Ernest Amherst Villiers, was a British clergyman and Liberal politician. Villiers was the son of Reverend Charles Villiers of Croft and his wife Florence Mary, his great-grandfather, the Hon. George Villiers, was the third son of Thomas Villiers, 1st Earl of Clarendon. Educated at Uppingham School and Peterhouse, Cambridge, he was ordained as an Anglican priest. After three years as a curate in Halifax, he became rector of Norfolk. Villiers married the Hon. Elaine Augusta, daughter of Ivor Guest, 1st Baron Wimborne, in 1898; the couple had 2 sons and 2 daughters. He resigned from holy orders to pursue a political career, was elected to the House of Commons for Brighton at a by-election on 5 April 1905 caused by the appointment of one of the two members as a minister, he won the by-election by 817 votes and held the seat at the 1906 general election, increasing his majority to 853, but chose not to contest the January 1910 general election. Villiers died at his residence, Speen Court, Berkshire in September 1923, aged 59.
He was buried in the graveyard of Speen Parish Church. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Ernest Villiers http://www.leighrayment.com/ http://www.thepeerage.com/ http://www.stirnet.com/
Miles Whitney Straight
The Miles M.11 Whitney Straight was a 1930s British two-seat cabin monoplane with dual-controls. The M.11 Whitney Straight was designed by F. G. Miles of Philips and Powis as the result of collaboration with Whitney Straight, a Grand Prix motor racing driver and businessman; the aim was to provide comfortable accommodation for pilot and luggage in an enclosed'side-by-side' cockpit. It was a low-wing monoplane, with fixed main undercarriage in aerodynamic fairings plus a fixed tailwheel. Construction was of wood, with spruce frames and three-ply birch covering, the wings had vacuum-operated split flaps, it was powered by a 130 hp de Havilland Gipsy Major I piston engine. The sole M.11B was powered by a 135 hp Amherst Villiers Maya I engine, adding 10 mph to its maximum speed and 200 ft/min to its rate of climb. A single M.11C was powered by a 145 hp de Havilland Gipsy Major II engine and variable-pitch propeller. On 14 May 1936, the prototype, built by Philips and Powis, first flew at Woodley Aerodrome, piloted by F.
G. Miles; when production ended in 1937, 50 Whitney Straights had been built. On 28 June 1938, the M.11C crashed at Harefield, killing the test pilot, Wing Commander F. W. Stent. Modified Whitney Straights were used as engine test beds and by Miles to test different flap designs. After the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the Air Ministry impressed 23 Whitney Straights into military service, for use as communications aircraft. Twenty-one of those served in the UK, one in India, one in Egypt. One M.11A served with the Fleet Air Arm from 1940 to 1943, three with the Royal New Zealand Air Force. Between 1939 and 1943, a New Zealand machine piloted by Alan Pritchard was used for aerial seed sowing trials at Ninety Mile Beach and spreading superphosphate; these trials were part of the experiments. New ZealandMount Cook Airline Royal New Zealand Air Force No. 42 Squadron RNZAF United KingdomRoyal Air Force Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm Starways G-AERV, cn307 in England, UK G-AFGK, cn509 at the Reynolds-Alberta Museum, Alberta.
Data from Jackson 1988General characteristics Crew: two Length: 25 ft 0 in Wingspan: 35 ft 8 in Height: 6 ft 6 in Wing area: 178 ft² Empty weight: 1,250 lb Loaded weight: 2,000 lb Powerplant: 1 × de Havilland Gipsy Major I air-cooled, 4-cylinder inline engine, 130 hp Performance Maximum speed: 145 mph Cruise speed: 130 mph Range: 570 miles Service ceiling: 18,500 ft Rate of climb: 850 ft/min Related development Miles Monarch Related lists List of aircraft of the RAF Brown, Don Lambert. Miles Aircraft Since 1925. Putnam, 1970. ISBN 0-370-00127-3. Jackson, A. J. British Civil Aircraft 1919–1972: Volume III. Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0-85177-818-6. Mondey, David; the Hamlyn Concise Guide to British Aircraft of World War II. Chancellor Press, 2002. ISBN 1-85152-668-4
The Bentley Boys were a group of wealthy British motorists who drove Bentley sports cars to victory in the 1920s and kept the marque's reputation for high performance alive. In 1925, as the marque foundered, Bentley Boy Woolf Barnato bought the company, leading to the creation of the famous supercharged Bentley Blower car; the Bentley Boys included: Woolf "Babe" Barnato, heir to Kimberley diamond magnate Barney Barnato Dr. J. Dudley "Benjy" Benjafield Sir Henry "Tim" Birkin Dale Bourne Frank Clement S. C. H. "Sammy" Davis, automotive journalist, Sports Editor of The Autocar John Duff George Duller, steeplechaser Clive Dunfee Jack Dunfee Dudley Froy Baron Andre d’Erlanger, playboy Clive Gallop, engineer Glen Kidston, aviator Bertie Kensington Moir Bernard Rubin, pearl fishery magnate Jean Chassagne, French racing driverThanks to the dedication of this group to serious racing, the company, located at Cricklewood, north London, was noted for its four consecutive victories at the 24 hours of Le Mans from 1927 to 1930.
Their greatest competitor at the time, whose lightweight, but fragile creations contrasted with the Bentley's rugged reliability and durability, referred to them as "the world's fastest lorries". In March 1930, during the Blue Train Races, Woolf Barnato raised the stakes on Rover and its Rover Light Six having raced and beaten Le Train Bleu for the first time, to better that record with his 6½ Litre Bentley Speed Six on a bet of GBP100, he drove against the train from Cannes to Calais by ferry to Dover and London, travelling on public highways, won. The H. J. Mulliner-bodied formal saloon he drove during the race, as well as a streamlined fastback "Sportsman Coupe" by Gurney Nutting delivered to him on 21 May 1930 became known as the Blue Train Bentleys; the "Sportsman Coupe" has been erroneously referred to as being the car that raced the Blue Train, while in fact Barnato named it in memory of his race. A great deal of Barnato's fortune went to keeping Bentley afloat after he became chairman in 1925.
British Racing Drivers' Club Lagonda
A supercharger is an air compressor that increases the pressure or density of air supplied to an internal combustion engine. This gives each intake cycle of the engine more oxygen, letting it burn more fuel and do more work, thus increasing power. Power for the supercharger can be provided mechanically by means of a belt, shaft, or chain connected to the engine's crankshaft. Common usage restricts the term supercharger to mechanically driven units. In 1848 or 1849, G. Jones of Birmingham, England brought out a Roots-style compressor. In 1860, brothers Philander and Francis Marion Roots, founders of Roots Blower Company of Connersville, patented the design for an air mover for use in blast furnaces and other industrial applications; the world's first functional tested engine supercharger was made by Dugald Clerk, who used it for the first two-stroke engine in 1878. Gottlieb Daimler received a German patent for supercharging an internal combustion engine in 1885. Louis Renault patented a centrifugal supercharger in France in 1902.
An early supercharged race car was built by Lee Chadwick of Pottstown, Pennsylvania in 1908 which reached a speed of 100 mph. The world's first series-produced cars with superchargers were Mercedes 6/25/40 hp and Mercedes 10/40/65 hp. Both models had Roots superchargers, they were distinguished as "Kompressor" models, the origin of the Mercedes-Benz badging which continues today. On March 24, 1878 Heinrich Krigar of Germany obtained patent #4121, patenting the first screw-type compressor; that same year on August 16 he obtained patent #7116 after modifying and improving his original designs. His designs show a two-lobe rotor assembly with each rotor having the same shape as the other. Although the design resembled the Roots style compressor, the "screws" were shown with 180 degrees of twist along their length; the technology of the time was not sufficient to produce such a unit, Heinrich made no further progress with the screw compressor. Nearly half a century in 1935, Alf Lysholm, working for Ljungströms Ångturbin AB, patented a design with five female and four male rotors.
He patented the method for machining the compressor rotors. There are two main types of superchargers defined according to the method of gas transfer: positive displacement and dynamic compressors. Positive displacement blowers and compressors deliver an constant level of pressure increase at all engine speeds. Dynamic compressors do not deliver pressure at low speeds. Positive-displacement pumps deliver a nearly fixed volume of air per revolution at all speeds. Major types of positive-displacement pumps include: Roots Lysholm twin-screw Sliding vane Scroll-type supercharger known as the G-Lader Positive-displacement pumps are further divided into internal and external compression types. Roots superchargers, including high helix roots superchargers, produce compression externally. External compression refers to pumps that transfer air at ambient pressure. If an engine equipped with a supercharger that compresses externally is running under boost conditions, the pressure inside the supercharger remains at ambient pressure.
Roots superchargers tend to be mechanically efficient at moving air at low pressure differentials, whereas at high pressure rations, internal compression superchargers tend to be more mechanically efficient. All the other types have some degree of internal compression. Internal compression refers to the compression of air within the supercharger itself, which at or close to boost level, can be delivered smoothly to the engine with little or no back flow. Internal compression devices use a fixed internal compression ratio; when the boost pressure is equal to the compression pressure of the supercharger, the back flow is zero. If the boost pressure exceeds that compression pressure, back flow can still occur as in a roots blower; the internal compression ratio of this type of supercharger can be matched to the expected boost pressure in order to optimize mechanical efficiency. Positive-displacement superchargers are rated by their capacity per revolution. In the case of the Roots blower, the GMC rating pattern is typical.
The GMC types are rated according to how many two-stroke cylinders, the size of those cylinders, it is designed to scavenge. GMC has made 2–71, 3–71, 4–71, the famed 6–71 blowers. For example, a 6–71 blower is designed to scavenge six cylinders of 71 cubic inches each and would be used on a two-stroke diesel of 426 cubic inches, designated a 6–71. However, because 6–71 is the engine's designation, the actual displacement is less than the simple multiplication would suggest. A 6–71 pumps 339 cubic inches per revolution. Aftermarket derivatives continue the trend with 8–71 to current 16–71 blowers used in different motor sports. From this, one can see that a 6–71 is twice the size of a 3–71. GMC made 53 cu in series in 2–, 3–, 4–, 6–, 8–53 sizes, as well as a "V71" series for use on engines using a V configuration. Dynamic compressors rely on accelerating the air to high speed and t
Brooklands was a 2.75-mile motor racing circuit and aerodrome built near Weybridge in Surrey, United Kingdom. It opened in 1907 and was the world's first purpose-built motor racing circuit as well as one of Britain's first airfields, which became Britain's largest aircraft manufacturing centre by 1918, producing military aircraft such as the Wellington and civil airliners like the Viscount and VC-10; the circuit hosted its last race in August 1939 and today part of it forms the Brooklands Museum, a major aviation and motoring museum, as well as a venue for vintage car and other transport-related events. The Brooklands motor circuit was the brainchild of Hugh F. Locke King, was the first purpose-built banked motor race circuit in the world. Following the Motor Car Act 1903, Britain was subject to a blanket 20 mph speed limit on public roads: at a time when nearly 50% of the world's new cars were produced in France, there was concern that Britain's infant auto-industry would be hampered by the inability to undertake sustained high-speed testing.
King commissioned Colonel Capel Lofft Holden of the Royal Artillery to design the projected circuit and work began in 1906. Requirements of speed and spectator visibility led to the Brooklands track being built as a 100 ft wide, 2.75 miles long, banked oval. The banking was nearly 30 feet high in places. In addition to the oval, a bisecting "Finishing Straight" was built, increasing the track length to 3.25 miles, of which 1.25 miles was banked. It could host up to 287,000 spectators in its heyday. Owing to the complications of laying tarmacadam on banking, the expense of laying asphalt, the track was built in uncoated concrete; this led in years to a somewhat bumpy ride, as the surface suffered differential settlement over time. Along the centre of the track ran a dotted black line, known as the Fifty Foot Line. By driving over the line, a driver could theoretically take the banked corners without having to use the steering wheel; the track was opened on 17 June 1907 with a luncheon attended by most of Britain's motor manufacturers, followed by an informal inauguration of the track by a procession of 43 cars, one driven by Charles Rolls.
The first competitive event was held on 28–29 June, with three cars competing to break the world record for distance covered in 24 hours, the first race meeting was held on 6 July, attracting over 10,000 spectators. Drawing inspiration from the development at Brooklands, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway was built soon afterwards, held its inaugural race in August 1909; the Brooklands Mountain Circuit was a small section of the track giving a lap 1¼ miles long, running from the Fork to the rear of Members' Hill and back. It was created in 1930 using movable barriers. On 28–29 June 1907, eleven days after the circuit opened, it played host to the world's first 24-hour motor event, with Selwyn Edge leading three specially converted Napier cars around the circuit. A statement of intent had been made in 1906, Selwyn Edge entered into a physical training program to prepare for the event, his car, "804" was extensively modified, having a special fuel tank, bodywork removed, a special windscreen. Over 300 red railway lamps were used to light the track during the night.
Flares were used to mark the upper boundary of the track. Edge drove his car for the full duration, with the drivers of the other two cars taking the more familiar shift approach. During the event Edge covered a distance of 1,581.74 mi at an average speed of 65.91 mph, comfortably beating the existing record of 1,096.187 mi set at Indianapolis in 1905. Women were not allowed to compete for several years. Dorothy Levitt, S. F. Edge's leading driver, was refused entry despite having been the'first English-woman to compete in a motor race' in 1903, holding the'Ladies World Land Speed Record'. Edge completed 2,545 km at a record which stood for 17 years; the first standard race meeting would be held the next week, on 6 July. George E. Stanley broke the one-hour record at Brooklands race track on a Singer motorcycle in 1912, becoming the first rider of a 350 cc motorcycle to cover over 60 miles in an hour; the world record for the first person to cover 100 miles in 1 hour was set by Percy E. Lambert at Brooklands, on 15 February 1913 when driving his 4.5 litre sidevalve Talbot.
He covered 103 miles, 1470 yards in 60 minutes. A contemporary film of his exploits on that day can be viewed at the Brooklands Museum. In July and August 1929, Violette Cordery and her younger sister Evelyn drove her 4.5 litre four-seater Invicta for 30,000 miles in less than 30,000 minutes, averaging 61.57 mph and earning her second Dewar Trophy from the Royal Automobile Club. Brooklands closed to motor racing during World War I, was requisitioned by the War Office and continued its pre-war role as a flying training centre although it was now under military control. Brooklands soon became a major location for the construction and supply of military aeroplanes. Motor racing resumed in 1920 after extensive track repairs and Grand Prix motor racing was established at Brooklands in 1926 by Henry Segrave, after his victories in the 1923 French Grand Prix and the San Sebastián Grand Prix the following year raised interest in the sport in Britain; this first British Grand Prix was won by Louis Wagner and Robert Sénéchal, sharing the drive in a Delage 155B.
The second British Grand Prix was staged there in 1927 and these two events resulted in improve
Oundle School is a co-educational boarding and day independent school in the market town of Oundle in Northamptonshire. The school has been governed by the Worshipful Company of Grocers of the City of London since its foundation by Sir William Laxton in 1556. Oundle has eight boys' houses, five girls' houses, a day house, a junior house and a junior day house. Together these accommodate more than 1100 pupils, it is the third largest boarding school in England after Millfield. The current head is Sarah Kerr-Dineen; the school was founded by Sir William Laxton and known as Laxton Grammar School. Laxton had been eight times Master of the Worshipful Company of Grocers and was Lord Mayor of the City of London in 1544. After Laxton's death in 1556, his will decreed the founding of a school for the local boys of Oundle, to be maintained by the Worshipful Company of Grocers. There had been a school on the site since at least 1485; the size and reputation of Laxton Grammar School rose in the following centuries such that by the mid-nineteenth century, many of the school's pupils had been sent from around the country to receive their education in Oundle.
In 1876 the decision was made by the Grocers to divide the school into Oundle School and Laxton Grammar School. Laxton Grammar School was to continue to educate boys from Oundle and its surrounding villages while Oundle School was to accept the sons of gentlemen from further afield, it is during this period that Oundle rose to prominence as an English Public School, which can be attributed to F. W. Sanderson in his role as headmaster from 1892 until his death in 1922; when Sanderson joined Oundle he found a minor country boarding school. The success of Sanderson can be attributed to his educational ethos; the major development came about in 1990. In the year 2000 the decision was made by the school's governing body to re-unite Oundle School and Laxton School as a single educational establishment under the common name Oundle School, with Laxton House becoming the day house. Oundle has 235 day pupils, it is the third largest independent boarding school in England, after Millfield. The various school buildings which date from the 15th century are scattered around the market town, with the Cloisters acting as the nucleus of the school community.
The Good Schools Guide described the school as a "Popular, well oiled, well heeled co-educational boarding school, riding high." Pupils obtain strong results at A Level. In their 2013 A Levels pupils achieved 89.1% A* to B grades, with over 60% of grades either A* or A. In the year 2016, 28 pupils achieved 10 or more A* results in their GCSE examinations, with 89% of all results awarded being A* or A. Many pupils go on to study at Oxbridge; the school promotes the practice of Christian values and maintains strong links with the Church of England by celebrating the major events of the Christian calendar. All pupils who board are required to attend services in the school chapel three times a week: one midweek lunch time service, Friday hymn practice, the Sunday service. Pupils of other faiths are free to worship according to their own beliefs but must still attend chapel with the rest of the school; the school places a strong emphasis on extra-curricular activities which encourage pupils to develop interests outside the classroom.
One of the ways in which the school fosters extra-curricular interests is through its extensive programme of voluntary clubs and societies called “compulsaries”, which range from poetry and debating to croquet and wine tasting. Each academic subject has its own society which organises evening lectures from guest speakers throughout the year. A new subject, gives Third Form pupils timetabled engagement with extension topics for their own sake, using methods of thought drawn from the traditional liberal arts. Quadrivium is an option for pupils in the Lower Sixth to study, similar to trivium taught in the Third Form. Outside term time pupils are given the opportunity to participate in the countless regular school trips which explore all corners of the globe; these include history trips to major European cities, language exchanges in Europe and Asia, charity work in Africa, AAAS conventions and politics trips in America, natural history expeditions to Antarctica, many more. Sport is considered to be an essential part of school life and while there exists a multitude of sports to choose from, the emphasis remains on traditional team sports such as rugby, cricket and soccer for boys, hockey and tennis for girls.
Oundle performs strongly in independent school rugby and girls' hockey. A large proportion of the school gathers to support the 1st XV rugby team on the Two Acre during the Michaelmas and Christmas quarters; the school's greatest sporting rivalry is with Uppingham School, while other rivalries include Harrow School, Radley College, Stamford School and Rugby School. The school sends regular rugby and hockey tours to countries all around the world, while the social'Ramblers' cricket team is known in the school for its tours of the U. K. and the Caribbean. The Oundle Rovers Cricket Club (
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.