An island platform is a station layout arrangement where a single platform is positioned between two tracks within a railway station, tram stop or transitway interchange. Island platforms are popular on twin-track routes due to cost-effective reasons, they are useful within larger stations where local and express services for the same direction of travel can be provided from opposite sides of the same platform thereby simplifying transfers between the two tracks. An alternative arrangement is to position side platforms on either side of the tracks; the historical use of island platforms depends upon the location. In the United Kingdom the use of island platforms is common when the railway line is in a cutting or raised on an embankment, as this makes it easier to provide access to the platform without walking across the tracks. Island platforms are necessary for any station with many through platforms. Building small two-track stations with a single island platform instead of two side platforms does have advantages.
Island platforms allow facilities such as shops and waiting rooms to be shared between both tracks rather than being duplicated or present only on one side. An island platform makes it easier for wheelchair users and other people with physical limitations to change services between tracks or access facilities. If the tracks are above or below the entrance level, an island platform layout requires only one staircase and one elevator be built to access the platforms. Building the tracks and entrance at the same level creates a disadvantage. If an island platform is not wide enough to cope with passenger numbers, overcrowding can be a problem. Examples of stations where a narrow island platform has caused safety issues include Clapham Common and Angel on the London Underground. An island platform requires the tracks to diverge around the center platform, extra width is required along the right-of-way on each approach to the station on high-speed lines. Track centers vary for rail systems throughout the world but are 3 to 5 meters.
If the island platform is 6 meters wide, the tracks must slew out by the same distance. While this requirement is not a problem on a new line under construction, it makes building a new station on an existing line impossible without altering the tracks. A single island platform makes it quite difficult to have through tracks, which are between the local tracks. A common configuration in busy locations on high speed lines is a pair of island platforms, with slower trains diverging from the main line so that the main line tracks remain straight. High-speed trains can therefore pass straight through the station, while slow trains pass around the platforms; this arrangement allows the station to serve as a point where slow trains can be passed by faster trains. A variation at some stations is to have the slow and fast pairs of tracks each served by island platforms A rarer layout, present at Mets-Willets Point on the IRT Flushing Line, 34th Street – Penn Station on the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and 34th Street – Penn Station on the IND Eighth Avenue Line of the New York City Subway, uses two side platforms for local services with an island in between for express services.
The purpose of this atypical design was to reduce unnecessary passenger congestion at a station with a high volume of passengers. Since the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and IND Eighth Avenue Line have adjacent express stations at 42nd Street, passengers can make their transfers from local to express trains there, leaving more space available for passengers utilizing intercity rail at Pennsylvania Station; the Willets Point Boulevard station was renovated to accommodate the high volume of passengers coming to the 1939 World's Fair. Many of the stations on the Great Central Railway were constructed in this form; this was. If this happened, the lines would need to be compatible with continental loading gauge, this would mean it would be easy to change the line to a larger gauge, by moving the track away from the platform to allow the wider bodied continental rolling stock to pass while leaving the platform area untouched. Island platforms are a normal sight on Indian railway stations. All railway stations in India consist of island platforms.
In Toronto, 29 subway stations use island platforms. In Sydney, on the Eastern Suburbs Railway and the Epping Chatswood Railway, the twin tunnels are spaced and the tracks can remain at a constant track centres while still leaving room for the island platforms. A slight disadvantage is. In Edmonton, all 18 LRT stations on the Capital Line and Metro Line use island platforms; the Valley Line under construction, utilizes the new low-floor LRT technology, but will only use island platforms on one of the twelve stops along the line. In southern New Jersey and Philadelphia, PATCO uses island platforms in all of its 13 s
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second largest city in the U. S. state of New York and the largest city in Western New York. As of 2017, the population was 258,612; the city is the county seat of Erie County and a major gateway for commerce and travel across the Canada–United States border, forming part of the bi-national Buffalo Niagara Region. The Buffalo area was inhabited before the 17th century by the Native American Iroquois tribe and by French settlers; the city grew in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of immigration, the construction of the Erie Canal and rail transportation, its close proximity to Lake Erie. This growth provided an abundance of fresh water and an ample trade route to the Midwestern United States while grooming its economy for the grain and automobile industries that dominated the city's economy in the 20th century. Since the city's economy relied on manufacturing, deindustrialization in the latter half of the 20th century led to a steady decline in population. While some manufacturing activity remains, Buffalo's economy has transitioned to service industries with a greater emphasis on healthcare and higher education, which emerged following the Great Recession.
Buffalo is on the eastern shore of Lake Erie, at the head of the Niagara River, 16 miles south of Niagara Falls. Its early embrace of electric power led to the nickname "The City of Light"; the city is famous for its urban planning and layout by Joseph Ellicott, an extensive system of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, as well as significant architectural works. Its culture blends Northeastern and Midwestern traditions, with annual festivals including Taste of Buffalo and Allentown Art Festival, two professional sports teams, a music and arts scene; the city of Buffalo received its name from a nearby creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to "Buffalo Creek" in his 1764 journal, which may be the earliest recorded appearance of the name. There are several theories regarding. While it is possible its name originated from French fur traders and Native Americans calling the creek Beau Fleuve, it is possible Buffalo Creek was named after the American buffalo, whose historical range may have extended into western New York.
The first inhabitants of the State of New York are believed to have been nomadic Paleo-Indians, who migrated after the disappearance of Pleistocene glaciers during or before 7000 BCE. Around 1000 CE, 1,000 years ago, the Woodland period began, marked by the rise of the Iroquois Confederacy and its tribes throughout the state. During French exploration of the region in 1620, the region was occupied by the agrarian Erie people, a tribe outside of the Five Nations of the Iroquois southwest of Buffalo Creek, the Wenro people or Wenrohronon, an Iroquoian-speaking tribal offshoot of the large Neutral Nation who lived along the inland south shore of Lake Ontario and at the east end of Lake Erie and a bit of its northern shore. For trading, the Neutral people made a living by growing tobacco and hemp to trade with the Iroquois, utilizing animal paths or warpaths to travel and move goods across the state; these paths were paved, now function as major roads. During the Beaver Wars of the 1640s-1650s, the combined warriors of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy conquered the populous Neutrals and their peninsular territory, while the Senecas alone took out the Wenro and their territory, c.
1651–1653. Soon after, the Erie nation and territory was destroyed by the Iroquois over their assistance to Huron people during the Beaver Wars, it was Louis Hennepin and Sieur de La Salle who made the earliest European discoveries of the upper Niagara and Ontario regions in the late 1600s. On August 7, 1679, La Salle launched a vessel, Le Griffon, that became the first full-sized ship to sail across the Great Lakes disappearing in Green Bay, Wisconsin. After the American Revolution, the colony of New York—now a state—began westward expansion, looking for habitable land by following trends of the Iroquois. Land near fresh water was of considerable importance. New York and Massachusetts were fighting for the territory Buffalo lies on, Massachusetts had the right to purchase all but a one-mile wide portion of land; the rights to the Massachusetts' territories were sold to Robert Morris in 1791, two years to the Holland Land Company. As a result of the war, in which the Iroquois tribe sided with the British Army, Iroquois territory was whittled away in the mid-to-late-1700s by white settlers through successive treaties statewide, such as the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the First Treaty of Buffalo Creek, the Treaty of Geneseo.
The Iroquois were corralled onto reservations, including Buffalo Creek. By the end of the 18th century, only 338 square miles of reservation territory remained. Early settlers along the mouth of Buffalo Creek were former slave Joseph "Black Joe" Hodges, Cornelius Winney, a Dutch trader from Albany who arrived in 1789; the first white settlers along the creek were prisoners captured during the Revolutionary War. The first resident and landowner of Buffalo with a permanent presence was Captain William Johnston, a white Iroquois interpreter, present in the area since the days after the Revolutionary War and was granted creekside land by the Senecas as a gift of appreciation, his house was built at present-day Seneca streets. On July 20, 1793, the Holland Land Purchase was completed, containing the land of present-day Buffalo, brokered by Dutch investors from Holland; the Treaty of Big Tree removed Iroquois title to lan
Bennett High School (Buffalo, New York)
Bennett High School was an American high school located in the University Heights section of Buffalo, New York. It was named for Lewis J. Bennett, who donated the land for All High Stadium. Portions of the movie The Natural were filmed in All High Stadium, although it was filmed as Wrigley Field. Bennett High School was a Exam/Magnet school with three College Prep programs, the Academy of International Law Business and Computers, Education and the Arts. Bennett High School was built in the 1920s, it has four stories with 270,000 square feet. It is named for Lewis J. Bennett, who donated the land for All High Stadium. Portions of the 1984 movie The Natural were filmed in All High Stadium, although it was filmed as Wrigley Field; the school was renovated in the summer of 2005 and the summer of 2006. During this time, some students were housed at Bennett while others were housed at nearby School 63 on Minnesota Avenue. In 2014, the school began phasing out, not accepting incoming classes, due to low academic performance.
The school was replaced by Middle Early College High School and the new Lewis J. Bennett School of Innovative Technology; the final Bennett High School class graduated in June 2017. Previous assignment and reason for departure denoted in parentheses Dr. Charles E. Rhodes–1925-1933 Mr. Emmons B. Farrar–1933-1942 Mr. Raymond W. Spear –1942-1944 Mr. Emmons Farrar–1944-1958 Mr. Lloyd A. Miller–1958-1969 Mr. Leonard S. Sikora –1969-1975 Mr. Ronald J. Meer–1975-1980 Mr. Henry J. Klee–1980-1984 Ms. Marilyn C. Wittman–1984-2004 Mrs. Ramona Y. Thomas-Reynolds–2004-2009 Dr. David Mauricio–2009-2012 Mr. Carlos R. Alvarez, Jr.–2012-2013 Ms. Teena M. Jackson–2013 Dr. Terry D. Ross–2013-2014 Dr. Bert L. Stevenson–2014-2017 Previous assignment and reason for departure denoted in parentheses Mr. Emmons Farrar–1925-1933 Mr. Herbert S. Lein Mr. Abraham Axelrod–?-1952 Mr. Carl S. Walz–1952-1956 Mr. Lloyd Miller–1956-1958 Mr. Morris Raiken–1958-1962 Mr. Leonard Sikora–1962-1969 Mr. James J. Foley–1964-1966 Mr. Anthony D. Vetrano–1966-1968 Mr. Franklin R. Weitz–1967-1971 Mr. Adam D. Dzimian–1968-1984 Mr. Paul J. Ludwig–1969-1970 Mr. John H. Davis–1970-1983 Dr. Daniel M. Kublitz–1971-1973 Mr. John F. Robinson–1975-1977 Mrs. Deborah L. Lowe–1983-1984 Ms. Crystal A. Boling–1984-1985 Mr. James G. Christmann–1984-1986 Mr. John J. Vella–1985-1987 Mr. Calvin Baxter–1986-1987 Ms. Constance Pace–1987-1988 Mr. David M. Greco–1987-1988 Mr. Timothy M. Shannon–1988-1990 Mr. Robert M. Barton–1988-1990 Ms. Louise A. Klier–1990-1995
Special Events station
Special Events is the southernmost station in the Buffalo Metro Rail system located at the corner of Main and Perry Streets in the Free Fare Zone, which allows passengers free travel between Erie Canal Harbor station and Fountain Plaza station. Passengers continuing northbound past Fountain Plaza are required to have proof-of-payment. Special Events station is located next to the KeyBank Center, which it serves before and after an event. If there is no event at KeyBank Center, Erie Canal Harbor station serves as the southern terminus; the tracks continue to the NFTA Rail Maintenance Yard. KeyBank Center Buffalo and Erie County Naval & Military Park HarborCenter NFTA Rail Maintenance Yard List of Buffalo Metro Rail stations Station form Google Maps Street View
Summer–Best is a Buffalo Metro Rail station located at the junction of Summer and Main Streets. Summer–Best station is one of four stations that does not offer an off-road bus loop, requiring passengers to board/debark using curbside stops. Route 8 buses heading toward Marine Drive or University station and route 22 buses heading toward Thruway Mall do not board at the curb on the same side as the station, served by two bus routes: 8 Main 22 Porter–Best In 1979, an art selection committee was created, composed of NFTA commissioners and Buffalo area art experts, that would judge the artwork that would be displayed in and on the properties of eight stations on the Metro Rail line. Out of the 70 proposals submitted, 22 were chosen and are positioned inside and outside of the eight underground stations. Summer–Best station is home of two pieces of work, from George Sugarman and John Pfahl. Summer–Best station is located near: Anchor Bar Allentown City Honors School Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site From February 16–March 16, 2015, April 20–May 18, 2015, June 6–7, 2015, June 13–14, 2015, June 26–27, 2015, August 22–23, 2015, September 8–25, 2015 and July 5, 2016, due to construction of the new School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, slated to open in the summer of 2017, Allen/Medical Campus station was temporarily closed.
Passengers who wanted to access the Buffalo–Niagara Medical Campus were instructed to deboard the train at Summer–Best station, as it temporarily served as the southern terminus of the paid fare zone. NFTA–Metro provided shuttle buses running every 10 minutes. From July 6–October 10, 2016, passengers with mobility devices who use Allen/Medical Campus station to access the Buffalo–Niagara Medical Campus were instructed to exit at Summer–Best station and board the #8 Main bus, as the Mezzanine–to–Street Level elevator was being replaced. From September 24–October 9, 2016, due to construction of the new University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Allen/Medical Campus station was temporarily closed. Passengers who wanted to access the Buffalo–Niagara Medical Campus were instructed to deboard the train at Summer–Best station, as it temporarily served as the southern terminus of the paid fare zone; as a result, NFTA–Metro offered shuttle buses to accommodate passengers to the Buffalo–Niagara Medical Campus, with each shuttle running every 12 minutes.
List of Buffalo Metro Rail stations
Allen/Medical Campus station
Allen/Medical Campus is a Buffalo Metro Rail station located at the corner of Main and Allen Streets at the northern end of Buffalo, New York's downtown and is the last underground station to the south requiring payment before entering the Free Fare Zone. The station was temporarily closed in 2015 to incorporate a new building at the University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences into the station's aboveground entrances. Allen/Medical Campus station is one of four stations that does not offer an off-road bus loop, requiring passengers to board/debark using curbside stops. Route 7 buses heading downtown and route 8 buses heading toward Marine Drive do not board at the curb at the same side as the station, served by six bus routes: NFTA 7 Baynes-Richmond 8 Main 29 Wohlers 64 Lockport 66 Williamsville 67 Cleveland Hill University at Buffalo shuttles Blue Line - serves as a shuttle van to University at Buffalo-affiliated locations of the Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus from the University at Buffalo-South Campus.
In 1979, an art selection committee was created, composed of NFTA commissioners and Buffalo area art experts, that would judge the artwork that would be displayed in and on the properties of eight stations on the Metro Rail line. Out of the 70 proposals submitted, 22 were chosen and are positioned inside and outside of the eight underground stations. Allen/Medical Campus station is home of four pieces of work, from Scott Burton. Richard Friedberg's offers an objective sculpture made of steel, it is polychromed with durable paint and high gloss coloration. It is located on a wall over the escalator between the mezzanine and the level between the mezzanine and train platforms. Charles Clough offers riders a large photographic mural based on the work of Charles Burchfield, Buffalo's most famous painter; the Latin Gallery group offers riders a wall located along a sidewalk at the south end of the station in bright colors, containing selected excerpts from chosen poetry. The work is on colored enamel fused to copper tile.
Though subtle, Scott Burton offers riders a pair of bronze benches located in the middle of the mezzanine near the ticket vending machines. The two benches pay tribute to the American Arts and Crafts Movement; the benches represent downtown directions to the station. Each of the benches are invite participation, by passengers sitting in them. Allen/Medical Campus station is located near: Allentown Anchor Bar Buffalo-Niagara Medical Campus Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute Since Allen/Medical Campus station serves as a terminal south is a double crossover. During the weekends of August 9–10, 2013 and July 18–20, 2014, due to construction of the 600 and 500 blocks of Main Street to include vehicular traffic, Allen/Medical Campus station temporarily served as the southern terminus; as a result, NFTA-Metro offered shuttle buses to accommodate passengers between this station and Erie Canal Harbor station, with each shuttle running every 15 minutes. From February 16-March 16, 2015, April 20-May 18, 2015, June 6–7, 2015, June 13–14, 2015, June 26–27, 2015, August 22–23, 2015, September 8–25, 2015 and July 5, 2016, due to construction of the new University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Allen/Medical Campus station was temporarily closed.
Passengers who wanted to access the Buffalo-Niagara Medical Campus were instructed to deboard the train at Summer-Best station, as it temporarily served as the southern terminus of the paid fare zone. As a result, NFTA-Metro offered shuttle buses to accommodate passengers to the Buffalo-Niagara Medical Campus, with each shuttle running every 10 minutes. From July 6-October 10, 2016, passengers with mobility devices who use Allen/Medical Campus station to access the Buffalo-Niagara Medical Campus were instructed to exit at Summer-Best station and board the #8 Main bus, as the Mezzanine-to-Street Level elevator was being replaced. From September 24-October 9, 2016, due to construction of the new University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Allen/Medical Campus station was temporarily closed. Passengers who wanted to access the Buffalo-Niagara Medical Campus were instructed to deboard the train at Summer-Best station, as it temporarily served as the southern terminus of the paid fare zone.
As a result, NFTA-Metro offered shuttle buses to accommodate passengers to the Buffalo-Niagara Medical Campus, with each shuttle running every 12 minutes. List of Buffalo Metro Rail stations
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures, 532 of which were completed. Wright believed in designing structures that were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture; this philosophy was best exemplified by Fallingwater, called "the best all-time work of American architecture". His creative period spanned more than 70 years. Wright was the pioneer of what came to be called the Prairie School movement of architecture, he developed the concept of the Usonian home in Broadacre City, his unique vision for urban planning in the United States. In addition to his houses, Wright designed original and innovative offices, schools, hotels and other structures, he designed interior elements for these buildings, as well, including furniture and stained glass. Wright was a popular lecturer in the United States and Europe. Wright was recognized in 1991 by the American Institute of Architects as "the greatest American architect of all time".
His colorful personal life made headlines, notably for leaving his first wife, Catherine Lee "Kitty" Tobin for Mamah Borthwick Cheney, the murders at his Taliesin estate in 1914, his tempestuous marriage with second wife Miriam Noel, his relationship with Olga Lazovich Hinzenburg, who became his third wife in 1928. Frank Lloyd Wright was born Frank Lincoln Wright in the farming town of Richland Center, United States, in 1867, his father, William Cary Wright, was an orator, music teacher, occasional lawyer, itinerant minister. Wright's mother, Anna Lloyd Jones, met William Cary Wright while working as a county school teacher when William was the superintendent of schools for Richland County. From Massachusetts, William Wright had been a Baptist minister, but he joined his wife's family in the Unitarian faith. Anna was a member of the well-known Lloyd Jones family who had emigrated from Wales to Spring Green, Wisconsin. One of Anna's brothers was Jenkin Lloyd Jones, an important figure in the spread of the Unitarian faith in the Midwest.
Both of Wright's parents were strong-willed individuals with artistic interests that they passed on to him. According to Wright's autobiography, his mother declared when she was expecting that her first child would grow up to build beautiful buildings, she decorated his nursery with engravings of English cathedrals torn from a periodical to encourage the infant's ambition. In 1870, the family moved to Weymouth, where William ministered to a small congregation. In 1876, Anna visited the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, where she saw an exhibit of educational blocks created by Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel; the blocks, known as Froebel Gifts, were the foundation of his innovative kindergarten curriculum. Anna, a trained teacher, was excited by the program and bought a set with which young Wright spent much time playing; the blocks in the set were geometrically shaped and could be assembled in various combinations to form three-dimensional compositions. In his autobiography, Wright described the influence of these exercises on his approach to design: "For several years, I sat at the little kindergarten table-top… and played… with the cube, the sphere and the triangle—these smooth wooden maple blocks… All are in my fingers to this day… " Many of Wright's buildings are notable for their geometrical clarity.
The Wright family struggled financially in Weymouth and returned to Spring Green, where the supportive Lloyd Jones clan could help William find employment. They settled in Madison, where William taught music lessons and served as the secretary to the newly formed Unitarian society. Although William was a distant parent, he shared his love of music the works of Johann Sebastian Bach, with his children. Soon after Wright turned 14, his parents separated. Anna had been unhappy for some time with William's inability to provide for his family and asked him to leave; the divorce was finalized in 1885. William left Wisconsin after the divorce, Wright claimed he never saw his father again. At this time he changed his middle name from Lincoln to Lloyd in honor of his mother's family, the Lloyd Joneses. Wright attended Madison High School. In 1886 he was admitted to the University of Wisconsin–Madison as a special student. While there, Wright joined Phi Delta Theta fraternity, took classes part-time for two semesters, worked with Allan D. Conover, a professor of civil engineering.
Wright left the school without taking a degree, although he was granted an honorary doctorate of fine arts from the university in 1955. In 1887, Wright arrived in Chicago in search of employment; as a result of the devastating Great Chicago Fire of 1871 and a population boom, new development was plentiful. Wright recalled that while his first impressions of Chicago were that of grimy neighborhoods, crowded streets, disappointing architecture, he was determined to find work. Within days, after interviews with several prominent firms, he was hired as a draftsman with the architectural firm of Joseph Lyman Silsbee. Wright collaborated with Silsbee—accredited as the draftsman and the construction supervisor—on the 1886 Unity Chapel for Wright's family in Spring Green. While with the firm, he worked on two other family projects: All Souls Church in Chicago for his uncle, Jenkin Lloyd Jones, the Hillside Home School I in Spring Green for two of his aunts. Other draftsmen who worked for Silsbee in 1887 included future architects Cecil Corwin, George W. Maher, George G