Kyrie, a transliteration of Greek Κύριε, vocative case of Κύριος, is a common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy, called the Kyrie eleison /ˈkiːri. eɪ ᵻˈleɪ. ᵻsɒn/. In John 13,13, John reports Jesus as saying You call Me Teacher and Lord, the prayer, eleison, have mercy derives from several New Testament verses in particular. In Matthew 15,22, the Canaanite woman cries out to Jesus, Have mercy on me, O Lord, in Matthew 20,30,31, two unnamed blind men call out to Jesus, have mercy on us, Son of David. Finally, in Mark 10,46, Blind Bartimaeus cries out, Jesus, Τhe phrase Kýrie, eléison, or one of its equivalents in other languages, is one of the most oft-repeated phrases in Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine-Rite Eastern Christianity. The various litanies, frequent in that rite, generally have Lord, have mercy as their response, some petitions in these litanies will have twelve or even forty repetitions of the phrase as a response. The phrase is the origin of the Jesus Prayer, beloved by Christians of that rite, the biblical roots of this prayer first appear in 1 Chronicles 16,34. give thanks to the LORD, for he is good, for his mercy endures for ever.
The prayer is simultaneously a petition and a prayer of thanksgiving, an acknowledgment of what God has done, what God is doing, and what God will continue to do. It is refined in the Parable of The Publican, have mercy on me, a sinner, which shows more clearly its connection with the Jesus Prayer. Since the early centuries of Christianity, the Greek phrase, Kýrie, eléison, is extensively used in the Coptic Christian liturgy. In the cultures of East Slavs, its adaptation gave rise to the word of gratitude through a rough interpretation Save, in Rome, the sacred Liturgy was first celebrated in Greek. At some point the Roman Mass was translated into Latin, jungmann explains at length how the Kyrie in the Roman Mass is best seen as a vestige of a litany at the beginning of the Mass, like that of some Eastern churches. As early as the century, Pope Gregory the Great notes that there were differences in the way in which eastern and western churches sang Kyrie. In the eastern churches all sing it at the time, whereas in the western church the clergy sing it.
Also the western church sang Christe eleison as many times as Kyrie eleison, in the Roman Rite liturgy, a variant, Christe, eléison, a transliteration of Greek Χριστέ, ἐλέησον, is introduced. Kyrie, eleison may be used as a response of the people to intentions mentioned in the Prayer of the Faithful, since 1549, Anglicans have normally sung or said the Kyrie in English. In the 1552 Book of Common Prayer, the Kyrie was inserted into a recitation of the Ten Commandments, modern revisions of the Prayer Book have restored the option of using the Kyrie without the Commandments. Other denominations also, such as Lutheranism, use Kyrie, eleison in their liturgies, in the Tridentine Mass form of the Roman Rite, Kýrie, eléison is sung or said three times, followed by a threefold Christe, eléison and by another threefold Kýrie, eléison. In the Paul VI Mass form, each invocation is made only once by the celebrating priest or by a cantor, with a repetition, each time
The Gradual is a chant or hymn in the liturgical celebration of the Eucharist for many Christian denominations. In the Tridentine Mass it is sung after the reading or chanting of the Epistle and before the Alleluia, or, during penitential seasons, in the Mass of Paul VI the gradual corresponds to the Responsorial Psalm. There is the option to replace this psalm with the gradual and it is part of the Proper of the Mass. Gradual can refer to a book collecting all the items of the Mass. The official such book for the Roman Rite is the Roman Gradual, other such books include the Dominican Gradual. The Gradual, like the Alleluia and Tract, is one of the chants of the Mass. Responsorial chants derive from early Christian traditions of singing choral refrains called responds between psalm verses, until about the fifth century, it included singing a whole psalm. They were sung in the form of a psalmus responsorius, i. e. the whole text was chanted by a reader appointed for this purpose. For some time before Pope Gregory I, to sing these psalms was a privilege of deacons at Rome, the people answered each clause or verse with an acclamation.
This apparently dates back to the tradition, and can even be seen in the structure of some Psalms. Originally, there was a psalm sung between each reading, of which in the century there were three. The modern Gradual always consists of two verses, generally taken from the same psalm. There are a few Graduals that use a book of other than the Psalms. The Gradual is believed to have been so named because it was sung on the step of the altar, early sources use the form gradale, and the Alia Musica uses the term antiphona gradalis for the Introit. The Gradual is to be sung after the reading of the Epistle, in Eastertide, the Gradual is normally omitted, and a second Alleluia is sung in its place, except within the Octave of Easter. In what is now the form of the Roman Rite, the Responsorial Psalm normally takes the place of the Gradual, and is sung after the first reading. In the Tridentine Mass, the celebrant himself reads the Gradual with the Alleluia, Tract, or Sequence immediately after he has read the Epistle, there is no rule for the distribution of its parts within the choir.
All may be straight through by the whole choir
The most widely used Mass liturgy in the world until the introduction of the Mass of Paul VI in 1969, it is celebrated in ecclesiastical Latin. Tridentine is derived from the Latin Tridentinus, related to the city of Tridentum, in 2007, Pope Benedict XVI issued the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum, accompanied by a letter to the worlds bishops authorizing use of the Tridentine Mass and Ritual for competent priests. The Pope stated that the 1962 edition of the Roman Missal is to be considered a form of the Roman Rite, of which the 1970 Mass of Paul VI is the ordinary. Since that is the authorized extraordinary form, some refer to the 1962 Tridentine Mass as the extraordinary form of the Mass. In Masses celebrated without the people, Latin Rite Catholic priests are free to use either the 1962 Tridentine missal or the Ordinary Form missal. These Masses may — observing all the norms of law — be attended by faithful who, of their own free will, permission to use the Tridentine Mass as parish liturgies may be given by the pastor or rector.
In most countries, the used for celebrating the Tridentine Mass was Latin. Episcopal conferences were to decide, with the consent of the Holy See, what parts, if any. Most Old Catholics use the Tridentine Mass, either in the vernacular or in Latin, the Catholic Church uses the term extraordinary form of the Roman Rite Mass among other terms. The most widespread term for the rite, other than Tridentine Mass, is Latin Mass, the ordinary form of the Roman Rite Mass was promulgated in Latin and can be celebrated in that language. Occasionally the term Gregorian Rite is used when talking about the Tridentine Mass, as is, more frequently, Pope Benedict XVI declared it inappropriate to speak of the versions of the Roman Missal of before and after 1970 as if they were two rites. Rather, he said, it is a matter of a use of one. Traditionalist Catholics, whose characteristic is an attachment to the Tridentine Mass. Standardization was required in order to prevent the introduction into the liturgy of Protestant ideas in the wake of the Protestant Reformation.
Pope St. Pius V accordingly imposed uniformity by law in 1570 with the papal bull Quo primum and he allowed only those rites that were at least 200 years old to survive the promulgation of his 1570 Missal. The Carmelite and Dominican religious orders kept their rites, the rite of Braga, in northern Portugal, seems to have been practically abandoned, since 18 November 1971 that archdiocese authorizes its use only on an optional basis. This ended when Abbot Guéranger and others initiated in the 19th century a campaign to return to the Roman Missal, Pius Vs revision of the liturgy had as one of its declared aims the restoration of the Roman Missal to the original form and rite of the holy Fathers. Due to the limited resources available to his scholars, this aim was in fact not realised
The Book of Psalms, commonly referred to simply as Psalms or the Psalms, is the first book of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament. The title is derived from the Greek translation, ψαλμοί psalmoi, meaning instrumental music and, by extension, the book is an anthology of individual psalms, with 150 in the Jewish and Western Christian tradition and more in the Eastern Christian churches. Many of the psalms are linked to the name of David, over a third appear to be musical directions, addressed to the leader or choirmaster, including such statements as with stringed instruments and according to lilies. Others appear to be references to types of composition, such as A psalm and Song. Many superscriptions carry the names of individuals, the most common being of David, others named include Moses, the Sons of Korah and Solomon. A natural way of understanding these attributions is as a claim to authorship, Psalms are usually identified by a sequence number, often preceded by the abbreviation Ps.
Numbering of the Psalms differs—mostly by one digit, see table—between the Hebrew and it is generally admitted that Pss.9 and 10 were originally a single acrostic poem, they have been wrongly separated by Massorah, rightly united by the Septuagint and Vulgate. On the other hand, Ps.144 is made up of two songs — verses 1–11 and 12–15, Pss.42 and 43 are shown by identity of subject, of metrical structure and of refrain, to be three strophes of one and the same poem. The Hebrew text is correct in counting as one Ps.146, liturgical usage would seem to have split up these and not a few other psalms. Zenner combines into what he deems were the original choral odes,1,2,3,4,6 +13,9 +10,19,20,21,56 +57,69 +70,114 +115,148,149,150. A choral ode would seem to have been the form of Pss.14 +70. The two strophes and the epode are Ps,14, the two antistrophes are Ps.70. It is noteworthy that, on the breaking up of the ode, each portion crept twice into the Psalter, Ps.14 =53, Ps.70 =40. Other such duplicated psalms are Ps and this loss of the original form of some of the psalms is allowed by the Biblical Commission to have been due to liturgical uses, neglect of copyists, or other causes.
The Septuagint bible, present in Eastern Orthodox churches, includes a Psalm 151, Some versions of the Peshitta include Psalms 152–155. There are the Psalms of Solomon, which are a further 18 psalms of Jewish origin, likely written in Hebrew. These and other indications suggest that the current Western Christian and Jewish collection of 150 psalms were selected from a wider set, gunkel divided the psalms into five primary types, songs of praise for Gods work in creation or in history. They typically open with a call to praise, describe the motivation for praise, two sub-categories are enthronement psalms, celebrating the enthronement of Yahweh as king, and Zion psalms, glorifying Mount Zion, Gods dwelling-place in Jerusalem
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luthers efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone and this is in contrast to the belief of the Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. In addition, Lutheranism accepts the teachings of the first seven ecumenical councils of the undivided Christian Church, unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lords Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of Gods Law, the grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints.
Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest denominations of Protestantism, with approximately 80 million adherents, it constitutes the third most common Protestant denomination after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism. The Lutheran World Federation, the largest communion of Lutheran churches, Other Lutheran organizations include the International Lutheran Council and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, as well as independent churches. The name Lutheran originated as a term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Catholics followed the practice of naming a heresy after its leader. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, the followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition began to use that term. To distinguish the two groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed.
As time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped, Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church, Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway, through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen, under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark-Norway remained officially Catholic. Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers. During Fredericks reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark, at an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted, We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops anymore.
Fredericks son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his fathers death, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark-Norway
Pontifical High Mass
The term is used among Anglo-Catholic Anglicans. Although in modern English the word pontifical is almost exclusively associated with the Pope, the celebrant of a Pontifical High Mass may be any bishop, and not just a pope. In the early Church, Mass was normally celebrated by the bishop, most often the specific parts assigned to deacon and subdeacon are performed by priests. The full Pontifical High Mass is carried out when the bishop celebrates the Mass at the throne in his own cathedral church, instead of saying Dominus vobiscum The Lord be with you as the opening liturgical greeting, a bishop says Pax vobis Peace to you. When the bishop sits at the cathedra, a silk cloth, called a gremial. The Popes Pontifical High Mass, when celebrated with solemnity, was even more elaborate. This custom stresses the unity of the universal Catholic Church, formed by both the Eastern and the Western Churches in full communion, at the elevations of host and chalice, the Silveri symphony was played on the trumpets of the no longer existing Noble Guard.
Through a misunderstanding of the name Silveri, English speakers sometimes referred to this as the sounding of silver trumpets, the Pope drank the Precious Blood, the wine having been consecrated, through a golden tube. In the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism, the term Pontifical High Mass may refer to a Mass celebrated with the traditional Tridentine ceremonies described above, liturgical manuals such as Ritual Notes provide a framework for incorporating Tridentine ceremonial into the services of the Book of Common Prayer. More generally, the term may refer to any High Mass celebrated by a bishop, usually in the presence of his or her throne
The Roman Rite is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church and is one of the Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church. The Roman Rite has been adapted over the centuries and its Eucharistic liturgy can be divided into three stages, the Pre-Tridentine Mass, Tridentine Mass and Mass of Paul VI. The 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum specifies the circumstances in which priests of the Latin Church may continue to use the form of the Roman Rite in the 1962 Roman Missal. While other rites use more poetic language, the Roman Rite is noted for its sobriety of expression, as each is shown, a bell is rung and, if incense is used, the host and chalice are incensed. Sometimes the external bells of the church are rung as well, other characteristics that distinguish the Roman Rite from the rites of the Eastern Catholic Churches are frequent genuflections, kneeling for long periods, and keeping both hands joined together. We find the prayers of our Canon in the treatise de Sacramentis, so our Mass goes back, without essential change, to the age when it first developed out of the oldest liturgy of all.
The final result of our inquiry is that, in spite of unsolved problems, in spite of changes, in a footnote he added, The prejudice that imagines that everything Eastern must be old is a mistake. Eastern rites have been modified too, some of them quite late. No Eastern Rite now used is as archaic as the Roman Mass, in the same book, Fortescue acknowledged that the Roman Rite underwent profound changes in the course of its development. In the interval, there was what Fortescue called a radical change and he quoted the theory of A. Leo, I began to make these changes, Gregory I finished the process and finally recast the Canon in the form it still has. We must admit that between the years 400 and 500 a great transformation was made in the Roman Canon and this infusion Fortescue called the last change since Gregory the Great. The Eucharistic Prayer normally used in the Byzantine Rite is attributed to Saint John Chrysostom, the East Syrian Eucharistic Prayer of Addai and Mari, which is still in use, is certainly much older.
However, by about 1800 the Roman Rite had quite abandoned rood screens, when Western Europe adopted polyphony, the music of the Roman Rite did become very elaborate and lengthy. Latin liturgical rites List of Catholic rites and churches Liturgical books of the Roman rite Pre-Tridentine Mass Mass of Paul VI Mass Tridentine Mass Baldovin, John F. Reforming the Liturgy, A Response to the Critics. The Reform of the Liturgy 1948-1975, a Short History of the Roman Mass. By Michael Davies, said to be based on Adrian Fortescues The Mass, A Study of the Roman Liturgy Metzger, History of the Liturgy, The Major Stages. Bodies of Worship, Explorations in Theory and Practice, a Challenging Reform, Realizing the Vision of the Liturgical Renewal. Johnson, Lawrence, J. Worship in the Early Church, Edward, Nathan D. and Pierce, Joanne M
The word Alleluia or Hallelujah, which literally means Praise ye Yah, a short form of Praise Yahweh and often rendered as praise the Lord. The form Alleluia is used to refer to a chant in which that word is combined with verses of Scripture. This chant is used before the proclamation of the Gospel. The Hebrew word Halleluya as an expression of praise to God was preserved, untranslated, by the Early Christians as an expression of thanksgiving, joy. Thus it appears in the ancient Greek Liturgy of St. James, on the other hand, the word Alleluia is excluded from the Roman liturgy during Lent and, in earlier forms of the Roman Rite, during Septuagesima. In those earlier forms, the word was excluded in Masses for the Dead. In those periods, the word was replaced, in particular after the Gloria Patri at the beginning of each Hour of Divine Office, by the phrase Laus tibi, Domine, in the Ordinary Form 1969 Missale Romanum of the Roman Rite, the word is simply omitted. In traditional Gregorian chant, this responsorial chant opens with the cantor singing Alleluia, after which the choir repeats it, the cantor sings the main part of the verse, and the choir joins in on the final line.
At the end of the chant, the opening Alleluia is repeated, when a Sequence follows the Alleluia, this final repeat is omitted, as it was in other cases in the Middle Ages. The musical style of a plainchant Alleluia is generally ornate, the Alleluia for Christmas Eve, for instance, has an ambitus of only a perfect fifth, but this example is rather extreme. Alleluias were frequently troped, both with added music and text and it is believed that some early Sequences derived from syllabic text being added to the jubilus, and may be named after the opening words of the Alleluia verse. Alleluias were among the frequently used chants to create early organa. The verse or verses can be given in the Lectionary for Mass. In that form of the Roman Rite, if singing is not used, the Gradual, when sung, is replaced with an Alleluia chant during Eastertide, thus putting not one but two such chants before the Gospel reading. In the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches, after reading the Apostle at the Divine Liturgy, the response of the choir is always the same, alleluia, alleluia.
What differs is the tone in which it is sung, the Alleluia is paired with the Prokeimenon which preceded the reading of the Apostle. There may be one or two Alleluias, depending upon the number of Prokeimena. In the Russian/Slavic order, the Alleluia is intoned in one of the two following manners, depending upon the number of Prokeimena, Let us attend, Alleluia in the ____ Tone
Church of Sweden
The Church of Sweden is the largest Christian church in Sweden. A member of the Porvoo Communion, the Church professes the Lutheran branch of Christianity and it is composed of thirteen dioceses, divided into parishes. It is a national church which, working with a democratic organisation and through the ministry of the church. The Primate of the Church of Sweden is the Archbishop of Uppsala — currently Antje Jackelén, the Church of Sweden is an Evangelical Lutheran church. 6.2 million people are members of the Church of Sweden and it is liturgically and theologically high church, having retained priests and the Mass during the Swedish Reformation. In common with other Evangelical Lutheran churches, the Church of Sweden maintains the historical episcopate, the Church of Sweden is known for its liberal position in theological issues, particularly the question of homosexuality. When Bishop Eva Brunne was consecrated as Bishop of Stockholm in 2009, despite a significant yearly loss of members, its membership of 6,225,091 people accounts for 63.
2% of the Swedish population. Until 2000 it held the position of state church, the high membership numbers are because until 1996 all newborn children were made members, unless their parents had actively cancelled their membership. Approximately 2% of the members regularly attend Sunday services. According to a Gallup poll conducted in 2009, 17% of the Swedish population considered religion as an important part of their daily life, King Gustav I Vasa instigated the Church of Sweden in 1536 during his reign as King of Sweden. This act separated the church from the Roman Catholic Church and its canon law, in 1571, the Swedish Church Ordinance became the first Swedish church order following the Reformation. The Church of Sweden became Lutheran at the Uppsala Synod in 1593 when it adopted the Augsburg Confession to which most Lutherans adhere, at this synod, it was decided that the church would retain the three original Christian creeds, the Apostles, the Athanasian, and the Nicene. In 1686, the Riksdag of the Estates adopted the Book of Concord, although certain parts, labelled Confessio fidei, were considered binding.
Confessio dei included the three aforementioned Creeds, the Augsburg Confession and two Uppsala Synod decisions from 1572 and 1593, during the 20th century the Church of Sweden oriented itself strongly towards liberal Christianity and human rights. In 1957, the assembly rejected a proposal for ordination of women. Since 1960, women have been ordained as priests, and since 1994, a proposal to perform same-sex weddings was approved on October 22,2009 by 176 of 249 voting members of the Church of Sweden Synod. The Christian church in Scandinavia was originally governed by the archdiocese of Bremen, in 1104 an archbishop for all Scandinavia was installed in Lund. Uppsala was made Swedens archdiocese in 1164, and remains so today, the papal diplomat William of Modena attended a church meeting in Skänninge in March 1248, where the ties to the Catholic Church were strengthened
Mass of Paul VI
It is now the ordinary or standard form of the Roman Rite Mass. In its official documents, the Church identifies the forms of the Roman Rite Mass by the editions of the Roman Missal used in celebrating them. Thus, in his motu proprio Summorum Pontificum of 7 July 2007, the names Mass of Paul VI and Pauline Mass are equivalent to this. In advance of the 1969 decision on the form of the revision of the liturgy, the section containing the unvarying part of the Mass is called Ordo Missae since at least 1634. In a speech he gave in 1976, Pope Paul VI unremarkably referred to this section as novus Ordo Missae. Later, some began to use Novus Ordo Missae, or simply Novus Ordo, traditionalist Catholics often use it in a pejorative manner, and sometimes employ it as a blanket condemnatory term for the present-day Church. However, Novus Ordo appears in no official Church document as a term for the form of the Roman Rite Mass. The current official text of the Mass of Paul VI in Latin is the typical edition of the revised Roman Missal, published in 2002 and reprinted with corrections.
Translations into the languages have appeared, the English translation was promulgated in 2010 and was used progressively from September 2011. Two earlier typical editions of the revised Missal were issued in 1970 and 1975, for details of the Order of Mass in the Mass of Paul VI, see Mass. It envisaged only minor reforms of the liturgy itself, the most important changes it sought affected the calendar and it focused on promoting Gregorian Chant. By the 1920s, the Liturgical Movement still did not advocate a revision of the rite of Mass. The priest reciting many of the most important prayers inaudibly, duplications such as the second Confiteor. Another objective of the Movement was the introduction of the vernacular language and this, it was believed, would assist the congregations spiritual development by enabling them to participate in the celebration of Mass with understanding. He granted permission for the use of languages in the renewal of baptismal promises in the Easter Vigil service. In section 4 of Mediator Dei, Pope Pius XII praised the work of these scholars, for instance, the general intercessions or prayer of the faithful, of which a slight trace remained in the isolated single word Oremus, had not been restored to the Mass liturgy.
The Roman Missal was revised on a number of occasions after 1570, after only 34 years, Pope Clement VIII made a general revision, other Popes added new feasts or made other minor adjustments. It was not until the twentieth century, that began on a more radical rewriting