Chiptune known as chip music or 8-bit music, is a style of synthesized electronic music made using the programmable sound generator sound chips in vintage arcade machines and video game consoles. The term is used to refer to tracker format music which intentionally sounds similar to older PSG-created music, as well as music that combines PSG sounds with modern musical styles. By the early 1980s, personal computers had become less expensive and more accessible than they had been previously; this led to a proliferation of outdated personal computers and game consoles, abandoned by consumers as they upgraded to newer machines. They were in low demand by consumers as a whole, thus were not difficult to find, making them a accessible and affordable method of creating sound or art. While it has been a underground genre, chiptune has had periods of moderate popularity in the 1980s and 21st century, has influenced the development of electronic dance music; the terms "chip music" and "chiptune" refer to music made by the sound chips found within early gaming systems and microcomputers.
A waveform generator is a fundamental module in a sound synthesis system. A waveform generator produces a basic geometrical waveform with a fixed or variable timbre and variable pitch. Common waveform generator configurations included two or three simple waveforms and a single pseudo-random-noise generator. Available waveforms included pulse wave, square wave, triangle wave, sawtooth wave. Two notable examples of systems employing this technology comprise the Nintendo Game Boy portable game console, the Commodore 64 personal computer; the Game Boy uses two pulse channels, a channel for 4-bit pulse-code modulation playback, a pseudo-random-noise generator. The Commodore 64, used the MOS Technology SID chip which offered 3 channels, each switchable between pulse, saw-tooth and noise. Unlike the Game Boy, the pulse channels on the Commodore 64 allowed full control over wave duty cycles; the SID was a technically advanced chip, offering many other features including ring modulation and adjustable resonance filters.
Due to limited number of voices in those primitive chips, one of the main challenges is to produce rich polyphonic music with them. The usual method to emulate it is via quick arpeggios, one of the most relevant features of chiptune music; some older systems featured a simple beeper as their only sound output, as the original ZX Spectrum and IBM PC. The earliest precursors to chip music can be found in the early history of computer music. In 1951, the computers CSIRAC and Ferranti Mark 1 were used to perform real-time synthesized digital music in public. One of the earliest commercial computer music albums came from the First Philadelphia Computer Music Festival, held August 25, 1978, as part of the Personal Computing'78 show; the First Philadelphia Computer Music Festival recordings were published by Creative Computing in 1979. The Global TV program Science International credited a PDP-11/10 for the music. Chiptune music began to appear with the video game music produced during the golden age of video arcade games.
An early example was the opening tune in Tomohiro Nishikado's arcade game Gun Fight. The first video game to use a continuous background soundtrack was Tomohiro Nishikado's 1978 release Space Invaders, which had four simple chromatic descending bass notes repeating in a loop, though it was dynamic and interacted with the player, increasing pace as the enemies descended on the player; the first video game to feature continuous melodic background music was Rally-X, an arcade game released by Namco in 1980, featuring a simple tune that repeats continuously during gameplay. It was one of the earliest games to use a digital-to-analog converter to produce sampled sounds; that same year, the first video game to feature speech synthesis was released, Sunsoft's shoot'em up arcade game Stratovox. In the late 1970s, the pioneering electronic dance/synthpop group Yellow Magic Orchestra were using computers to produce synthesized music; some of their early music, including their 1978 self-titled debut album, were sampling sounds from popular arcade games such as Space Invaders and Gun Fight.
In addition to incorporating sounds from contemporary video games into their music, the band would have a major influence on much of the video game and chiptune music produced during the 8-bit and 16-bit eras. Sega's 1982 arcade game Super Locomotive, for example, featured a chiptune cover version of YMO's "Rydeen". By 1983, Konami's arcade game Gyruss utilized five sound chips along with a digital-to-analog converter, which were used to create an electronic rendition of J. S. Bach's Fugue in D minor. In 1984, former YMO member Haruomi Hosono released an album produced from Namco arcade game samples entitled Video Game Music, an early example of a chiptune record and the first video game music a
The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985. The original model was part of a wave of 16- and 32-bit computers that featured 256 KB or more of RAM, mouse-based GUIs, improved graphics and audio over 8-bit systems; this wave included the Atari ST—released the same year—Apple's Macintosh, the Apple IIGS. Based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor, the Amiga differed from its contemporaries through the inclusion of custom hardware to accelerate graphics and sound, including sprites and a blitter, a pre-emptive multitasking operating system called AmigaOS; the Amiga 1000 was released in July 1985, but a series of production problems kept it from becoming available until early 1986. The best selling model, the Amiga 500, was introduced in 1987 and became one of the leading home computers of the late 1980s and early 1990s with four to six million sold; the A3000, introduced in 1990, started the second generation of Amiga systems, followed by the A500+, the A600 in March 1992.
As the third generation, the A1200 and the A4000 were released in late 1992. The platform became popular for gaming and programming demos, it found a prominent role in the desktop video, video production, show control business, leading to video editing systems such as the Video Toaster. The Amiga's native ability to play back multiple digital sound samples made it a popular platform for early tracker music software; the powerful processor and ability to access several megabytes of memory enabled the development of several 3D rendering packages, including LightWave 3D, Aladdin4D, TurboSilver and Traces, a predecessor to Blender. Although early Commodore advertisements attempt to cast the computer as an all-purpose business machine when outfitted with the Amiga Sidecar PC compatibility add-on, the Amiga was most commercially successful as a home computer, with a wide range of games and creative software. Poor marketing and the failure of the models to repeat the technological advances of the first systems meant that the Amiga lost its market share to competing platforms, such as the fourth generation game consoles and the dropping prices of IBM PC compatibles which gained 256-color VGA graphics in 1987.
Commodore went bankrupt in April 1994 after the Amiga CD32 model failed in the marketplace. Since the demise of Commodore, various groups have marketed successors to the original Amiga line, including Genesi, Eyetech, ACube Systems Srl and A-EON Technology. AmigaOS has influenced replacements and compatible systems such as MorphOS, AmigaOS 4 and AROS. "The Amiga was so far ahead of its time that nobody—including Commodore's marketing department—could articulate what it was all about. Today, it's obvious the Amiga was the first multimedia computer, but in those days it was derided as a game machine because few people grasped the importance of advanced graphics and video. Nine years vendors are still struggling to make systems that work like 1985 Amigas." Jay Miner joined Atari in the 1970s to develop custom integrated circuits, led development of the Atari 2600's TIA. As soon as its development was complete, the team began developing a much more sophisticated set of chips, CTIA, ANTIC and POKEY, that formed the basis of the Atari 8-bit family.
With the 8-bit line's launch in 1979, the team once again started looking at a next generation chipset. Nolan Bushnell had sold the company to Warner Communications in 1978, the new management was much more interested in the existing lines than development of new products that might cut into their sales. Miner wanted to start work with the new Motorola 68000, but management was only interested in another 6502 based system. Miner left the company, for a time, the industry. In 1979, Larry Kaplan founded Activision. In 1982, Kaplan was approached by a number of investors. Kaplan hired Miner to run the hardware side of the newly formed company, "Hi-Toro"; the system was code-named "Lorraine" in keeping with Miner's policy of giving systems female names, in this case the company president's wife, Lorraine Morse. When Kaplan left the company late in 1982, Miner was promoted to head engineer and the company relaunched as Amiga Corporation. A breadboard prototype was completed by late 1983, shown at the January 1984 Consumer Electronics Show.
At the time, the operating system was not ready, so the machine was demonstrated with the Boing Ball demo. A further developed version of the system was demonstrated at the June 1984 CES and shown to many companies in hopes of garnering further funding, but found little interest in a market, in the final stages of the North American video game crash of 1983. In March, Atari expressed a tepid interest in Lorraine for its potential use in a games console or home computer tentatively known as the 1850XLD, but the talks were progressing and Amiga was running out of money. A temporary arrangement in June led to a $500,000 loan from Atari to Amiga to keep the company going; the terms required the loan to be repaid at the end of the month, otherwise Amiga would forfeit the Lorraine design to Atari. During 1983, Atari lost over $1 million a week, due to the combined effects of the crash and the ongoing price war in the home computer market. By the end of the year, Warner was desperate to sell the company.
In January 1984, Jack Tramiel resigned from Commodore due to internal battles over the future direction of the company. A number of Commodore employees followed him to Tramiel Technology; this included a number of the senior technical staff, where they began development of a 68000-based machine of the
A music tracker is a type of music sequencer software for creating music. The music is represented as discrete musical notes positioned in several channels at discrete chronological positions on a vertical timeline. A music tracker's user interface is number based. Notes, parameter changes and other commands are entered with the keyboard into a grid of fixed time slots as codes consisting of letters and hexadecimal digits. Separate patterns have independent timelines. Trackers departed from using module files, adding other options both to the sound synthesis and to the sequencing becoming general purpose sequencers with a different user interface. Music trackers like DefleMask and FamiTracker are used to create chiptunes; the term tracker derives from Ultimate Soundtracker written by Karsten Obarski and released in 1987 by EAS Computer Technik for the Commodore Amiga. Ultimate Soundtracker was a commercial product, but soon shareware clones such as NoiseTracker appeared as well; the general concept of step-sequencing samples numerically, as used in trackers, is found in the Fairlight CMI sampling workstation of the early 1980s.
Some early tracker-like programs appeared for the MSX and Commodore 64, before 1987, such as Sound Monitor, but these did not feature sample playback, instead playing notes on the computer's internal synthesizer. Programs like Rock Monitor supported additional sample playback with short drum samples loaded in RAM memory; the first trackers supported four pitch and volume modulated channels of 8-bit PCM samples, a limitation derived from the Amiga's Paula audio chipset and the commonplace 8SVX format used to store sampled sound. However, since the notes were samples, the limitation was less important than those of synthesizing music chips. During the 1990s, tracker musicians gravitated to the PC as software production in general switched from the Amiga platform to the PC. Although the IBM and compatibles lacked the hardware sound processing capabilities of the Amiga, with the advent of the Sound Blaster line from Creative, PC audio began to approach CD Quality with the release of the SoundBlaster 16.
Another sound card popular on the PC tracker scene was the Gravis Ultrasound, which continued the hardware mixing tradition, with 32 internal channels and onboard memory for sample storage. For a time, it offered unparalleled sound quality and became the choice of discerning tracker musicians. Understanding that the support of tracker music would benefit sales, Gravis gave away some 6000 GUS cards to participants. Coupled with excellent developer documentation, this gesture prompted the GUS to become an integral component of many tracking programs and software; the balance was redressed with the introduction of the Sound Blaster AWE32 and its successors, which featured on-board RAM and wavetable mixing. The responsibility for audio mixing passed from hardware to software, which enabled the use of more and more channels. From the typical 4 MOD channels of the Amiga, the limit had moved to 7 with TFMX players and 8, first with Oktalyzer and with the vastly more popular OctaMED 32 with ScreamTracker 3 and FastTracker 2 on the PC and on to 64 with Impulse Tracker and MED SoundStudio.
An Amiga tracker called Symphonie Pro supported 256 channels. As such, hardware mixing did not last; as processors got faster and acquired special multimedia processing abilities and companies began to push Hardware Abstraction Layers, like DirectX, the AWE and GUS range became obsolete. DirectX, WDM and, now more ASIO, deliver high-quality sampled audio irrespective of hardware brand. There was a split off from the sample based trackers taking advantage of the OPL2/OPL3 chips of the Sound Blaster series. Adlib Tracker II, Reality Adlib Tracker v2 and others survived to this day. All Sound Tracker was able to combine both the FM synthesis of the OPL chips and the sample based synthesis of the EMU-8000 chips in the Sound Blaster AWE series of cards as well as MIDI output to any additional hardware of choice. Tracker music could be found in computer games of the late 1990s and early 2000s, such as the Unreal series, Deus Ex, Crusader: No Remorse, Jazz Jackrabbit and Uplink. Tracker software continues to develop.
Some of the early Amiga trackers such as ProTracker and OctaMED have received various updates for porting to other platforms. ProTracker having resumed development in 2004, with plans for releasing version 5 to Windows and AmigaOS, but only version 4.0 beta 2 for AmigaOS has been released. Other cross-platform trackers include Renoise, MilkyTracker and SunVox. Buzz, OpenMPT, Renoise and others offer features undreamed-of back in the day. In 2005, FamiTracker, a tracker for the NES and Famicom, was released; as of version 0.5 beta, it is so far the only tracker for the system with full expansion audio support including the Sunsoft 5B. During 2007, Renoise and OpenMPT were presented in Computer Music Magazine as professional and inexpensive alternative to other music production software. In 2010, Modplug Tracker and Renoise were two of the most popular and developed trackers. Four new trackers, Buzé, SVArTracker, had extended the tracker concept with new features such as piano roll, tickless events, and
Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players. Flash displays text, vector graphics and raster graphics to provide animations, video games and applications, it allows streaming of audio and video, can capture mouse, keyboard and camera input. Related development platform Adobe AIR continues to be supported. Artists may produce Flash animations using Adobe Animate. Software developers may produce applications and video games using Adobe Flash Builder, FlashDevelop, Flash Catalyst, or any text editor when used with the Apache Flex SDK. End-users can view Flash content via AIR or third-party players such as Scaleform. Adobe Flash Player enables end-users to view Flash content using web browsers. Adobe Flash Lite enabled viewing Flash content on older smartphones, but has been discontinued and superseded by Adobe AIR; the ActionScript programming language allows the development of interactive animations, video games, web applications, desktop applications and mobile applications.
Programmers can implement Flash software using an IDE such as Adobe Animate, Adobe Flash Builder, Adobe Director, FlashDevelop and Powerflasher FDT. Adobe AIR enables full-featured desktop and mobile applications to be developed with Flash and published for Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, Xbox One, PlayStation 4, Nintendo Wii U, Switch. Although Flash was a dominant platform for online multimedia content, it is being abandoned as Adobe favors a transition to HTML5. Flash Player has been deprecated and has an official end-of-life at the end of 2020. However, Adobe will continue to develop Adobe AIR, a related technology for building stand-alone applications and games. In the early 2000s, Flash was installed on desktop computers, was used to display interactive web pages, online games, to playback video and audio content. In 2005, YouTube was founded by former PayPal employees, it used Flash Player as a means to display compressed video content on the web. Between 2000 and 2010, numerous businesses used Flash-based websites to launch new products, or to create interactive company portals.
Notable users include Nike, Hewlett-Packard, General Electric, World Wildlife Fund, HBO, Cartoon Network and Motorola. After Adobe introduced hardware-accelerated 3D for Flash, Flash websites saw a growth of 3D content for product demonstrations and virtual tours. In 2007, YouTube offered videos in HTML5 format to support the iPhone and iPad, which did not support Flash Player. After a controversy with Apple, Adobe stopped developing Flash Player for Mobile, focussing its efforts on Adobe AIR applications and HTML5 animation. In 2015, Google introduced Google Swiffy to convert Flash animation to HTML5, a tool Google would use to automatically convert Flash web ads for mobile devices. In 2016, Google discontinued its support. In 2015, YouTube switched to HTML5 technology on all devices. After Flash 5 introduced ActionScript in 2000, developers combined the visual and programming capabilities of Flash to produce interactive experiences and applications for the Web; such Web-based applications came to be known as "Rich Internet Applications".
In 2004, Macromedia Flex was released, targeted the application development market. Flex introduced new user interface components, advanced data visualization components, data remoting, a modern IDE. Flex competed with Microsoft Silverlight during its tenure. Flex was upgraded to support integration with remote data sources, using AMF, BlazeDS, Adobe LiveCycle, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, others; as of 2015, Flex applications can be published for desktop platforms using Adobe AIR. Between 2006 and 2016, the Speedtest.net web service conducted over 9.0 billion speed tests using an RIA built with Adobe Flash. In 2016, the service shifted to HTML5 due to the decreasing availability of Adobe Flash Player on PCs; as of 2016, Web applications and RIAs can be developed with Flash using the ActionScript 3.0 programming language and related tools such as Adobe Flash Builder. Third-party IDEs such as FlashDevelop and Powerflasher FDT enable developers to create Flash games and applications, are similar to Microsoft Visual Studio.
Flex applications are built using Flex frameworks such as PureMVC. Flash video games were popular on the Internet, with portals like Newgrounds and Armor Games dedicated to hosting of Flash-based games. Popular games developed with Flash include Angry Birds, Clash of Clans, FarmVille, AdventureQuest, Hundreds, N, QWOP and Solipskier. Adobe introduced various technologies to help build video games, including Adobe AIR, Adobe Scout, CrossBridge, Stage3D. 3D frameworks like Away3D and Flare3D simplified creation of 3D content for Flash. Adobe AIR allows creation of Flash-based mobile games, which may be published to the Google Play and Apple app stores. Flash is used to build interfaces and HUDs for 3D video games using Scaleform GFx, a technology that renders Flash content within non-Flash video games. Scaleform is supported by more than 10 major video game engines including Unreal Engine, UDK, CryEngine and PhyreEngine, has been used to provide 3D interfaces for more than 150 majo
Chaos Constructions is the oldest computer art festival related to demoscene subculture, the biggest in Russia. It has been held as a demoparty since 1995 and was called ENLiGHT until 1999. Traditionally it is held on a weekend at the end of August at Russia. Creative competitions for computer artists and musicians, as well as programmers, are the important part of the event; the competitions are both for real-time works. Many of the compos and exhibits are related to retro computing, but recent festivals tend to include conferences and meetings for people from the modern IT industry who concentrate on technologies such as augmented/virtual reality, blockchain and more; the demoscene began to form in CIS countries in the early 1990s, when people massively began to possess home computers such as ZX Spectrum and Atari and make tracker music and other artwork on them. They were exchanging it using floppy disks, FIDOnet and the Internet, so that these artists joined the worldwide demoscene culture.
By the year 1995, the first Russian demoparty occurred, located in St. Petersburg—the second-largest Russian city, situated close to Finland, the country with one of the strongest demoscene cultures; the demoparty was entitled ENLiGHT. It was followed by ENLiGHT'96 and ENLiGHT'97; the year 1998 was skipped, the 1999 festival was held in a new format and under the new name Chaos Constructions. In 2006 the event's format was shifted closer to a LAN party; the 2017 festival featured an extra event called ChaosConf, aimed at developers and admins of enterprise IT systems. The 2018 festival was held at a co-working location called Boiling Point and featured "enterprise" and "telecom" sections. There were several thematic areas. Twitch.tv broadcast it online, international English-speaking people participated. The festival's crew had arranged an "embassy" at a similar earlier gathering called Geek Picnic. Sysadmin Day Official English website
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
X is a Dutch demoscene party which started in 1995 in Utrecht, The Netherlands organized by Success & The Ruling Company and Silicon Ltd. X is the successor of the Silicon Ltd. Winter and Summer parties which were held between 1990 and 1992. With about 250 visitors, it is the world's biggest Commodore 64 demoscene-party, attracting demosceners from not only The Netherlands, but from other European countries, or from overseas; the concept of the X parties was born somewhere in 1995 when the members of the Commodore 64 demogroup Silicon Ltd. started the PC demogroup SuccesS. The plan was to organize a demoparty for the PC demoscene; the party place was decided to be Buurthuis Einsteindreef in the city of The Netherlands. The first two parties were held in Buurthuis Einsteindreef which were sponsored by soundcard developer Gravis. In 1996 it was clear the location was too small to hold the number of their hardware. In 1997 the X organizers teamed up with the Dutch PC demogroup Nostalgia who had connections with the Technical University of Eindhoven, hence the next party baptised as X 97 Takeover which took place in the auditorium of the Technical University Eindhoven.
Due to quarrels between the party organizers, this was the first and only party organized by SuccesS and Nostalgia. The group SuccesS retired from the demoscene in 1998, which caused their Commodore 64 counterparts in Success & The Ruling Company to carry on with the X parties but now as a Commodore 64 only party; the party location changed. Since 1998 the X party is held at Kampeerboerderij De Haverkamp in The Netherlands. In the year of 2000 the Dutch demogroup Xenon was added as organizing group and in 2006 Silicon Ltd. was added too after more than 10 years of scene absence. In 2010 the party was held in a new and bigger location in Someren; the Demo competition in 2010 were won by Offence, a Norwegian demo-group returning to the 8-bit platform after 19 years of no demo creation. X 1995 — A fistfun experience to be seen to be believed! X 1996 — X 1997 — Takeover X 1998 — X 2000 — The Reunion X 2001 — A C64 Odyssey X 2004 — 8 Bit Heaven X 2006 — Got Cow? X 2008 — Mooooooooooooohhhhhhhhhhh X 2010 — The Year We Make Contact X 2012 — X 2014 — X 2016 — X 2018 — X 2020 — X 1995 — Toadstool X 1996 — Toadstool X 1997 — Toadstool X 2004 — Goto80 X 2006 — Jeroen Tel & a striptease act X 2008 — Reyn Ouwehand & Jeroen Tel X 2010 — 6581 Band, Jeroen Tel, DaTucker X 2012 — Reyn Ouwehand & Jeroen Tel X 2014 — Reyn Ouwehand & Bas Bron X 2016 — Reyn Ouwehand & LFT & 64Mula & Jeroen Tel & Wacek X 2018 — Reyn Ouwehand & Goto80 & Wacek & Magnar The Digital Dungeon FTP site with C64 Releases from the parties Photos from the X Parties and more The X Parties on Pouet.net Success & The Ruling Company Official Site X'95 Pictures on Slengpung X'97 TakeOver Pictures on Slengpung X 2001 Pictures on Slengpung X 2004 Pictures on Slengpung The former X Partylocation: Kampeerboerderij De Haverkamp