks during the band's summer tour, as a download-only bonus track.
All ten songs were performed live during the band's 2009 summer tour, have been well received by fans. However, "Time Turns Elastic" has been criticized as being too overly composed for ready translation to the live stage, the album's nostalgic ballads are sometimes thought to dampen the energy of Phish's acclaimed live shows. Joy received favorable reviews upon its release, with a 65/100 critic score on MetaCritic, based on nine reviews; the New York Times commented that "Steve Lillywhite’s clear and ungimmicky production makes Joy sound like the band members onstage responding to one another," while Billboard stated "Joy is a journey not to be missed."Many critics made reference to the band's enthusiasm, with Rolling Stone commenting that "what's most impressive here is how much they seem to be enjoying themselves—truly gratefully." Noting that 2009 marked the band's 25th anniversary together, Rolling Stone described Joy's songs as something akin to "a belated birthday party" characterized by nostalgic, reflective lyrics that appear to be influenced by guitarist Trey Anastasio's struggle with drug abuse during the intervening years.
Rolling Stone praised the album as "genuinely great" and "a deeper trip than most Phish LPs". It was announced on August 10, 2009, that Joy would be made available for pre-order in several different formats, including CD, vinyl and the "Joy Box" which, in addition to the Joy CD, "will include ten individual Limited Edition posters designed for each of the album’s 10 songs, a complete second album titled Party Time, a DVD capturing live performances from the first half of Phish’s summer 2009 tour—including footage from the 2009 Bonnaroo Music & Arts Festival and the tour’s opening date at Fenway Park in Boston." A limited edition vinyl was released at Superball IX, Phish's 2011 summer festival. Party Time is available as a LivePhish download, but has not yet been made available for stand-alone purchase as a physical CD; some of the songs on Party Time have become a part of Phish's live rotation, with Alaska and the title track appearing as well as appearances of Windy City, The Birdwatcher, Let Me Lie.
Liquid Time was soundchecked at Festival 8 in Indio, CA. Mike Gordon has played Only A Dream with his solo band, Trey Anastasio has played Gone and Liquid Time with his solo outfit. "Party Time" - 2:42 "Alaska" - 7:16 "Windy City" - 5:15 "In a Misty Glade" - 2:51 "Gone" - 4:09 "Only a Dream" - 4:10 "The Birdwatcher" - 2:16 "Let Me Lie" - 3:57 "If I Told You" - 3:53 "Splinters of Hail" - 3:33 "Can't Come Back" - 4:38 "Shrine" - 1:54 "Liquid Time" - 3:53 Phish Trey Anastasio - guitars, vocals Page McConnell - keyboards, vocals Mike Gordon - bass guitar, vocals Jon Fishman - drums, vocalsProduction Produced by Steve Lillywhite Engineered by CJ Eiriksson Mixed by Steve Lillywhite & CJ Eiriksson Assisted by Jesse Gladstone Additional engineering on "Ocelot" by Ben Collette Mastered by Gavin Lurssen Phish's official website Washington Post review Vimeo: Phish Official Videos - "Backwards Down the Number Line" recorded June 12, 2010 in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio
Jon Fishman is an American drummer known for his work with the band Phish, which he co-founded in 1983 and was named after him. He is credited with eight with a solo credit; the band Phish was named after him. In addition to drumming, he sings back-up vocals and lead-vocals. Worthy of note are his more serious vocal efforts, including lead vocals on Phish's cover of the Talking Heads song "Crosseyed and Painless," and his vocal duties on the Phish originals, "The Moma Dance," "Taste," and "Ghost." He is well known on tour for his Electrolux vacuum cleaner solos and playing while wearing a muumuu dress. Jon uses a variety of cymbals on his kit, he uses Remo drum heads, Vic Firth drum sticks, LP percussion accessories. His setup consists of: 22x14 Gretsch round badge bass drum re-wrapped by Precision Drum Company. 6x6 Noble & Cooley tom 8x7 Noble & Cooley tom 10x7 Noble & Cooley tom 12x8 Noble & Cooley tom 14x12 Noble & Cooley Floor Tom 16x14 Noble & Cooley Floor Tom 14x6.5 Ayotte 18-Ply Maple Snare.
Cymbals include: 14" hi-hats 13" Paiste Mega Cup Chime 15" Istanbul Agop Medium Thin Crash 18" Sabian HHX Evolution Crash 6" Rancan Ice Bell 8" Zildjian A Custom Splash 16" Sabian HHX Evolution Crash 21" Sabian AA Dry Ride 20" Zildjian A Custom Flat Ride w/ rivets 18" Wuhan China 22" Zildjian PangHe uses an LP Black Beauty cowbell, an LP Rock Ridge Rider cowbell, a set of 4 LP temple blocks. He uses Vic Firth drum sticks, his preferred "perfect pair" is the Peter Erskine Ride Stick and the American Classic 55A. He uses TG12 Sticks for practice, Vic Firth and Regal Tip Brushes, Vic Firth T1 Mallets, he uses Remo drum heads. His preferred setup: Snare: Coated Ambassador. An earlier, 1967 model was donated to the Hard Rock Cafe 1/29/93; the in-use model is from circa 1965. Fishman is a current member and regular touring drummer of the Burlington, VT comedy troupe Touchpants with Colby Dix, Chris Friday and Aram Bedrosian, their foul mouthed comedy shows occur directly after Phish performances and show a amusing side of Fishman's personality.
He plays drums in the rock band Pork Tornado, performed with the Jazz Mandolin Project for several years. He has been a member of The Everyone Orchestra and The Village. In 2007, he emerged from semi-retirement to perform a series of shows with the Yonder Mountain String Band, including a large portion of their set at the Rothbury Music Festival which happened the summer of 2008; the Mimi Fishman Foundation is a nonprofit organization started by Jon to raise money for various charities for charities that benefit the visually impaired. The charity was named for Jon's mother, diagnosed with glaucoma. Fishman was announced as a member of fellow Phish member Trey Anastasio's new side-project Ghost of the Forest. Fishman was born in Philadelphia, he was adopted and grew up in Syracuse, New York with a Jewish family. Fishman had a passion for the drums from an early age and emulated John Bonham, the drummer for Led Zeppelin, Bill Bruford of Yes, Keith Moon of The Who, he went to Jamesville-Dewitt High School in a suburb of Syracuse.
After graduation in 1983, he attended the University of Vermont to study engineering. Shortly after his arrival, he founded the band Phish. Deciding against engineering, he and Anastasio transferred to Goddard College. Fishman, his wife Briar and their five children live in Maine; the family appeared on an episode of the DIY Network home restoration series Maine Cabin Masters in March 2018. He has hosted a radio show on WBFY-LP, a community radio station in Belfast, since 2017; the show was called the Johnny B. Fishman Radio has since changed its name to The Errant Path. Fishman hosts the show weekly on Thursday evenings. Fishman was inspired by presidential candidate Bernie Sanders to take action in his local elections. In 2017, he was voted a selectmen of Lincolnville, Maine
Fuego (Phish album)
Fuego is the thirteenth studio album by the American rock band Phish, released on June 24, 2014 on the band's own JEMP Records label. The album was the band's first in five years, features material that the band had debuted at their Halloween concert on October 31, 2013 in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Fuego was recorded in late 2013 in Nashville, Tennessee after a series of writing sessions at the Barn in Vermont and was produced by Bob Ezrin. While Fuego's ten new tracks include songs that individual members brought to the table in usual Phish fashion, the bulk of the material was written by all four, working together at the Barn writing in a stream-of-consciousness style. In a playful spin on Phish's tradition of musical costumes, the band debuted eight songs from the album on October 31, 2013 as the second set of their Halloween concert at Boardwalk Hall in Atlantic City, New Jersey; the original working title of the album was Wingsuit, but in May 2014 Phish announced that the album would be called Fuego.
Three songs included in the Halloween performance debut didn't make it onto the studio version: "Snow", "Amidst the Peals of Laughter", "You Never Know". "Halfway to the Moon" made its live debut in 2010 and "Winterqueen" was debuted by Trey Anastasio Band in 2011, before Phish performed it for the first time at the 2013 Halloween show. One track, "Waiting All Night", was released on NPR's website on May 14, 2014, along with a complete track listing of the album. A second song, "The Line", was released online for streaming on May 27, 2014, a third, "555", was released on YouTube on June 12, 2014. On June 15, 2014, the entire album was made available to the public to stream online on NPR's website as a part of its "First Listen" series. In Rolling Stone, Will Hermes wrote, "Let's say you wanted to write a Phish album in 2014.... Most important, you'd write optimistic songs that can be jammed all the way up to our depleted ozone in concert. Phish do all this on their 12th studio LP — struggling to transform the onstage magic into bits and bytes, nailing it....
Geek-funk grooves spaz-out merrily, producer Bob Ezrin keeps it feeling live. Lyrics remain an Achilles' heel, but sometimes Phish hit profundity sideways.... "A hero's what I'm not," Anastasio sings ruefully, before spinning out another set of guitar lines that prove him wrong."On AllMusic, Fred Thomas said, "Instead of an overblown studio creation, Fuego instead finds the band sounding relaxed and connected, but distinctly articulate in their complex twists and turns. More than the smart production, Fuego is a standout in Phish's sometimes less-than-impressive studio catalog on the strengths of its ten stellar tracks, inspired tunes that share a loose thread as they bound between virtuosic playing, flirtations with gospel and funk, the kind of eclectic rock jamming Phish have made their name on.... With sharp production and some of the better compositions Phish have managed in ages, Fuego ranks among their best studio albums, capturing strands of the frenetic, darkly cautionary, open-hearted expressions that make their concerts such moving experiences, but which get lost when the tape starts rolling."On Consequence of Sound, Jake Cohen wrote, "... we must judge Fuego on its ability to stand alone as a work of studio art.
On that merit, it has much to applaud. Phish wisely avoided trying to capture the live experience on wax, instead hiring the well-pedigreed classic rock producer Bob Ezrin.... Like the compositions themselves, the brilliance of Ezrin’s work here is in the nuances.... Thankfully, this album's shortcomings are not due to a drying up of creativity or motivation.... Phish wrote most of these songs together, while the basic rhythms and progressions come directly from some of their best recent concert jams, their democratic approach to composition signals a more mature band, while individual contributions from Gordon and McConnell are some of their strongest to date."In Mountain Weekly News, Zach Jones said, "For over 30 years, Phish has risen from a college jam band in Vermont to one of the largest touring bands to date. Long heralded as the band that would replace the Grateful Dead, Phish has evolved as much more than a replacement band, they have dealt with their own ups and downs and lows, came out a much stronger, tighter band, evident on their latest release, Fuego."
The album debuted at number 7 on the Billboard 200 chart, with first-week sales of 32,000 copies in the United States. The album has sold 71,000 copies in the United States as of September 2016. Phish Trey Anastasio – guitar, vocals Page McConnell – keyboards, vocals Mike Gordon – bass, vocals Jon Fishman – drums, vocalsAdditional musicians Horns – Charles Rose, Harvey Thompson, Doug Moffet, Vincent Ciesielski Background vocals – Vicki Hampton, Maureen Murphy, Joshua Guillaume, Bob Ezrin, Marie Lewey, Cindy Walker, Carla RussellProduction Produced and mixed by Bob Ezrin Recording engineers: Justin Cortelyou, John Gifford III Mix engineers: Justin Cortelyou, Jarod Snowden Additional engineers: Joshua Guillaume, Ben Collette, Kam Lutcherhand, Justin Francis, Jared Slomoff, Garry Brown Pre-production engineer: Ben Collette Programmer: Reavis Mitchell Technical assistance: Mike Burns, Brian Brown, Kevin Brown, Lee Scott Production coordinator: Kim Markovchick Paintings: Paco Pomet Design: Jeri Heiden, Julia Mordaunt Phish's official website
At the Roxy
At the Roxy is an 8-disc box set from the rock band Phish recorded live over the course of their three-show run at the Roxy Theatre in Atlanta, from February 19 to February 21, 1993. "Loving Cup" - 6:39 "Rift" - 6:08 "Split Open and Melt" - 8:49 "Fee" - 5:11 "Maze" - 8:53 "Colonel Forbin's Ascent" - 5:35 "Fly Famous Mockingbird" - 13:29 "Sparkle" - 4:08 "My Friend, My Friend" - 6:50 "Poor Heart" - 2:34 "David Bowie/Moby Dick" - 15:49 "Runaway Jim" - 8:12 "It's Ice" - 7:44 "Paul and Silas" - 3:02 "You Enjoy Myself" - 21:17 "Ya Mar" - 6:35 "Big Ball Jam" - 2:55 "Lawn Boy" - 3:26 "Funky Bitch" - 6:36 "My Sweet One" - 3:38 "Hold Your Head Up/Love You/Hold Your Head Up" - 9:46 "Llama" - 6:20 "Amazing Grace" - 3:21 "AC/DC Bag" - 6:50 "Golgi Apparatus" - 5:19 "Foam" - 8:50 "The Sloth" - 3:43 "Possum" - 10:21 "Weigh" - 5:04 "All Things Reconsidered" - 2:48 "Divided Sky" - 13:33 "The Horse" - 1:38 "Silent in the Morning" - 5:09 "Fluffhead" - 14:20 "Cavern" - 4:44 "Wilson" - 7:21 "Reba" - 13:35 "Tweezer" - 5:29 "Walk Away" - 3:41 "Tweezer" - 1:44 "Glide" - 4:43 "Mike's Song" - 7:57 "My Mind's Got a Mind of Its Own" - 1:09 "Mike's Song" -:49 "I Am Hydrogen" -:28 "Vibration of Life" -:59 "Kung" - 1:38 "I Am Hydrogen" - 3:00 "Weekapaug Groove" - 2:58 "Have Mercy" - 1:54 "Weekapaug Groove" - 1:02 "Rock and Roll All Nite" -:53 "Weekapaug Groove" - 1:32 "Fast Enough for You" - 5:09 "Big Ball Jam" - 2:46 "Hold Your Head Up/Terrapin/Hold Your Head Up" - 12:34 "Harry Hood" - 13:14 "Tweezer Reprise" - 3:51 "Sleeping Monkey" - 6:32 "Suzy Greenberg" - 6:10 "Buried Alive" - 2:58 "Punch You in the Eye" - 7:14 "Uncle Pen" - 4:06 "Horn" - 3:36 "Chalk Dust Torture" - 7:23 "Esther" - 10:44 "Dinner and a Movie" - 3:16 "Bouncing Around the Room" - 3:35 "Run Like an Antelope" - 12:41 "Axilla I" - 4:43 "The Curtain" - 6:17 "Stash" - 10:38 "Manteca" -:45 "Stash" -:55 "The Lizards" - 10:58 "Bathtub Gin" - 6:16 "Hold Your Head Up/Cracklin' Rosie/Hold Your Head Up" - 9:34 "The Squirming Coil" - 8:44 "Big Black Furry Creature From Mars" - 5:47 "Sweet Adeline" - 3:17 "Good Times Bad Times" - 3:55 "Paul and Silas" - 2:22 "Pig in a Pen" - 3:21 Phish Trey Anastasio - guitars, vocals Page McConnell - keyboards, vocals Mike Gordon - bass guitar, vocals Jon Fishman - drums, vocalsSpecial guests Jimmy Herring - guitar on disc 3, tracks 3, 4, 5, 6.
Jay Von Lehe - vocals on disc 5, track 17 Jeff Mosier - banjo on disc 8, tracks 12 - 14
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh