AmigaOS is a family of proprietary native operating systems of the Amiga and AmigaOne personal computers. It was developed first by Commodore International and introduced with the launch of the first Amiga, the Amiga 1000, in 1985. Early versions of AmigaOS required the Motorola 68000 series of 32-bit microprocessors. Versions were developed by Haage & Partner and Hyperion Entertainment. A PowerPC microprocessor is required for the most recent release, AmigaOS 4. AmigaOS is a single-user operating system based on a preemptive multitasking kernel, called Exec, it includes an abstraction of the Amiga's hardware, a disk operating system called AmigaDOS, a windowing system API called Intuition and a desktop file manager called Workbench. The Amiga intellectual property is fragmented between Amiga Inc. Cloanto, Hyperion Entertainment; the copyrights for works created up to 1993 are owned by Cloanto. In 2001, Amiga Inc. contracted AmigaOS 4 development to Hyperion Entertainment and, in 2009 they granted Hyperion an exclusive, worldwide license to AmigaOS 3.1 in order to develop and market AmigaOS 4 and subsequent versions.

On December 29, 2015, the AmigaOS 3.1 source code leaked to the web. AmigaOS is a single-user operating system based on a preemptive multitasking kernel, called Exec. AmigaOS provides an abstraction of the Amiga's hardware, a disk operating system called AmigaDOS, a windowing system API called Intuition and a desktop file manager called Workbench. A command-line interface, called AmigaShell, is integrated into the system, though it is window-based; the CLI and Workbench components share the same privileges. Notably, AmigaOS lacks any built-in memory protection. AmigaOS is formed from two parts, namely, a firmware component called Kickstart and a software portion referred to as Workbench. Up until AmigaOS 3.1, matching versions of Kickstart and Workbench were released together. However, since AmigaOS 3.5, the first release after Commodore's demise, only the software component has been updated and the role of Kickstart has been diminished somewhat. Firmware updates may still be applied by patching at system boot.

That was until 2018 when Hyperion Entertainment released AmigaOS 3.1.4 with an updated Kickstart ROM to go with it. Kickstart is the bootstrap firmware stored in ROM. Kickstart contains the code needed to boot standard Amiga hardware and many of the core components of AmigaOS; the function of Kickstart is comparable to the BIOS plus the main operating system kernel in IBM PC compatibles. However, Kickstart provides more functionality available at boot time than would be expected on PC, for example, the full windowing environment. Kickstart contains many core parts of the Amiga's operating system, such as Exec, the core of AmigaDOS and functionality to initialize Autoconfig-compliant expansion hardware. Versions of the Kickstart contained drivers for IDE and SCSI controllers, PC card ports and other built-in hardware. Upon start-up or reset the Kickstart performs a number of diagnostic and system checks and initializes the Amiga chipset and some core OS components, it will examine connected boot devices and attempt to boot from the one with the highest boot priority.

If no boot device is present a screen will be displayed asking the user to insert a boot disk a floppy disk. At start-up Kickstart attempts to boot from a bootable device. In the case of a floppy, the system reads the first two sectors of the disk, executes any boot instructions stored there; this code passes control back to the OS and using the disk as the system boot volume. Any such disk, regardless of the other contents of the disk, was referred to as a "Boot disk" or "bootable disk". A bootblock could be added to a blank disk by use of the install command; some games and demos on floppy disk used custom bootblocks, which allowed them to take over the boot sequence and manage the Amiga's hardware without AmigaOS. The bootblock became an obvious target for virus writers; some games or demos that used a custom bootblock would not work if infected with a bootblock virus, as the code of the virus replaced the original. The first such virus was the SCA virus. Anti-virus attempts included custom bootblocks.

These amended bootblock advertised the presence of the virus checker while checking the system for tell-tale signs of memory-resident viruses and passed control back to the system. These could not be used on disks that relied on a custom bootblock, but did alert users to potential trouble. Several of them replicated themselves across other disks, becoming little more than viruses in their own right; the Macintosh should have had multitasking. I can't stress enough; the Amiga has an excellent multitasking system, I think it will have twice the product life of the Macintosh because of it. — Adam Brooks Webber, the programmer responsible for porting TrueBASIC to the Amiga and Macintosh, September 1986 Exec is the multi-tasking kernel of AmigaOS. Exec provides functionality for multi-tasking, memory allocation, interrupt handling and handling of dynamic shared libraries, it acts as a scheduler for tasks running on the system, providing pre-emptive multitasking with prioritized round-robin scheduling.

Exec provides access to other libraries and high-level inter-process communication via message passing. Other comparable microkernels have had performance problems because of the need to copy messages between address

Jorge Hank Rhon

Jorge Hank Rhon is a Mexican businessman and owner of Mexico's largest sports betting company, Grupo Caliente. He served from December 2004 to February 2007 as the president of the municipality of Tijuana, he is the son of Guadalupe Rhon. Hank is the father of professional tennis player Tigre Hank and of Matador Alejandro Amaya. Of German descent, Jorge Hank Rhon studied at the Alexander von Humboldt German College and Industrial Engineering at the Universidad Anáhuac in the State of Mexico. In 1980 he founded the Grupo Taos, a company that operates pet stores and amusement parks of which he is the President of the Board and General Director, he moved to Tijuana in 1985 to manage the Agua Caliente Racetrack and formed the Grupo Caliente which includes the dog racing track, a hotel, a mall and a network of entertainment centers in 19 states of Mexico as well as 13 countries of Central, South America and Europe. The number of employees of the racetrack grew from 700 to close to 6,000. During his management Tijuana has hosted the Señorita México pageant, the World Boxing title fight between Julio César Chávez and Danilo Cabrera and from 1986 to 1988 the Caribe International Classic Horserace, considered the most important in Latin America.

The Racetrack hosts the Day of the Three Wise Men, Children's Day, Mother's Day where thousands of children and their mothers receive free food, gifts and an entertainment show since 1988. Hank created the Cuauhtémoc Hank Foundation to give scholarships to students of all grades including studies in foreign schools. On April 20, 1988 a local newspaper columnist, Hector "El Gato" Felix Miranda was assassinated on his way to work; the gunmen turned out to be security guards at the Caliente track, one had worked as well for Hank Rhon's father, Carlos Hank. To this day the independent news weekly in Tijuana, ZETA, runs a full page ad with white letters: "Jorge Hank: Why did your bodyguards assassinate me?"'El Gato' had been a fierce critic of the Hank family. Hank won the Tijuana mayoral race of 2004, beating PAN candidate Jorge Ramos by a slim margin, thus ending 15 years of PAN government in Tijuana; the most notable infrastructure improvement in Tijuana during the Hank administration was the multi-million investment on an underpass at the Alba Roja intersection, just south of the 5 y 10 intersection.

The 5 y 10 intersection is one of the most famous in the city and with the heaviest traffic. The investment was for a figure close to more than four million dollars. On February 8, 2005 the Hank administration inaugurated the five million pesos Center of Communication, Control and Command that included 60 high definition cameras. In order the reduce kidnappings, a problem of Tijuana for many years, the municipal government started a program of installing GPS devices on the cars of potential victims. In 2007, a program of road safety cameras was introduced in Tijuana that issued speeding tickets in which some drivers received up to 800 tickets issued the same day, same time, on the same location; the Hank administration produced significant urban development but failed to reduce crime In 2007, the Operation Tijuana of the Federal Government only momentarily reduced serious crimes and ordinary crimes increased 40% and it was detected corruption amongst the federal forces. The operation was extended to the five municipalities of the state and dubbed Operation Baja California, per request of the governor Eugenio Elorduy Walther.

On February 20, 2007 Hank requested a license to leave his post as mayor. The license was approved by nine PRI representatives with six PAN representatives rejecting the license and one PRD representative abstaining from voting. Multiple billboards reporting Hank actions as mayor were put out after the annual report and PAN representative complained and offered to remove the PAN-sponsored radio spots on fighting radar camera-issued tickets. At the end of 2006, Jorge Hank expressed his wishes to run a campaign for the 2007 Baja California state election; this flared up comments from PAN politicians saying that he would be violating the state's Antichapulin law which prohibits a person of public office to "jump" from one charge to another without ending their current term. In February 2007 he requested permission from leaving his post as municipal president to accept the candidacy for governor by the Alianza para que vivas mejor, approved by his party's regidores and denied by the PAN regidores.

The PAN accused five district electoral council members of partiality towards Hank because they served as judges during his administration as president of Tijuana. The Federal Electoral Tribune rejected the complaint determining that the law does not have such restriction that would prevent these five lawyers from serving as judges and as council membersOn June 20, 2007, Baja California's state elections court voted 2 to 1 in favor of the validity of the so-called "anti grasshopper law" thus cancelling Hank's bid for Governor, he appealed the decision before the Federal Electoral Tribunal, which unanimously ruled to uphold his candidacy on July 7, holding that the state law contravened the electoral and political rights of the citizenry. Pending that decision, Hank had to abstain from campaigning; the election date was Sunday August 5, 2007. According to the Baja California's State Electoral Institute, Jorge Hank lost the election by 8 points against Jose Guadalupe Osuna Millan, PAN's candidate.

José Guadalupe Osuna Millán — The PAN candidate for governor 2007 Baja California state election — Official campaign site for Governor of Ba

199th Fighter Squadron

The 199th Fighter Squadron is a unit of the Hawaii Air National Guard 154th Wing located at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Hawaii. The 199th is equipped with the F-22A Raptor; the 199th Fighter Squadron is a unit of the 154th Wing. They operate the F-22A Raptor, the Air Force's 5th generation fighter aircraft with a select component of active duty personnel acting in the cadre role, its combination of stealth, supercruise and integrated avionics, coupled with improved supportability, represents an exponential leap in warfighting capabilities. The Raptor performs both air-to-air and air-to-ground missions allowing full realization of operational concepts vital to the 21st-century Air Force. Established in late 1944 at Peterson Field, Colorado, as the 464th Fighter Squadron. Trained under XXII Bomber Command as a Very Long Range P-47N Thunderbolt bomber escort squadron, programmed for B-29 Superfortress escort duty from Okinawa. For four months they received combat training for long-range escort and dive-bombing.

Training delayed due to P-47N aircraft non-availability equipped in the late spring of 1945 with the long-distance fighters. Deployed to Okinawa in June 1945 as part of the 507th Fighter Group and prepared for the invasion of Japan along with the 413th and 414th Fighter Groups, all equipped with P-47N. On 1 July 1945 it began flying airstrikes from Ie Shima, targeting enemy ships, railroad bridges, airfields and barracks in Japan and China. On 8 August 1945 the group escorted B-29 bombers on a raid; the squadron flew some long distance fighter-bomber sweeps over Japanese Home Islands 1 July 1945 – 14 August 1945 but never performed operational B-29 escort missions due to the end of the war in August. Last "Ace in a Day" of World War II was 1st LT Oscar Perdomo of the 464th. Remained in Okinawa until inactivated in May 1946; the wartime 463d Fighter Squadron was re-designated as the 199th Fighter Squadron, was allotted to the Hawaii Air National Guard, on 24 May 1946. It was organized at Bellows Field, Waimanalo and was extended federal recognition on 4 November 1946 by the National Guard Bureau.

The 199th Fighter Squadron was bestowed the lineage, history and colors of the 463d Fighter Squadron. The squadron was operationally gained by Seventh Air Force, its mission was the air defense of Hawaii. Bellows Field, attacked during the 7 December 1941 Japanese attack on Oahu, was excess after World War II ended, it served as home for the Hawaii Air National Guard. In 1947, the costs to operate Bellows as an active Air National Guard station led the Territorial government to negotiate with the Army about its future; the Army indicated that it wanted to retain the field in a commissioned status but that it had no funds to maintain the field. The Army offered the Aviation Unit of the Hawaiian National Guard joint use of the field provided all maintenance was assumed by the Guard. A settlement was reached to move the 199th to Hickam Field, to use excess facilities there; the Very-Long-Range F-47N was used for air defense patrols over the Islands and had a range which could extend its interception ability over a thousand miles from Hickam.

The 199th was not federalized during the Korean War, however many of its members volunteered to serve. The 199th joined the jet age in 1954 when it retired its aging Thunderbolts for F-86E Sabre day fighters that were made available after serving in combat over the skies of Korea; the squadron stood runway alert as part of the air defense forces in Hawaii beginning in 1954, having alert pilots in the cockpit from 30 minutes before sunrise to 30 minutes after sunset each day. Beginning in 1958, the squadron received F-86L Sabre Interceptors which could be controlled by Ground Control Interceptor station radar and could operate 24/7/365 in all weather conditions. On 1 December 1960, the 199th was authorized to expand to a group level, the 154th Fighter-Interceptor Group was established by the National Guard Bureau; the 199th FIS becoming the group's flying squadron. Other squadrons assigned into the group were the 154th Headquarters, 154th Material Squadron, 154th Combat Support Squadron, the 154th USAF Dispensary.

Along with the change to Group status, on 7 December the Hawaiian Air National Guard began receiving Mach-1 F-102 Delta Dagger interceptors 29 F-102s were received. This was in line with the policy of equipping ANG units with one generation of aircraft behind the active-duty Air Defense Command forces. For the next sixteen years, the 154th FIG operated the Delta Daggers establishing an excellent safety record. In December 1961, The new Hawaii Air National Guard complex was consisted of 60 acres; the land was part of Fort Kamehameha and had been acquired in 1960 by permit from the U. S. Army to the Hawaii ANG; the 154th flew the Delta Dagger throughout the 1960s, although the Hawaii ANG was not activated during the Vietnam War, several of its pilots volunteered for combat duty in Southeast Asia. The group was the longest user of the interceptor, being equipped with the F-102 long after most of its Air National Guard counterparts were upgraded to the F-106; the last F-102A left ANG service in October 1976, when the 199th FIS of the Hawaii ANG traded in their Delta Daggers for F-4C Phantom II and the 154th became a Tactical Fighter Group.

The F-4C was a workhorse tactical fighter-bomber during the Vietnam War, could be used as an effective interceptor. The Hawaii ANG used the Phantom in both roles, employing it during training exercises with Army and Marine units in ground exercises, as well as retaining the standing air defense alert at H